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1.
Use of active elements for providing suitable voltage profiles and prevent overloads in radial distribution networks
Marko Vodenik, Matej Pintarič, Gorazd Štumberger, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The article deals with the issue of providing suitable voltage profiles and preventing congestion of network elements in distribution networks. Active network elements and network users’ energy flexibility services are used to provide a suitable voltage profile and prevent congestion in distribution networks. The discussed active network elements include a transformer with on-load tap changer, reactive power compensation devices, energy storage systems, distributed energy resources, and network users’ energy flexibility services, where the active consumers adjust their consumption, production and storage of energy. Based on the Backward Forward Sweep load flow computation method, the case studies are performed for the discussed low voltage distribution network, where the measurement results were available. The case studies for preventing overload of the distribution transformer are performed using a battery energy storage system and network users’ energy flexibility services. The case studies for providing suitable voltage profiles are performed using all listed active elements and a combination of different active elements. In addition, to provide suitable voltage profiles, the existing conductors are replaced with conductors of a larger cross-section. Technically acceptable solutions that can provide a suitable voltage profile and prevent the overloading of network elements in the most demanding operating conditions are presented in this article.
Ključne besede: voltage profile, radial distribution network, load flow calculations, active network elements, energy flexibility
Objavljeno v DKUM: 30.10.2023; Ogledov: 394; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,24 MB)
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2.
The use of differential evolution to determine maximum generation and load values in the distribution network
Eva Tratnik, Janez Ribič, Matej Pintarič, Miran Rošer, Gorazd Štumberger, Miloš Beković, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: By integrating renewable energy sources into the existing distribution network, the characteristics and local stability of the network is highly impacted. The network, which was built with the goal of a directed energy flow from large conventional sources connected to the transmission network via the distribution network to consumers, can change the direction of the energy flow. The adoption of environmental commitments and directives encourages the integration of local dispersed energy sources, which can worsen voltage conditions in the distribution network. To avoid excessive local production, distribution network operators must limit the installation of new generati on units, as it is necessary to take into account the quality of power supply by monitoring its network parameters, such as the appropriate voltage profi le and the rati o between acti ve and reacti ve power. On the other hand, excessive loads due to the mass transiti on of household heati ng and transport towards electricity can also pose a problem for high-quality electricity supply due to the excessive voltage drop. The arti cle presents an algorithm for determining the maximum size of unit producti on and the maximum load at a node in the distributi on network. Also demonstrated is the use of variable tap transformer technology, which adjusts the tap of the transformer to provide an appropriate voltage profi le in the network. The enti re analysis was performed on a model of a real medium-voltage network, in which solar and hydropower plants are already included. The model was verifi ed by comparing its calculated values with actual measurements. The goal was to determine the size of the unit’s maximum producti on, as well as the size of the maximum load, by using the diff erenti al evoluti on algorithm, while keeping voltage profi les within the permissible limits. The results of the analysis are presented in the article.
Ključne besede: distribution network, renewable energy sources, optimisation method, voltage profile
Objavljeno v DKUM: 30.10.2023; Ogledov: 276; Prenosov: 11
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,63 MB)
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3.
Optimization of the distribution network operation by integration of distributed energy resources and participation of active elements
Nevena Srećković, 2020, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Distribution Networks (DNs) are evolving from a once passive to an active part of the electricity network. This evolution is driven by the current political and environmental decisions, Directives and Incentives, as well as the technological development, observed in the everincreasing integration of renewable energy resources, advanced network control and measurement devices, the upcoming energy exibility market, etc. This Doctoral Thesis deals with the problem of optimization of the technical aspects of a DN operation, enabled by the proliferated integration of the photovoltaic systems (PV) and other active devices. The main objective of the Thesis is the optimization of a DN operation in terms of minimization of electrical energy losses while ensuring the proper voltage profiles and preventing thermal overloadingof lines. Therefore, three Differential Evolution-based optimization procedures were developed and tested on real medium and low voltage DNs. The first methodology determines the optimal rooftop surfaces for the installation of PV systems, yielding minimum annual energy losses. It is based on the simultaneous consideration of high-resolution spatio-temporal solar and PV potential data, as well as long-term measured profiles of consumption and generation of electrical energy within the network of a given configuration. The second algorithm minimizes network losses in a time-discrete operation point, by determining the optimal operation of the following active elements: PV systems capable of cooperation in reactive power provision, On-Load Tap Changer equipped transformer substations and remotely controlled switches for network reconfiguration. The final algorithm was developed by a proper consolidation of the first two approaches, yielding the synergistic effects expressed as the increase of loss reduction and network exibility. The results of the performed case studies show that the locations of the highest suitability for PV installation with respect to the solar energy availability, are not necessarily the best choice from the network operation standpoint. Therefore, both standpoints should be considered simultaneously when choosing the rooftop surfaces for PV installation. Furthermore, by determining optimal hourly operation of the considered active elements, not only the additional reduction of annual network losses was achieved, but also increased accommodation of the PV systems that doesn't violate operation constraints.
Ključne besede: distribution network, optimization of operation, active network elements, PV system placement, minimization of losses
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.06.2020; Ogledov: 1711; Prenosov: 411
.pdf Celotno besedilo (44,58 MB)

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