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How does educational background shape the perception of cybercrime? : a survey of computer science and law students on selected controversial issues
Andrzej Uhl, Andrzej Porębski, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The technical dimensions of cybercrime and its control have rendered it an inconvenient subject for many criminologists. Adopting either semantic (legal) or syntactic (technical) perspectives on cyber criminality, as theorised by McGuire, can lead to disparate conclusions. The aim of this paper is to examine how these perspectives and corresponding educational backgrounds shape opinions on cybercrime and cybercrime policy. Design/Methods/Approach: To address this research question, we first provide a non-exhaustive review of existing critical literature on a few selected controversial issues in the field, including cyber vigilantism, file sharing websites, and political hacking. Based on these areas, we developed an online survey that we then distributed among students of law and computer science, as well as to a ‘non-cyber contrast group’ including mainly students of philology and philosophy. Findings: Statistical analysis revealed differences in the way respondents approached most of the issues) to most of the issues, which were sometimes moderated by the year of studies and gender. In general, the respondents were highly supportive of internet vigilantism, prioritised the cybercrimes of the powerful, and encouraged open access to cybersecurity. The computer science students expressed a lower fear of cybercrime and approved of hacktivism more frequently, while the law students affirmed a conservative vision of copyrights and demonstrated higher punitiveness towards cyber offenders. Interestingly, the computer science students were least likely to translate their fear of cybercrime into punitive demands. Research Limitations/Implications: The findings support the distinction between various narratives about cybercrime by showing the impact of professional socialization on the expressed opinions. They call for a consciously interdisciplinary approach to the subject and could be complemented by a comprehensive qualitative inquiry in the perception of cyber threats. Originality/Value: The authors wish to contribute to the understanding of the construction of cybercrime on the border of criminal law and computer science. Additionally, we present original data which reveal different views on related issues held by potential future professionals in both areas.
Keywords: cybercrime, cyber victimisation, cyber punitiveness, internet crime
Published in DKUM: 27.01.2023; Views: 19; Downloads: 2
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Stilanalyse ausgewählter deutscher True-Crime-Podcast-Folgen : Magisterarbeit
Špela Hašaj, 2022, master's thesis

Abstract: Die vorliegende Masterarbeit ist eine holistische Stilanalyse ausgewählter deutscher True-Crime Podcast-Folgen. Die vier Folgen sind thematisch ähnlich, da sie alle dem Genre True Crime, d.h. wahren Kriminalfällen, zuzuordnen sind. Dennoch sind sie vom Umfang her sehr unterschiedlich. Das Ziel unserer Arbeit ist es anhand der Stilanalyse die Textsorte Podcast zu definieren und relevante Schlüsse bezüglich des Stils des Podcasts zu ziehen. Um dies zu erreichen, haben wir die Textsorte mit bereits existierenden Textsorten verglichen und die vier Podcast-Folgen auf Makro-, Mezzo- und Mikroebene analysiert. Die Makroanalyse betrachtet die Podcast-Folgen als Ganzes und die Mezzo- und Mikroanalyse widmet sich den einzelnen Subthemen der jeweiligen Podcast-Folge. Nach der durchgeführten Stilanalyse auf Makro-, Mezzo- und Mikroebene wurde festgestellt, dass alle Podcast-Folgen Gemeinsamkeiten mit journalistischen Texten aufweisen. Weiterhin sind wir zu dem Schluss gekommen, dass in Podcasts Explizitheit dominiert, aber dennoch ein gewisser Grad an Implizitheit vorkommt. Dieser steht hauptsächlich in Verbindung mit dem Nicht-Erklären von (nicht besonders zahlreich vorkommenden) fremd- und fachsprachlichen Ausdrücken. Es konnten viele Eigenschaften der gesprochenen Sprache (Spontaneität, Lockerheit, Authentizität, Situationsbezogenheit) und des dialogischen Sprechens (Wiederholungen, Unterbrechungen, allgemeine Ausdrücke, Füllwörter, Frage- und Aufforderungssätze) identifiziert werden. Angesichts der Analyseergebnisse zeigte sich auch, dass der Podcast anhand der vorgefundenen Stilelemente durchaus als selbständige Textsorte gesehen werden kann. Denn trotz großer Ähnlichkeiten mit journalistischen Textsorten und Werbetexten, ist die Kombination der vorhandenen Stilelemente und Stilzüge so einzigartig und vielfältig, dass sie in keiner der vergleichbaren Textsorten in dieser Konstellation und diesem Ausmaß zu finden ist.
Keywords: Podcast, True Crime, Textsorte, gesprochene Sprache, Stilanalyse, Funktionalstil, rhetorische Figuren
Published in DKUM: 04.08.2022; Views: 139; Downloads: 11
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Safety, security, and crime prevention in rural areas of Krasnodarskyi Krai and the Republic of Adygea
Anton Petrovskiy, 2020, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the article is to study crime and crime prevention in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea to make suggestions for how to enhance the public security system. Design/Methods/Approach: The following methods were applied to assess crime in the rural areas of the two Russian Southern regions for the period between 2015 and 2019: a statistical observation, and calculation of a crimes index analysis of law enforcement reports. Findings: In order to ensure public security of the population in rural areas it is necessary to decentralise the crime prevention system in Russia by transferring law enforcement powers to the municipal bodies, by creating municipal police and a system for the re-socialisation of former criminals. Research Limitations/Implications: Crime in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea depends on the impact of local factors. As a result, the reasons and conditions of similar crimes in the rural areas of Central Russia might differ. Practical Implications: The results could be used by the local authorities in planning crime prevention measures and enhancing crime prevention in the rural areas of the regions under study. Originality / Value: The article is the first study of the criminological characteristics of crime in the rural areas of Krasnodarskyi krai and the Republic of Adygea since 2014, suggesting measures to boost crime prevention with regard to the contemporary socio-economic situation.
Keywords: public security, crime prevention, rural area, efficiency of police activity
Published in DKUM: 04.01.2021; Views: 464; Downloads: 19
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A Cultural Studies Analysis of American and Japanese Crime Fiction
Doris Sorgar, 2020, master's thesis

Abstract: This thesis uses techniques of comparative literature aiming to ascertain whether the culture of a country is reflected in that country’s literature (more specifically, its crime fiction). The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part introduces crime fiction as a genre, its development, and compares cultural characteristics of Japanese and Americans. The practical part is a comparison of three American and three Japanese crime fiction novels with a focus on cultural reflections. These countries developed relatively historically independently, have distinctly different cultures, and enjoy somewhat contradictory reputations when it comes to safety.
Keywords: crime fiction, American literature, Japanese literature
Published in DKUM: 23.07.2020; Views: 803; Downloads: 106
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Environmental victims : challenges for criminology and victimology in the 21st century
Matthew Hall, 2011, review article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper addresses the issue of ‘environmental victimisation’ (harm to individuals suffered as a result of environmentally damaging activities) and asks what role criminologists in general and vicitmologists in particular will have to play as our understanding of the consequence of climate change and other environmental degradation develops still further. Design/Methods/Approach: The paper draws on a social harms approach to argue for an extended definition of such victimisation, beyond restrictive legal categories. Findings: Clear parallels are demonstrated between the subjects of ‘green criminology’ with more ‘mainstream’ victimological and criminological developments (in the academy and in policy making circles internationally). This demonstrates the relevance of ‘environmental harm’ to existing and long-standing debates talking place in both areas, including those concerning the nature of victimisation and the responsibilities of the state to those victimised. The argument is illustrated through a discussion of various classifications of environmental harm, including harm to health, security, the economy, social and cultural impacts and the unequal distribution of such impacts around the world and between different socioeconomic groups. Practical implications: The implications of the paper are that a great deal more research needs to be carried out by criminologists and victimologists on the subject of ‘environmental; harm’, and indeed these scholars are likely to be increasingly approached for views/data on this issue in the coming years. Such developments therefore need to be recognised by funding bodies, Universities and so on.
Keywords: environmental harm, critical criminology, victimisation, victimology, green crime
Published in DKUM: 12.05.2020; Views: 765; Downloads: 52
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The drug market intervention approach to overt drug markets
Edmund F. McGarrell, Nicholas Corsaro, Rodney K. Brunson, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this research was to assess the impact of a strategic intervention intended to eliminate overt drug markets and their associated crime and disorder and to improve relationships between the police and local neighborhood residents. Design/Methods/Approach: The study included a process assessment of the nature of the intervention as well as an impact assessment based on trends in crime, calls-for-police-service and interviews with residents. The research occurred in the U.S. and examined a pilot program in High Point, North Carolina and subsequent implementation in Rockford, Illinois and Nashville, Tennessee. Findings: The paper presents a description of the intervention. Additionally, outcome data indicate that the intervention was related to reductions in crime and calls-forpolice service in all three communities. Raw declines were observed for violent, property and drug offenses with the declines consistently being statistically significant for drug offenses. Additionally, local residents described improved quality of neighborhood life and increased satisfaction with the police. Research limitations/implications: The results suggest that the so-called High Point Drug Market Intervention holds significant promise for addressing overt drug markets. However, the analysis is limited in that the comparison group is the citywide trend in crime as opposed to true comparison sites. Future studies utilizing quasi-experimental or experimental designs are needed to rule out potential rival explanations. Practical implications: The Drug Market Intervention appears to be a promising practice offering police officials a strategy for longer term impact on neighborhood safety and quality of life than has been the case with traditional crackdowns on drug markets. Originality/Value: This paper offers the evaluation results from three sites on a drug market intervention that has gained considerable attention, at least within the U.S.
Keywords: drug crime, drug markets, evaluation
Published in DKUM: 12.05.2020; Views: 563; Downloads: 21
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Perception of cyber crime in Slovenia
Maja Dimc, Bojan Dobovšek, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of the pilot research regarding the perception of cybercrime in Slovenia. Design/Methods/Approach: The study focused on the research of the perception of cybercrime among the general public, as well as the members of the law enforcement agencies. Findings: The development of information and communication technologies critically influences all aspects of our lives, and consequently the characteristics of crime have adapted to the new form of operation in the virtual world. Cybercrime is the new way of breaking the law, and in order to implement successful preventive strategies it is of crucial importance to understand the perception of the general public, as well as the perception of the members of law enforcement agencies regarding cybercrime. The pilot study was performed on a smaller group of individuals (approximately half were the representatives of the general public, while the rest were the representatives of law enforcement agencies) in the form of in-depth interviews. The findings of the pilot research were alarming, since the majority of the interviewees greatly differentiate between certain forms of crime performed in the cyberspace as opposed to the same form of crime performed in real life i.e. the act of stealing, piracy in particular, is unacceptable in the real world and at the same time only natural in the virtual world. Furthermore, the pilot research displayed serious lack of awareness regarding different forms of cybercrime among the general public, as well as the members of law enforcement agencies, and consequently also poor understanding of legislation pertinent to cybercrime. Based on the results of the pilot research it is evident that it is of crucial importance to raise the awareness and understanding among the general public and increase the knowledge of the members of law enforcement agencies regarding cybercrime and its consequences in our everyday life. Research limitations/implications: The results are not generalizable due to the small group of interviewees. Consequently, future research will include a larger group of interviewees and will combine both in-depth interviews as well as questionnaires. Practical implications: The article represents a useful source of information for individuals working in this field as well as the general public. Furthermore, it represents the basis for further research of the field. Originality/Value: The article deals with the issue of the perception of cybercrime in Slovenia and exposes the critical issues related to the difference in the perception of a similar act of crime in the real life as opposed to the virtual world.
Keywords: computer-related crime, cybercrime, information and communication technologies, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 12.05.2020; Views: 878; Downloads: 46
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Crime as a business, business as a crime
Josip Kregar, Antonija Petričušić, 2010, review article

Abstract: Purpose: This paper endorses the claim that in transitional societies the line between business and crime is elusive because weak states foster a legal order that is formalistic, bureaucratic, politically biased and prone to corruption. Design/Methods/Approach: Three elements are discussed in the paper. First, the paper briefly analyses legal and institutional state of affairs in transitional Western Balkans societies that condone organised crime. Secondly, it investigates the phenomenology of the (corruptive) crime behaviour, explaining how it managed to integrate into society in the context of a weak state. Thirdly, the paper investigates why state policies and measures fail to fight crime as the business. In this part the paper contests a traditional definition of criminal organisation as a hierarchical one, claiming that mafias are not organizations in a traditional sense. Findings: The paper emphasizes that the fight against organised crime is not just a fight against individuals or individual criminal behaviour; but a fight to increase the efficiency of the government. The paper furthermore asserts that better understand of the organised crime problem can occur only if its fighting and addressing happens from the point of view of a good governance. Namely, the precondition to fight against organised crime or parallel activity requires increased efficiency and capacity of governmental institutions. Originality/Value: This paper adds to the academic and practical understanding of the organised crime in the post-transitional settings. Apart from being instructive and up-todated source of information for the regional setting it deals with, the paper sheds a new light on understanding of organised crime.
Keywords: organised crime, organisation, transition, money laundering, corruption, good governance, South-Eastern Europe
Published in DKUM: 12.05.2020; Views: 646; Downloads: 59
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Organised crime (threat) as a policy challenge : a tautology
P. C. van Duyne, 2010, review article

Abstract: Purpose: To analyse some of the key concepts and beliefs related to the risk of organised crime and compare it to the empirical state of affairs, particularly related to criminal finances. Design/Methods/Approach: Analysis of criminal files and databases. Findings: In the past two decades, since the fall of the Berlin Wall, ‘organised crime’ has been proclaimed a threat to society. However, who is threatening with what, while the phenomenon (if there is anything like that) is ill defined? It looks like policy makers are trapped in a kind of tautology, unless there is also a non-threatening organised crime. The threat assessments, which are composed by national governments and Europol are plagued by fuzzy concepts about threats, risks and risk formula which share that characteristic. The formula and concepts used thus far appear to have resisted operationalisation due to the lack of proper definitions to be usefully applied. Inherent to these unsolved problems is the causality issue. Who causes what harm? To approximate an answer to this question the author takes the laundering of crime-money as a proxy variable. What harm does laundering do to the financial system, thereby exerting a threat. Inspection of the scarce data shows that this threat cannot be substantiated, either to the real estate (usually considered menaced) or the financial system (per definition threatened). Either the problem is not big at all or the authorities have not taken their responsibility to provide a proper knowledge basis. The author pleads to break out of this tautological threat rhetoric and to replace this by a proper analysis and a responsible methodology. Research limitations/implications: The data are limited to what has come to light during criminal investigations. However, they are not contested. Practical implications: The research made plainly clear that claims about the risk of crime-money are not substantiated by empirical facts Originality/Value: This kind of research has not been carried out thus far.
Keywords: organised transnational crime, laundering, risk
Published in DKUM: 12.05.2020; Views: 515; Downloads: 40
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Public and private policing of financial crimes : the struggle for co-ordination
Michael Levi, 2010, review article

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of doing this is to move our attention, both theoretically and empirically, away from looking solely at the police as deliverers of “policing” and more in the direction of the web of police, non-police agencies (like financial regulators and departmental investigators in the UK), global and local private interveners (like payment card systems, banks, and insurance companies). Design/Methods/Approach: Interviews with high officials and operational public and private sector personnel, principally in the UK but also in continental Europe, North America and Australasia. Findings: This paper deals with the evolving shape of the control of financial crimes, especially frauds. Most policing activity in the area of UK public sector fraud is undertaken not by the police but by departmental investigators; most frauds against business come to the attention of the police via corporate actors; while frauds against the public may be reported direct, or via intermediaries like credit card issuers. It is difficult for public sector bodies to escape their narrow departmental orientations in developing “joint working” in public-public partnerships. Publicprivate partnerships have been developing rapidly in dealing with volume frauds such as payment card and insurance frauds, but less rapidly in more elite whitecollar crime areas such as management fraud, which are less predictable and where elites resist accountability. Practical implications: It is misconceived to look only at public police activity when assessing the scope and impact of fraud control. The research shows that considerable efforts are made by the police and different parts of the public and the private sector in the UK to harmonise intelligence, but scarcity of investigative resources means that both the private and public sectors are frustrated in getting action on their intelligence product.
Keywords: fraud, white-collar crime, economic crime, public-private partnerships, policing
Published in DKUM: 12.05.2020; Views: 471; Downloads: 31
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