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1.
Software tools overview : process integration, modelling and optimisation for energy saving and pollution reduction
Hon Loong Lam, Jiri Klemeš, Zdravko Kravanja, Petar Varbanov, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of software tools based on long experience andapplications in the area of process integration, modelling and optimisation. The first part reviews the current design practice and the development of supporting software tools. Those are categorised as: (1) process integration and retrofit analysis tools, (2) general mathematical modelling suites with optimisation libraries, (3) flowsheeting simulation and (4) graph-based process optimisation tools. The second part covers an assessment of tools which enable the generation of new sustainable alternatives to adapt to the future needs. They deal with waste, environment, energy consumption, resources depletion and production cost constrains. The emphasis of the sustainable process design tools is largely on the evaluation of process viability under sustainable economic conditions, synthesis of sustainable process and supply chain process maintenance and life cycle analysis. Major software tools development and the potential of the research-based tools for sustainable process design task are overviewed in theconcluding part.
Keywords: software tools, process integration, process modelling, process optimisation, energy saving
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1163; Downloads: 55
URL Link to full text

2.
Long-term performance of central heat pumps in Slovenian homes
Milan Marčič, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: Due to limited availability of natural resources exploited for heating and in order to reduce the environmental impact, people should strive to use renewable energy sources. Heat pumps allow the conversion of ambient heat, available in almost unlimited quantities, to heating energy. The paper describes an energy-saving house provided with good thermal insulation and heated by an air-to-water split-type heat pump. The condenser is located in the attic and the evaporator in the boiler room of the house. The house heating up to the ambient temperature of 0 °C was provided by an air-to-water heat pump and a condensing oil heating furnace if the ambient temperature dropped to below 0 °C. The results of the nine-year testing showed that the heat pump was used during most of the heating season. The average coefficient of performance (COP) of the air-to-water heat pump in nine heating seasons was3.16, indicating that over 68% of the heat was obtained from the ambient air. The comparison between COP of air-to-water heat pumps in energy-saving house and of water-to-water heat pumps fitted in houses dealt with under otherprojects indicates that water-to-water heat pumps have higher COPs. The heat pumps obtain heat from groundwater, hence they are capable of operating throughout the heating season, and possess the highest COP. The advantage of an air-to-water heat pump, however, lies in its simple design and a wide rangeof applications. Due to limited availability of natural resources exploited for heating and in order to reduce the environmental impact, people should strive to use renewable energy sources. Heat pumps allow the conversionof ambient heat, available in almost unlimited quantities, to heating energy. The paper describes an energy-saving house provided with good thermal insulation and heated by an air-to-water split-type heat pump. The condenser is located in the attic and the evaporator in the boiler room of thehouse. The house heating up to the ambient temperature of 0 °C was providedby an air-to-water heat pump and a condensing oil heating furnace if the ambient temperature dropped to below 0 °C. The results of the nine-year testing showed that the heat pump was used during most of the heating season. The average coefficient of performance (COP) of the air-to-water heat pump in nine heating seasons was 3.16, indicating that over 68% of the heat was obtained from the ambient air. The comparison between COP of air-to-water heatpumps in energy-saving house and of water-to-water heat pumps fitted in houses dealt with under other projects indicates that water-to-water heat pumps have higher COPs. The heat pumps obtain heat from groundwater, hence they are capable of operating throughout the heating season, and possess the highest COP. The advantage of an air-to-water heat pump, however, lies in its simple design and a wide range of applications. In comparison to the furnace, the heat pump yielded considerable saving in fuel and monry, which justifies its home heating application in the Central European climatic area. The analys
Keywords: heating, energy saving houses, heat pumps, therodynamics, refrigeration
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1172; Downloads: 70
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3.
Analysing energy and material saving technologies' adoption and adopters
Iztok Palčič, Marc Pons, Andrea Bikfalvi, Josep Llach Pagès, Borut Buchmeister, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to map the adoption of technologies for energy reduction and resources consumption in production. The aim is also to contribute to the identification and understanding of the characteristics of the manufacturing firms that use these kinds of energy and material saving technologies. Our research is based on data from the largest European manufacturing survey to date and it includes data from Spain and Slovenia. The results show that the use of specific energy saving technologies and material saving technologies in manufacturing firms is still modest. Dividing manufacturing firms based on technology intensity sectors and based on their relative energy efficiency we have concluded that firms in high technology industries focus less on energy efficiency than low technology firms. Some other specific relationships between the use of energy efficient technologies and adopters' characteristics (e. g. use of environmental management systems) are presented in this paper.
Keywords: energy efficiency, manufacturing firms, energy saving technology, material saving technology, European manufacturing survey
Published: 21.12.2015; Views: 524; Downloads: 59
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