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6th International Conference En-Re Energy & Responsibility : Book of Extended Abstracts

Abstract: In the context of escalating climate challenges, the EnRe conference is dedicated to exploring pathways to climate neutrality and the sustainable green transition. The conference is focused on the development and implementation of innovations supporting the transformation of energy systems, industrial systems, and living systems, all with the goal of creating a sustainable future with net-zero emissions. The conference brings together experts, researchers, policymakers, and business leaders to share their experiences, research, and visions. The aim of the conference is to foster collaboration and exchange of ideas, and to collectively develop comprehensive approaches and strategies for achieving climate neutrality. This conference is not just a knowledge exchange, but also a platform for encouraging concrete actions that will ensure a greenerand more sustainable future for our next generations to come.
Keywords: alternative energy systems, dynamic tariffing, electrical machines and drives, energy conversions, financing energy projects, nuclear energy, conventional energy systems, climate changes - climate pan, mathematical methods in engineering, micro and nano energy, low-carbon technologies and strategies, renewable energy technologies heating and cooling systems, smart buildings, cities and networks, policies and strategies for renewable energy sources, energy efficiency and the climate
Published in DKUM: 17.05.2024; Views: 98; Downloads: 18
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The Thermochemical Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste by Torrefaction Process
Maja Ivanovski, Darko Goričanec, Danijela Urbancl, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: In this work, the thermochemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are studied using the torrefaction process as the main method for investigation. Torrefaction experiments were carried out using an electric laboratory furnace, at temperatures of 200, 250, and 300 °C. The residence time was set to 90 min. Proximate and ultimate analysis were performed on the torrefied MSW samples and compared with the properties of the raw MSW samples. In addition, the thermal properties of the obtained torrefied MSW samples were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG). The following could be stated: the obtained results showed that mass and energy yields (MY and EY, respectively) decrease with increasing when torrefaction temperature, while the heating values (HHV) increased under the same conditions (from 24.3 to 25.1 MJ/kg). Elemental analysis showed an increase in carbon content (C), from 45.7 ± 0.9 to 52.8 ± 1.05 wt.%, and decrease in oxygen content (O), from 45.6 ± 0.9 to 39.5 ± 0.8 wt.%, when torrefaction temperature is increased, which is consistent with the general definition of the torrefaction process. In addition, enhancement factors (EFs) and fuel ratios (FRs) were calculated, which ranged from 1.00 to 1.02 and 0.16 to 0.23, respectively. Some anomalies were observed during the thermal analysis, which are assumed to be related to the composition of the selected MSW. This study therefore shows that torrefaction pretreatment can improve the physicochemical properties of raw MSW to a level comparable to coal, and could contribute to a better understanding of the conversion of MSW into a valuable, solid biofuel.
Keywords: biomass, municipal solid waste, torrefication, energy yield, thermogravimetric analysis
Published in DKUM: 10.05.2024; Views: 107; Downloads: 9
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Smoothness of graph energy in chemical graphs
Katja Zemljič, Petra Žigert Pleteršek, 2023, original scientific article

Keywords: graph energy, smothness, chemical graphs
Published in DKUM: 08.05.2024; Views: 88; Downloads: 3
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1D battery electric vehicle thermal management system calibration and simulation based on measurements : magistrsko delo
Manja Umbreht, 2024, master's thesis

Abstract: Electric vehicles are developing at an increased rate due to electrification trends and are trying to achieve the comfort level of existing vehicles with internal combustion engines. In this thesis, we considered a battery electric vehicle, with which measurements were carried out. We created a complete vehicle model in GT Suite software based on available measurements and vehicle data. The model was used to simulate measured test cases. We described the calibration procedure of standalone models and the assembly of a complete thermal model of the entire vehicle. At the end we compared three simulated test cases with vehicle measurements. We concluded that the developed vehicle simulation model behavior fits well to the measured vehicle.
Keywords: 1D CFD, VTMS, energy consumption, measurements, battery electric vehicle
Published in DKUM: 22.04.2024; Views: 75; Downloads: 0
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Exploring digital twins in the transport and energy fields : a bibliometrics and literature review approach
Milena Kajba, Borut Jereb, Tina Cvahte Ojsteršek, 2023, review article

Abstract: Logistics and transport are major sources of energy consumption that still rely heavily on fossil fuels. Especially in the freight sector, finding means to optimise fuel consumption and energy efficiency are increasingly important. Digital twins’ adaptation in logistics and transport is not as frequent as in production, but their implementation potential is immense. This technology can replicate real environments, allowing verification of various scenarios without real-life application, leading to optimal implementation outcome faster and more efficiently. This paper aims to research digital twins’ use in logistics and transport, focusing on digital twins’ potential and effects to optimise energy consumption. Firstly, previous research on digital twins in specified fields was identified, followed by a quantitative literature review. The latter focused on codifying the selected publications based on criteria such as modality, specific environment, energy consumption, etc. Furthermore, a qualitative overview of 57 relevant publications on digital twins’ use in logistics and transport was made. The main contribution of this paper is the systematic overview of digital twins from the viewpoint of energy optimisation in one of the most energy-dependent sectors. This gives researchers a good starting point for further research and digital twins’ practical implementation cases.
Keywords: logistics, transport, digital twin, energy consumption, optimisation, literature review, bibliometrics
Published in DKUM: 22.04.2024; Views: 51; Downloads: 7
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Requirements for establishing energy hubs : practical perspective
Mahmoud A. Hammad, Sara El Gazzar, Borut Jereb, Marjan Sternad, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The global economy has barely begun to recover from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, only to be thrown into a new crisis because of the Russian-Ukrainian war. The war exacerbated the energy problem by causing a shortage of energy supplies for the EU and other countries, affecting quality of life. As a result, establishing energy hubs for collecting, processing, storing, and transiting energy resources between producing and consuming countries has become imperative to manage energy supplies efficiently. However, previous studies have not yet addressed the requirements for setting up energy hubs from a practical point of view. Therefore, this paper investigates the requirements for the establishment of energy hubs, particularly for oil and gas, from a practical perspective. The researchers conducted 13 semi-structured interviews with different energy stakeholders. Using the SWOT analysis matrix tool, the findings assessed the current state of the global oil and gas market, and the main practical requirements for the establishment of energy hubs were identified, along with the elements for implementation. Furthermore, the article highlighted the most pressing practical issues confronting the establishment of energy centres. Finally, the paper laid out a comprehensive practical framework based on the industry practitioners’ views to help establish energy hubs. The framework provides a possible guide for countries to establish energy hubs based on the main requirements outlined in this study. It can also improve the diversity, flexibility, and security of energy supply, especially for countries that rely on sole suppliers, such as the EU.
Keywords: energy hubs, energy stakeholders, diversification of energy supplies, security and sustainability of energy supply, European Union countries, Russian-Ukrainian war
Published in DKUM: 19.04.2024; Views: 106; Downloads: 2
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Energy security of the European Union and corruption in Central Asia as the main challenges for the European sustainable energy future
Bojana Vasić, Ivan Pekić, Goran Šimić, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Background The main goal of the paper is to define, analyze and assess the basic security, development and institutional challenges faced by the Central Asian countries after 2022. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, and with the outbreak of the Ukrainian crisis, Europe faced problems in ensuring energy security, which were further complicated by its decision to stop importing natural gas from the Russian Federation. The Central Asian region is rich in energy resources, but at the same time, it is also a region of special geopolitical interest of often-conflicting parties, characterized by limited information and insufficient academic literature about development, various aspects of security, internal specificities and future challenges. Methods The research included qualitative and quantitative analyses carried out for Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Germany. Data processing was performed based on 16 selected indicators in the fields of economy, energy, governance and climate change, for the time period 2011 to 2021. Data processing was performed using correlation and regression analysis (ANOVA). Results The results showed that corruption represents one of the biggest problems faced by the countries of Central Asia, with the biggest variations in the calculated Standardized Confidence level, which shows that this indicator trend, in relation to the 16 indicators used, is the least predictable. This represents a significant problem for all countries that are supplied with energy products from this region, or plan to do so. Energy security is positive only in the case of Turkmenistan. Regression analysis shows that Kazakhstan reported the best positive trend for most indicators. Data for Germany show consistent values over the observed period. Conclusions The main conclusions of the paper indicate that the countries of Central Asia have certain specificities when it comes to sustainable development, where energy security, corruption and government efficiency can be considered the biggest problems. The European Union must find ways and mechanisms to overcome these and many other impediments if they decide to import energy products from the aforementioned region.
Keywords: energy security, corruption perception, governance efectiveness, Central Asia, Germany
Published in DKUM: 15.04.2024; Views: 118; Downloads: 4
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The Evaluation of Torrefaction Efficiency for Lignocellulosic Materials Combined with Mixed Solid Wastes
Maja Ivanovski, Darko Goričanec, Danijela Urbancl, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The paper presents the results of research aimed at evaluating the possibility of using selected biomass wastes to produce solid biofuels. In this work, the thermochemical properties of two lignocellulosic biomasses, namely, miscantshus (Miscanthus × Giganteus) and hops (Humulus lupulus), and non-lignocellulosic biomass, namely, municipal solid waste, and their mixtures (micanthus + municipal solid waste and hops + municipal solid waste) were studied using the torrefaction process as the main method for investigation. The effects of various torrefaction temperatures (250, 300, and 350 °C) and times (30 and 60 min) were evaluated. Proximate and ultimate analyses were performed on the torrefied samples. The following can be stated: as the torrefaction temperature and time increased, mass and energy yields decreased while the higher heating values (HHVs) and fuel ratios (FRs) increased, together with carbon contents (C). In addition, energy on return investment (EROI) was studied; the maximum EROI of 28 was achieved for MSW biochar at 250 °C for 30 min. The results of studying greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) showed a reduction of around 88% when using torrefied biochar as a substitute for coal. In sum, this study shows that torrefaction pre-treatment can improve the physicochemical properties of raw biomasses to a level comparable with coal, and could be helpful in better understanding the conversion of those biomasses into a valuable, solid biofuel.
Keywords: torrefaction, waste biomass, renewable energy, fuel ratio, greenhouse gas emission, GHG
Published in DKUM: 29.03.2024; Views: 112; Downloads: 12
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