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Evaluation of the constriction size reduction of granular filters due to upstream cohesive base-soil erosion
Samira Azirou, Ahmed Benamar, Abdelkader Tahakourt, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: This study is devoted to filter-constrictions analysis and its application with respect to void and constrictions reduction during soil filtration. The experimental investigation involves combined Hole Erosion-Filtration tests using several soils and filters. The base soils are lean clays and the granular filters are selected according to the usual filtration criteria. The combination of the experimental data for porosity variation and the analytical results from the Constriction Size Distribution (CSD) analysis was used to evaluate the constrictions size reduction subsequent to the filtration process. The filtration depth was also estimated according to the retained soil mass and the porosity reduction deduced from the measured hydraulic conductivity. An analytical model of the CSD was applied to the experimental results in order to assess the constrictions reduction. As regards the obtained results, a nonuniform constriction reduction was suggested according to the effective filtration depth, advocating a dynamic filter action.
Keywords: granular filter, internal erosion, constriction, porosity, filtration index
Published in DKUM: 11.10.2018; Views: 848; Downloads: 432
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Cistatin C - označevalec ledvičnega delovanja ter napovedovalec srčnožilnih bolezni in umrljivosti
Sebastjan Bevc, Robert Ekart, Radovan Hojs, 2014, review article

Abstract: Cistatin C v serumu je bil že pred desetletjem predlagan za označevalca ledvičnega delovanja. Trdni dokazi potrjujejo, da je ocena glomerulne filtracije s pomočjo cistatina C izboljšala prepoznavanje bolnikov s kronično ledvično boleznijo pri določenih populacijah. Enačbe za oceno ledvične funkcije, ki vključujejo standardizirano vrednost cistatina C v serumu so postale "state- of-the-art" določanja ledvične funkcije. Zadnje smernice za obravnavo bolnikov s kronično ledvično boleznijo tako vključujejo navodila in priporočila za uporabo cistatina C v klinični praksi. Rezultati raziskav kažejo, da je cistatin C več kot le označevalec ledvičnega delovanja, saj poda celostno informacijo o ogroženosti bolnikov, še posebej tistih z visoko stopnjo tveganja za razvoj sržnožilnih bolezni in dogodkov. Raziskave so pokazale tudi povezavo cistatina C z napredovanjem srčnožilnih bolezni.
Keywords: glomerular filtration rate, serum cystatin C, simple cystatin C formula, cardiovascular disease, mortality
Published in DKUM: 30.12.2015; Views: 1774; Downloads: 70
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Wastewater treatment after reactive printing
Sonja Šostar-Turk, Marjana Simonič, Irena Petrinić, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Membrane filtration of wastewater after textile printing with reactive dyes isdescribed. The wastewater from a Slovenian factory, whose output is approx. 80% reactive dyes printed and dyed on cotton, was studied. In particular, the presence of urea, sodium alginate, oxidation agent and reactive dyes, used forthe printing paste preparation, in the wastewater was studied. Chemical analyses of actual, non-purified, wastewater showed that many Slovenian regulations were exceeded. The study of membrane filtration is based on a pilot wastewater treatment plantČ ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) units. The quality of the wastewater was improved by ultrafiltration, butits effluent still does not conform to the specification of concentration limits for emission into water. Permeate coming from RO meets the required specification and, therefore, could be re-used in the washing process of printed textiles.
Keywords: textile printing, reactive dyes, wastewater treatment, membrane filtration, pilot plant
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 2432; Downloads: 78
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Laundry wastewater treatment using coagulation and membrane filtration
Sonja Šostar-Turk, Irena Petrinić, Marjana Simonič, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper presents the results obtained from laundry wastewater treatment using conventional methods namely precipitation/coagulation and the flocculation process with adsorption on granular-activated carbon (GAC) and an alternative method, membrane filtrations, namely ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Chemical analyses showed that parameter values of untreated wastewater like temperature, pH, sediment substances, total nitrogen and phosphorous, COD, BOD5, and the amount of anion surfactants had been exceeded in regard to Slovenian regulation. These regulations can be used as requirements for wastewater reuse and make treated wastewater an available source for the existing water supply. The study of conventional treatment was based on a flocculation with Al2(SO4)3 18H2O and adsorption on GAC. Membrane filtrations were studied on a pilot wastewater treatment plant: ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) units. The membranes used in this experiment were ceramic UF membrane and spiral wounded - polyethersulfone- RO membranes. The quality of the wastewater was improved by both methods and the specifications of a concentration limit for emission into water were confirmed. The disadvantage of GAC is that there is no possibility of any kind of selection, which is essential for recycling and re-use, while permeate coming from RO met the required regulation as well as requirements for reusing in washing process. However, the economical analyses showed that the membrane filtrations are more expensive compared to the GAC treatment process.
Keywords: laundries, washing of textiles, waste waters, advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, membrane filtration, coagulation
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 2211; Downloads: 109
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Removal efficiency of COD, total P and total N components from municipal wastewater using hollow-fibre MBR
Irena Petrinić, Mirjana Čurlin, Jasmina Korenak, Marjana Simonič, 2011, professional article

Abstract: The membrane bioreactor (MBR) integrates well within the conventionally activated sludge system regarding advanced membrane separation for wastewater treatment. Over the last decade, a number of MBR systems have been constructed worldwide and this system is now accepted as a technology of choice for wastewater treatment especially for municipal wastewater. The aim of this work was to investigate and compare submerged MBR with conventionally-activated sludge system for the treatment of municipal wastewater in Maribor, Slovenia. It can be concluded from the results, that the efficiencies being determined by the parameters were satisfied, such as, chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen, which were 97%,75%, and 90%, respectively. The efficiencies of ultrafiltration membrane for the same parameters were also determined, and compared with biological treatment. The results of this analysis show an additional effect regarding an improvement in the quality of the permeate but primary treatment is also very important. For successfully application of MBR system smaller grid for primary treatment is needed.
Keywords: municipal wastewater treatment, membrane bioreactor, membrane filtration, biological treatment
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 1593; Downloads: 96
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