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The effectiveness of computerized cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) for deficits in attention and executive functions in depression : a pilot study
Monika Klojčnik, Karin Bakračevič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Depression is associated with cognitive deficits and changes in the brain. Major depression is often associated with cognitive problems; however, there are only a few studies that have focused on the systematic use of cognitive remediation in depression. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of computerized cognitive remediation in depressed patients with cognitive dysfunction. Patients (n % 20) with depression were randomly assigned to the active or control group. The active intervention (computerized cognitive remediation) comprised 12 sessions focused on the remediation of attention and executive functions through the CogniPlus software. All participants completed neuropsychological testing before and after the intervention. A mixeddesign analysis of variance revealed a significant time group interaction in the attention and planning task, on the Beck Depression Inventory and on the Shifting, Emotional Control and Initiating sub-scales of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult. The results showed that patients undergoing cognitive remediation improved in domains related to attention and executive functions and scored significantly lower on the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings provide some evidence that cognitive remediation could be an efficient approach to dealing with cognitive deficits in depression.
Ključne besede: attention, cognitive remediation, depression, executive function, neuroplasticity
Objavljeno v DKUM: 31.05.2024; Ogledov: 147; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,13 MB)
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Effects of jaw clenching and mental stress on persistent inward currents estimated by two different methods
Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Janet Taylor, Gabriel Trajano, Aleš Holobar, Basilio Gonçalves, Anthony Blazevich, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Spinal motoneuron firing depends greatly on persistent inward currents (PICs), which in turn are facilitated by the neuromodulators serotonin and noradrenaline. The aim of this study was to determine whether jaw clenching (JC) and mental stress (MS), which may increase neuromodulator release, facilitate PICs in human motoneurons. The paired motor unit (MU) technique was used to estimate PIC contribution to motoneuron firing. Surface electromyograms were collected using a 32-channel matrix on gastrocnemius medialis (GM) during voluntary, ramp, plantar flexor contractions. MU discharges were identified, and delta frequency (ΔF), a measure of recruitment–derecruitment hysteresis, was calculated. Additionally, another technique was used (VibStim) that evokes involuntary contractions that persist after cessation of combined Achilles tendon vibration and triceps surae neuromuscular electrical stimulation. VibStim measures of plantar flexor torque and soleus activity may reflect PIC activation. ΔF was not significantly altered by JC (p = .679, n = 18, 9 females) or MS (p = .147, n = 14, 5 females). However, all VibStim variables quantifying involuntary torque and muscle activity during and after vibration cessation were significantly increased in JC (p < .011, n = 20, 10 females) and some, but not all, increased in MS (p = .017–.05, n = 19, 10 females). JC and MS significantly increased the magnitude of involuntary contractions (VibStim) but had no effect on GM ΔF during voluntary contractions. Effects of increased neuromodulator release on PIC contribution to motoneuron firing might differ between synergists or be context dependent. Based on these data, the background level of voluntary contraction and, hence, both neuromodulation and ionotropic inputs could influence neuromodulatory PIC enhancement.
Ključne besede: electromyography, bistability, HD-EMG, input–output function, motor neuron
Objavljeno v DKUM: 22.05.2024; Ogledov: 71; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,22 MB)
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The Lelek fan as the inverse limit of intervals with a single set-valued bonding function whose graph is an arc
Iztok Banič, Goran Erceg, Judy A. Kennedy, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We consider a family of inverse limits of inverse sequences of closed unit intervals with a single upper semi-continuous set-valued bonding function whose graph is an arc; the graph is the union of two line segments in [0,1]2, both of which contain the origin (0, 0) and have positive slope. One of the segments extends to the top-boundary and the other to the right side boundary of [0,1] x [0,1]. We show that there is a large subfamily F of these bonding functions such that for each fEF, the inverse limit of the inverse sequence of closed unit intervals using f as a single bonding function is homeomorphic to the Lelek fan.
Ključne besede: fan, cantor fan, Lelek fan, closed relation, Mahavier product, inverse limit, set-valued function
Objavljeno v DKUM: 14.03.2024; Ogledov: 510; Prenosov: 530
.pdf Celotno besedilo (504,26 KB)
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The multi-strain probiotic OMNi-BiOTiC® Active reduces the duration of acute upper respiratory disease in older people : a double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial
Maja Strauss, Dušanka Mičetić-Turk, Mateja Lorber, Maja Šikić Pogačar, Anton Koželj, Ksenija Tušek-Bunc, Sabina Fijan, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Immunosenescence is the adverse change in the human immune function during aging, leaving older people more prone to an increased risk of infections and morbidity. Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are very common among older people, often resulting in continued morbidity and mortality. Therefore, approaches, such as consuming probiotics, that shorten the duration or even reduce the incidence of URTIs in older people are being studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a multi-strain probiotic OMNi-BiOTiC® Active, which contains 11 live probiotic strains, on the incidence, duration, and severity of URTIs in older people. In this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study, 95 participants, with an average age of 70.9 years in the probiotic group and 69.6 years in the placebo group, were randomly allocated to two groups: 1010 cfu per day of the multi-strain probiotic intervention OMNi-BiOTiC® Active (49) or placebo (46). The incidence of URTIs in older people after 12 weeks supplementation with OMNi-BiOTiC® showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.5244). However, the duration of the URTI infections was statistically significantly different between the groups (p = 0.011). The participants that consumed the probiotic had an average duration of illness of 3.1 ± 1.6 days, whilst participants that received the placebo had symptoms for an average of 6.0 ± 3.8 days (p = 0.011). Statistically significant differences in lymphocyte counts in both groups after supplementation (p = 0.035 for the probiotic group and p = 0.029 for the placebo group) and between both groups were found (p = 0.009). Statistically significant differences in eosinophil (p = 0.002) and basophil counts (p = 0.001) in the probiotic groups before and after supplementation with probiotics were also found. Supplementation with the multi-strain probiotic OMNi-BiOTiC® Active may benefit older people with URTIs. Larger randomised controlled clinical trials are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration; identifier NCT05879393.
Ključne besede: upper respiratory tract infection, URTI, duration of illness, probiotics, multi-strain, older people, immune function
Objavljeno v DKUM: 27.11.2023; Ogledov: 407; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (767,38 KB)

Analysis of the influence of parameters when charging and discharging a capacitor using differential equations
Matic Krašovic, Peter Virtič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Two different electrical circuits were analysed in this paper. The first was an RC circuit consisting of a resistor R, a capacitor C, and a DC voltage u, while the second was an RLC circuit consisting of a resistor R, a capacitor C, a DC voltage u and an inductor L. Both circuits were described using the state space mathematical model and, on this basis, graphs for charging and discharging a capacitor were plotted. Both circuits were described using differential equations for electrical current through a capacitor and voltage over a capacitor. Finally, different values of the R (resistance), L (inductance) and C (capacitance) parameters were taken, and graphs were plotted for voltage over capacitor. The purpose of the study was to explore how different values of parameters influence capacitor charging and discharging.
Ključne besede: RC circuit, RLC circuit, state space, transfer function, differential equations, parameters R, L, C, damping
Objavljeno v DKUM: 30.10.2023; Ogledov: 238; Prenosov: 8
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Methodology improvements to simulate performance and emissions of engine transient cycles from stationary operating modes: A case study applied to biofuels
Fernando Cruz-Peragón, Eloisa Torres Jiménez, Luka Lešnik, Octavio Armas, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In the present study engine/vehicle responses from a standardized transient test cycle are estimated using 13 stationary operating regimes following a previously developed methodology. The main advantage of the methodology tested is that allows obtaining an estimation of transient parameters in a stationary test bench, which requirements are much less demanding than those of the transient test bench. The objectives are: in one hand, to demonstrate that the methodology correctly estimates engine responses regardless of the fuel tested, as it is proposed in a previous paper and, on the other hand, to improve the methodology and the accuracy of the estimated parameters. The fuels tested are renewable fuels from different raw materials (biodiesel from rapeseed, sunflower, and soybean), and diesel fuel as the reference. Biodiesels were tested neat and blended (30% v/v) with diesel fuel. The engine is a common-rail light-duty one, and the standardized testing procedure used to illustrate the implementation of the methodology is the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Two design of experiments (DoE) of 13 runs each were analyzed. One of the DoE tested was proposed for characterizing the NEDC, referred as to CTDoE design, while the other one is a five-level fractional factorial design (FFDoE) that adequately matches the optimality criteria of orthogonality, D-optimal criterion, rotatability, and space-filling. The original methodology was improved by the implementation of a new fitting function that simulates the cold start effect over the engine parameters and by an new definition of the boundary in the [n,M] domain. These improvements showed significantly higher accuracy of the estimated engine parameters obtained, both instantaneous and accumulated, respect to the original methodology. The results obtained based on the application of the FFDoE design support the feasibility of the methodology tested. Engine performance and regulated emissions responses, such as intake air and fuel mass flow rate, thermomechanical exergy rate, exhaust gas residual heat rate, total hydrocarbons (THC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a transient test were instantaneously and cumulatively predicted with high accuracy using the engine responses from 13 steady-state operating modes.
Ključne besede: simulation, light duty diesel engine, transient cycle, biodiesel, design of experiments, cold start correction function
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.09.2023; Ogledov: 293; Prenosov: 19
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,39 MB)
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Guarding a subgraph as a tool in pursuit-evasion games
Drago Bokal, Janja Jerebic, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Pursuit-evasion games study the number of cops needed to capture therobber in a game played on a graph, in which the cops and the robber movealternatively to neighbouring vertices, and the robber is captured if a copsteps on the vertex the robber is in. A common tool in analyzing this copnumber of a graph is a cop moving along a shortest path in a graph, thuspreventing the robber to step onto this path. We generalize this approach byintroducing a shadow of the robber, the maximal set of vertices from whichthe cop parries the protected subgraph. In this context, the robber becomesan intruder and the cop becomes the guard. We show that the shadow canbe computed in polynomial time, implying polynomial time algorithms forcomputing both a successful guard as well as a successful intruder, whicheverexists. Furthermore, we show that shadow function generalizes the conceptof graph retractions. In some cases, this implies a polynomially computablecertification of the negative answer to the NP-complete problem of existenceof a retraction to a given subgraph.
Ključne besede: pursuit-evasion game, graph searching, guarding, shadow function, graph retraction
Objavljeno v DKUM: 17.08.2023; Ogledov: 377; Prenosov: 30
.pdf Celotno besedilo (377,93 KB)
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Antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and nevro-protective activity of Ganoderma lucidum : an overview
Darija Cör Andrejč, Željko Knez, Maša Knez Marevci, 2022, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Ganoderma lucidum is a very medicinal mushroom that has been utilized in Oriental medicine for many years. It has a wide range of pharmacological and therapeutic properties, and has been used for many years as a health promoter. It contains various biologically active compounds that improve the immune system and have antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. Active compounds include triterpenoids and polysaccharides, as well as proteins, lipids, phenolics, sterols, etc. In the following review, we summarize briefly their biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antitumor, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory activity. Although Ganoderma has a number of medicinal effects that have been confirmed by the in vitro and in vivo studies summarised in this review, there are some limitations. Clinical trials face mainly a lack of pure constituents. Accurate identification of the compounds obtained is also problematic. In addition, most of the included studies were small, and there were concerns about the methodological quality of each study. Studies have shown that Ganoderma has valuable potential for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In any case, G. lucidum cannot be used as first-line therapy for cancer.
Ključne besede: Ganoderma lucidum, bioactive function, active compounds, polysaccharides, triterpenoids
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.08.2023; Ogledov: 286; Prenosov: 30
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,26 MB)
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How to test the reliability of instruments used in mirotremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio measurements
Izidor Tasič, Franc Runovc, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The reliability of a horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) curve depends on the results obtained by a verified seismological system. Seismic microzonation provides the basis for a site-specific risk analysis and it can be evaluated using the microtremor HVSR method, where the data are recorded using modern seismological systems. Changes in the transfer function of seismological systems affect the HVSR curve and, consequently, also its interpretation, if these changes are not detected and taken into consideration while performing the microtremor spectral calculations. The reliability of the seismic microzonation performed by such a procedure becomes questionable. An algorithm is developed with a two references system, where the influence of the transfer function on the HVSR curve by the tested system can be evaluated without any a-priori knowledge regarding the transfer functions of any of the systems. This approach is applied to a Lennartz Le-3D/5s seismometer and to a TROMINO seismological system, where two Streckeisen STS2 seismometers are used as the reference systems.
Ključne besede: seismic microzonation, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method, ambient vibrations, microtremor, seismic system transfer function, reliability and calibration of seismic systems
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.06.2018; Ogledov: 1096; Prenosov: 57
.pdf Celotno besedilo (201,91 KB)
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Green's function for tangentialy loaded horizontaly layered half-space
Tomaž Pliberšek, Andrej Umek, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The topic of this paper is a novel evaluation of the integral representation of the surface Greenćs function for a layered half-space, loaded on its surface by a harmonic tangential point force. The equations of motions are reduced to wave equations by the introduction of wave potentials. The Hankel transform is applied to them and they are consecutively solved leading to the integral representation of surface displacements. They are consecutively evaluated by the proposed three step procedure. First the singularity is extracted. It is further noted that so obtained integrals, after suitably chosen branch cuts and analytic continuation of integrands are introduced, can be evaluated by contour integration for an arbitrary number of layers. They are, therefore, expressed by number of residues at the poles of integrand and the integrals along finite portions of the branch cuts. The latter ones can easily be evaluated to any desired accuracy leading to a closed form solution. Some numerical results corroborating the presented approach are given.
Ključne besede: elastodynamics, elastic wave propagation, Green`s function, horizontaly layered half-space, horizontal point load
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.06.2018; Ogledov: 1366; Prenosov: 82
.pdf Celotno besedilo (329,66 KB)
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