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Use of ergonomic principles in manual order picking systems
Nina Labus, Brigita Gajšek, 2018, original scientific article

Abstract: Successful companies are continually striving to streamline costs and optimize processes, enabling them to grow progress, develop and ensure competitiveness on the market. A large part of the costs arises in warehouses, where up to 55% of total costs are generated by order- picking, which makes it important and interesting in terms of research. The paper explores "picker to part" order- picking concept, which enables flexible work and is the optimal choice for most companies. The concept is associated with a high level of work- related injuries and work -related illnesses. Work requires physical efforts resulting from handling heavy goods, performing repetitive movements and using manipulative means. Hum an as the main actor of the concept affects the costs caused by picking and the quality of work done, which depends on technological support, physically and psychologically capable and motivated people. Due to the high costs of service, the focus on time planning and productivity increases. Contrary, the lack of attention is paid to the working conditions and the health status of the pickers. To overcome this gab, a review of scientific and professional literature on ergonomic principles in picking concept "picker to part" was carried out, followed by a quantitative survey of ergonomic properties in warehousing activities. Results revealed that more than 60% of the surveyed order-pickers associate problems with health with the characteristics of work, about 24% of them associate health problems with the use of a particular means of transport, and all agree that provided measures to reduce physical effort and greater support of technologies influence on increased speed of work and better health status of order-pickers.
Keywords: injuries, picker-to-part, ergonomics, picking, productivity, costs
Published in DKUM: 25.04.2018; Views: 960; Downloads: 382
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Intelligent support for defining aesthetical, ergonomical and material properties of designed product
Jasmin Kaljun, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The presented paper gives an insight into a prototype of intelligent advisory system based on the aesthetic and ergonomic factors regarding product design, with emphasis on appurtenant design recommendations. The paper focuses on methodology of determining appropriate combination of ergonomic and aesthetic design actions during product design to achieve pleasant user experience. Along with products' function, ergonomics and aesthetics certainly belong to the most important design factors that affect user experience. In the field of ergonomics not only anthropometrical characteristics of prospective user are important. It is also of significant importance to select appropriate material for contact areas in order to assure comfortable and injury free use. Presented theoretical findings are supported with case study of hand tool handle design using intelligent advisory system Oscar.
Keywords: aesthetics, ergonomics, intelligent support, material selection, product design
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2017; Views: 679; Downloads: 195
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Analiza obstoječega stanja in postavitev nove linije za izdelavo aparatov
Miha Srt, 2014, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V proizvodnih obratih imajo danes delo podjetja, ki izdelujejo kvalitetne izdelke za nizko ceno. K nižanju cene izdelka veliko pripomore kratek čas izdelave izdelka, na čas izdelave pa vpliva postavitev delovnih mest, pretok materiala in zaporedje delovnih operacij na sestavni liniji. Zaradi vse večjega pomena zdravja zaposlenih v podjetjih se preko programov, ki so namenjeni izračunavanju optimalnosti delovnih pogojev v podjetjih ukvarjajo z izboljšanjem ergonomskih pogojev dela. S tem se dolgoročno prepreči morebiten nastanek delovnih nesreč zaradi preobremenjenega dela kratkoročno pa s tem dosegamo boljši učinek dela.
Keywords: layout, ergonomics, SMED, ergocheck, workfactor, 5S, one piece flow, poka – yoke
Published in DKUM: 27.10.2015; Views: 1620; Downloads: 125
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Improving products' ergonomic value using intelligent decision support system
Jasmin Kaljun, Bojan Dolšak, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: During the process of defining suitable design solutions, a designer has to consider a wide range of influential factors. Ergonomics certainly belongs to more complex ones. Less experienced designers could encounter several problems during this design stage. Although some literature can be found about ergonomic design of hand tools, a designer still has to have amassed quite a lot of experience and knowledge in the field of ergonomic, in order to choose and carry out appropriate design and redesign actions. Existing computer tools for ergonomic design are not able to assist a designer with higher level advice within design process. An intelligent decision support system has been developed in order to overcome this bottleneck. This paper presents a knowledge base, containing ergonomic design knowledge specific for hand tools design. A pneumatic hammer handle design is used as a case study to show how ergonomic design knowledge built in the system is used to improve the ergonomic value of the product.
Keywords: ergonomija, inteligentna podpora, ročna orodja, zajemanje znanja, razvoj ročke, pnevmatsko kladivo, ergonomics, intelligent support, hand tools, knowledge acquisition, handle design, pneumatic hammer
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1237; Downloads: 131
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Interdisciplinary approach to tool-handle design based on medical imaging
Gregor Harih, Andrej Čretnik, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Products are becoming increasingly complex; therefore, designers are faced with a challenging task to incorporate new functionality, higher performance, and optimal shape design. Traditional user-centered design techniques such as designing with anthropometric data do not incorporate enough subject data to design products with optimal shape for best fit to the target population. To overcome these limitations, we present an interdisciplinary approach with medical imaging. The use of this approach is being presented on the development of an optimal sized and shaped tool handle where the hand is imaged using magnetic resonance imaging machine. The obtained images of the hand are reconstructed and imported into computer-aided design software, where optimal shape of the handle is obtained with Boolean operations. Methods can be used to develop fully customized products with optimal shape to provide best fit to the target population. This increases subjective comfort rating, performance and can prevent acute and cumulative trauma disorders. Provided methods are especially suited for products where high stresses and exceptional performance is expected (high performance tools, professional sports, and military equipment, etc.). With the use of these interdisciplinary methods, the value of the product is increased, which also increases the competitiveness of the product on the market.
Keywords: product design, ergonomics, medical imaging, reverse engineering, innovation
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1067; Downloads: 331
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Ergonomic design recommendations based on an actual chainsaw design
Jasmin Kaljun, Bojan Dolšak, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user's requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the systemćs knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw - with emphasison ergonomic design solutions - that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.
Keywords: ergonomics, intelligent support, knowledge acquisition
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1142; Downloads: 371
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Open-source software in medical imaging: case-based study with interdisciplinary innovative product design
Gregor Harih, Andrej Čretnik, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Namen: V zadnjem času je bilo razvitih precej celovitih rešitev odprtokodne programske opreme za medicinske slike, ki ponujajo zmogljiva orodja za slikovno upravljanje, vizualizacijo, skladiščenje in analizo. Namen članka je predstaviti odprtokodno programsko opremo za delo z medicinskimi slikami in njene značilnosti ter jo primerjati s komercialnimi rešitvami. Metode: Predstavljen je primer razvoja optimalne velikosti in oblike ročaja ročnega orodja s pomočjo brezplačne odprtokodne programske opreme '3D Slicer'. Večina avtorjev priporoča valjasto oblikovanost ročajev, da bi povečali udobje in učinkovitost uporabnika ter preprečili kumulativna travmatična obolenja, vendar optimalna oblika ročaja še ni bila ugotovljena. Namen raziskaveje predstaviti metode, s katerimi je mogoče pridobiti obliko ročaja v optimalni drži roke za krepki oprijem s čim bolj optimalno porazdelitvijo pritiska na mehka tkiva. Uporabili smo magnetno resonančno preiskavo in individualno izdelan kalup, ki je ohranjal optimalno držo roke med preiskavo. Program '3D Slicer' je bil uporabljen za segmentacijo in 3D rekonstrukcijo na osnovi MR slik. 3D model roke je bil nato 'izvožen' v komercialni program za računalniško podprto konstruiranje optimalnega ročaja orodja. Rezultati: Meritve premerov na 3D rekonstrukciji so pokazale, da so bili položaji zadržani z le majhnimi odstopanji, kar maksimizira največjo silo kontrakcije prstov. Tako oblikovan optimalni ročaj zagotavlja 25 % večjo kontaktno površino v primerjavi z optimalnim valjastim ročajem in s tem zmanjšuje tudi kontaktne tlake, kar povečuje učinkovitost in udobje ter (zelo verjetno) preprečuje kumulativna travmatična obolenja. Zaključki: Prikazan primer potrjuje ustreznost odprtokodne programske opreme za medicinske slike kot (večinoma) brezplačno in učinkovito orodje, podobno kot (neredko drage) druge komercialne rešitve.
Keywords: tool handle, software, open source, ergonomics, segmentation, medical imaging, hand model, 3D
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1129; Downloads: 31
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Ergonomic aspects of implementing computer technology into schools
Samo Fošnarič, Uroš Drnovšek, 2009, review article

Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of implementing computer technology into educational settings from an ergonomic point of view. On the basis of some latest findings in ergonomics and computer science we construct a model of ergonomic implementation of computer technology into schools and highlight some areas that still need researchers' attention in the future. We also present a review of certain findings and polemics in the fields of computerized classroom environment, ergonomic use of computers and ergonomic aspects of computer hardware and software.
Keywords: education, ergonomics, computer hardware, computer software
Published in DKUM: 07.06.2012; Views: 1229; Downloads: 30
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Intelligent decision support system for ergonomic product design
Jasmin Kaljun, Milenko Obad, Bojan Dolšak, 2011, review article

Abstract: In general, computer tools for ergonomic CAD do not assist designer with higher level advice when performing ergonomic design. Designer has to possess expert knowledge and experience in many fields of engineering design including ergonomics in order to deliver successful designs. Such multi-levelexperts are rare and usually occupied. Two alternative ways are used to substitute these experts: teams of experts covering different areas of knowledge are established or some intelligent computer programs with expert knowledge are applied. In the second case, expert knowledge has to be collected, organized and encoded into the knowledge base of the system. An intelligent decision support system has been developed in order to overcome this bottleneck. This paper presents a knowledge base, containing ergonomic design knowledge specific for hand tools design. A pneumatic hammer handle design is used as a case study to show how ergonomic design knowledge built in the system is used to improve the ergonomic value of the product.
Keywords: ergonomics, hand tools, knowledge acquisition, product development
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 1614; Downloads: 36
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Intelligent support to specific design aspects
Urška Sancin, Jasmin Kaljun, Bojan Dolšak, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: Due to increased rivalry on the market, some specific design aspects like the use of modern plastics materials, ergonomics and aesthetics are becoming more important and are not kept in the background any more in correlation with functionality and economic aspect of the product. Design engineer faces many dilemmas while designing new products as a single person is not able to possess a wide spectrum of knowledge needed for optimal design solutions. At this point designer have to rely on his or her experience and on the knowledge of the expert team involved in the project. The fundamental purpose of the research presented in this paper is to make the product development process less experience dependent. The main goal of thematically oriented research is to develop intelligent advisory system with integrated modules forsome specific design aspects.
Keywords: product development, ergonomics, aesthetics, plastics, knowledge based engineering, intelligent systems
Published in DKUM: 31.05.2012; Views: 1539; Downloads: 33
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