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1.
Climate change-related displacement and the determination of refugee status under the 1951 Refugee Convention
Elijah Sriroshan Sritharan, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Climate change and climate-driven migration are two of the defining challenges of the twenty-first century, and there is no legal framework for protecting those displaced across national borders for climate-related reasons. The 1951 Refugee Convention hardly applies to human mobility in the context of climate change. This paper was written in the hopes of initiating a discussion concerning an alternative perspective through which persons fleeing natural disasters linked to climate change may satisfy the eligibility conditions for recognition of refugee status. Expanding the definition of refugee as defined in the Convention by including the notion of vulnerability to climate disasters that are caused by the underlying socio-economic conditions in the claimant’s home country and the role of discrimination in causing differential exposure to the climate-related disasters in legal definitions might open the door for the availability of refugee status for persons fleeing in the context of climate change. This paper proposes the adoption of a reformed human rights-based interpretation, particularly with regard to the individual nature of refugee status determination. Recalibrating the Convention to facilitate climate-induced migration could reduce political tension and social unrest in receiving countries.
Keywords: climate change, climate-driven migration or displacement, climate migrants, climate refugees, determination of refugee status, the 1951 refugee convention, human rights-based approach, socio-economic conditions, vulnerability to climate disasters, the role of discrimination, rights-based climate litigation
Published in DKUM: 19.04.2024; Views: 49; Downloads: 0
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2.
Analysis of personal income taxation determinants in Croatia in long run : evidence from cointegration analysis
Irena Palić, Ksenija Dumičić, Barbara Grofelnik, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: Personal income taxation remains an ongoing issue in Croatia. It is used as an important instrument of income redistribution. Moreover, it directly affects purchasing power of the working population. Numerous changes have been made in this type of taxation since the establishment of Croatian tax system. The aim of this paper is to analyse possible determinants of personal income taxation in Croatia. After offering brief insight into public finance theory regarding personal income taxation, the structure of personal income taxation in Croatia is explained. The empirical analysis of the determinants of personal income taxation in Croatia is conducted using cointegration analysis. Economic conditions, average monthly wage, and number of taxpayers are used as determinants of personal income tax used in this research. The cointegration analysis is conducted using monthly data from January 2008 to February 2016. The results of the research show a statistically significant negative impact of economic conditions and statistically significant positive impact of average monthly wage and number of taxpayers on personal income taxation in long run, what is in line with economic and public finance theory.
Keywords: personal income taxation determinants, economic conditions, wages, number of taxpayers, johansen cointegration approach, Croatia
Published in DKUM: 03.05.2018; Views: 1154; Downloads: 201
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3.
Urbanisation, urban environmental quality, national socio-economic conditions and diseases burden in Africa : a research agenda for spatio-temporal analyses of subregional characteristics
Richard Ingwe, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: The investigation of socio-economic, political and environmental aspects of urbanization in Africa is gaining research attention. Most recently, information on the patterns in urbanization, population growth, slumisation, among other aspects of urban Africa within the past quarter of a century or thereabout were reported. While this report elucidated on the relevant challenges, it was restricted to the regional patterns of the variables investigated. This report indicates that more information on the sub-regional aspects of these variables is required to elucidate on urban planning in the region and its sub-regions. Here, the ways forward in investigating these issues and variables underlying them are outlined. The theoretical, methodological, spatial and temporal aspects or requirements of the proposed research are discussed to provide a compass for future research.
Keywords: urbanization, population dynamics, Africa, sub-regions, socio-economic conditions, environment, theory, method, slumisation
Published in DKUM: 10.04.2018; Views: 1313; Downloads: 90
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