RECENT LEXICAL BORROWINGS IN MODERN ENGLISH (FROM SOME EXOTIC SOURCES)Mirjana Hutinski Mušić
, 2012, diplomsko delo
English is the biggest donor language in the world. Namely, a lot of languages still borrow words from English. However, English has itself borrowed many thousands of words from other languages. The process of language borrowing, which is widespread linguistic phenomenon, is still going on. English has always adopted loanwords from the languages of whatever cultures they have come in contact with. The history of loanwords is therefore quite complex because loanwords have often passed through a series of languages before reaching English. Although the majority of words in English have come from one of the large number of languages that belong to the Indo-European group, Modern English tends to increasingly borrow words from less known languages, even exotic ones.
This graduation thesis deals with recent lexical borrowings in Modern English that came from some exotic sources. Since there are several languages from which borrowings were taken, I discuss those that are less common, even exotic. I decided to research six languages, among which are the following: Arabic, Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, Turkish and Yiddish. In the first part of my thesis a brief history of Modern English is presented. Then a brief presentation of the process of borrowing follows. The main part of my thesis represents an analysis of the borrowings from exotic sources. Each language is analyzed separately; the words are categorized according to the different categories of various vocabulary areas. The meaning, the etymology and example sentence is provided for each word. The last part offers an analysis of the languages that contributed to the enrichment of the English language.
Ključne besede: borrowings, etymology, the History of Modern English, exotic sources
Objavljeno: 18.12.2012; Ogledov: 1520; Prenosov: 79
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WORDS OF LATIN AND FRENCH ORIGIN IN ENGLISH MAGAZINES: THE EXAMPLE OF GLAMOURNastja Ditmajer
, 2014, diplomsko delo
Opis: English is more widely spoken and written than any other language. It has become global language and it is used by at least 750 million people (Graddol, Leith, Swann, Rhys and Gillen, 2007). English is also the biggest donor language in the world and it has borrowed many words from other languages. More than fifty percent of all English words are of Latin and French origin (Finkenstaedt and Wolff, 1973). They came into English during the historical events which allowed contacts with different foreign nations and thus their culture and language. Latin and French have been the biggest suppliers of words into English. In the Old English people coined new words together because there was no need to use foreign words. However, later, people had the need to express sophisticated concepts and they found it easier to adopt existing words (Hock and Joseph, 1996). Latin has been a major influence on English. Words from Latin were introduced into Old English and Middle English by the Romans. Words were manly associated to church and its services. The French influence has been around since the Middle Ages. Before the Norman Conquest in 1066, there were contacts between the English and French cultures. After 1066, when William, Duke of Normandy won the English throne, French became the official language of government and the upper classes of Norman nobility. In the 18th and 19th centuries, French was the language of culture, prestige and civilization. In Modern Period, English borrowed from less and less languages and people were more concerned about the situation of English language (Baugh and Cable, 2002).
The thesis deals with the of Latin and French borrowings by focusing on their use in contemporary English. The examples for the analysis have been collected from an issue of the English magazine, called Glamour Magazine. Each borrowing is analysed according to the different categories of various vocabulary areas it belongs to. In addition, the meaning, the etymology and word class is provided for each word. The borrowings are then evaluated according to the group, frequency, arrival into English and origin and word class.
Ključne besede: borrowings, etymology, history of English language, Latin and French origin, Glamour Magazine.
Objavljeno: 10.12.2014; Ogledov: 1019; Prenosov: 92
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The Etymology, Use and the Meaning of the Word FuckAleš Horvat
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: Different words have been considered as obscene, immoral, forbidden, taboo, indecent or incendiary at different times throughout our still short civilized human history. From religious profanity (such as damn) to taboo words that were considered sacred and forbidden to even think about. Not so long ago such words as leg (the proper substitute for the word was limb) and all other words for parts of the human body were forbidden and shocking. And even though it seems that today we are pretty much every day using the so called F-word or simply fuck and it is very easy to find it in most places, the word still has some kind of taboo aura around it, since it is still censored on television, some or most papers refuse to print it in its true form, but rather use some kind of substitute (fudge) or even censor it with asterisks (f**k) and the radio bleeps it out or replaces it with a modified sound when it appears in songs. But what is true is that fuck is one of the most useful, versatile, one of the most fun words with wonderfully polymorphous possibilities in the whole English language or as Peter Silverton puts it in his book Filthy English:
"The beginning, the very moment of creation, the starting point for both life and fun: fuck! Or perhaps: sexual intercourse! We all do it. Well, most of us. Our ancestors did it, too – not when they were fishes perhaps but not long after ... And yet the simplest, most direct and longest serving English language word for this most ontologically essential of human acts has, for most of its life, been considered so rude, so disturbing, so nasty, so condemnably yeeeurgh that people have been arrested, tried and jailed for speaking it or writing it. The OED wouldn't even give it page room until 1972. All I can say to that is: fuck! Or: fucking hell! Or: fuck me! Or: how fucking stupid!" (Silverton, 2010, p.20)
In this work I am going to discuss the etymology of the word fuck, its meaning with examples, use as nouns, verbs, idioms, interjections, verbal phrases, acronyms, abbreviations and the way society has viewed fuck and tried to mask it through censorship and alternatives in the media and about the frequency of use.
Ključne besede: Fuck, etymology, meaning of fuck, use of the word fuck, abbreviations and censorship.
Objavljeno: 13.06.2016; Ogledov: 1915; Prenosov: 60
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Indo-European 'ego', Slavic ja = Runic ek, and Celtic ØEric Hamp
, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: The paper gives a new account of the development of the first person singular pronoun in Indo-European languages, finding innovating areals (1) Anatolian *VK; (2) South-East Indo-European (Indo-Iranian, Armenian) *eg’‑H‑ém; (3) Greek, Latin, Venetic *eg’‑(ó)H; (4) North I-E (Albanian, Baltic, Slavic, Germanic, Thracian, Tocharian) *eg’.
Ključne besede: linguistics, personal pronouns, etymology
Objavljeno: 06.02.2018; Ogledov: 316; Prenosov: 248
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Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...
Slavic *mokr´, Irish ainmech 'wet, rain'Eric Hamp
, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: The author demonstrates the etymological connections among Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, and Celtic for the term ‘wet’, reflected in PIE *mek- (~ *mok-).
Ključne besede: linguistics, Indo-European languages, Proto-Balto-Slavic, Celtic languages, etymology
Objavljeno: 06.02.2018; Ogledov: 470; Prenosov: 237
Celotno besedilo (310,17 KB)
Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...