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11.
Estimating marginal infrastructure cost in new infrastructure charging model
Marjan Sternad, Timotej Jagrič, Bojan Rosi, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Competitiveness of rail transport compared to road transport has been reducing, especially on regional railway lines. To improve this situation, the EU adopted various directives and regulations to increase efficiency of railway undertakings. In this paper we present an organizational and economic model based on European policies for local railway system. The organizational model is based on multi-criteria decision analysis. For the economic model we used an econometric approach to estimate the cost function and marginal costs in regional lines, which constitute the basis for railway charges. By implementing such an organizational model, the functioning of the railway network will improve. The research found that a change in the existing model of calculating costs of infrastructure use would bring economic effects for the railway infrastructure manager and the providers of transport. Using the proposed model we also found that it is reasonable to increase the flow of goods on unused regional railway lines because the railway infrastructure maintenance costs are inelastic with regard to transported gross tons.
Ključne besede: econometrics, charging model, maintenance cost, marginal costs, railway infrastructure, railway traffic, logistics, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 09.08.2017; Ogledov: 637; Prenosov: 278
.pdf Celotno besedilo (567,64 KB)
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12.
Religious capital and religious rewards
Sergej Flere, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Religious life is studied by way suggested by the rational choice theory and the religious capital theory. The basic contentions of the theory on the nature of religious life having to do with an exchange upon a religious market, by firms offering compensators and rewards, and consumers, is considered. In the empirical analysis, it was validated that the independent (religious capital) and dependent (religious rewards of two types) were empirically separate constructs. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data indicated a very strong association between religious capital and institutional and ritual experience rewards within religious life, at a cross-cultural analysis, including Bosnian Muslims, Serbian Orthodox, Slovenian Catholics and US Protestants. The association was confirmed as robust at regression inspection with religious socialization. This extends further support for the empirical validity these novel theories of religious life and extensions of economic analysis into religious life.
Ključne besede: religious capital, economics of religious life, rational choice, religious costs, religious rewards
Objavljeno: 03.08.2017; Ogledov: 407; Prenosov: 91
.pdf Celotno besedilo (280,07 KB)
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13.
Diagonal cumulation of origin as the EU's institutional incentive mechanism for promoting international trade and business
Milan Jurše, Klavdij Logožar, Romana Korez-Vide, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this paper we explore the effects of a diagonal cumulation of origin as the EU's Common Commercial Policy (CCP) incentive mechanism that affects the intraregional trade and transaction cost structure of firms engaged in cross-border business operation. The research explores how firms should frame their cross-border physical flows of goods and the configuration of their value-adding processes for taking advantage of diagonal cumulation of origin. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth case study of effects of the 'SAP+ diagonal cumulation of origin' on changes in the transaction cost structure of a selected Slovenian firm operating within the household-appliance sector in one of the Western Balkan Countries. Based on eligibility of local subsidiary for using origin of goods in its import/exporttransactions the cost calculations were made for its products and then three different business scenarios were developed for showing the effects of the mechanism on transaction cost changes of a firm. The paper concludes that, at the conceptual level, the mechanism of diagonal cumulation of origin may serve as an effective institutional cross-border trade-promoting tool.
Ključne besede: international business, institutional incentive mechanism, diagonal cumulation of origin, European Union, EU, transaction costs, Western Balkan Countries
Objavljeno: 17.07.2017; Ogledov: 500; Prenosov: 124
.pdf Celotno besedilo (277,35 KB)
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14.
Mixed-integer nonlinear programming based optimal time scheduling of construction projects under nonconvex costs
Rok Cajzek, Uroš Klanšek, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Optimal project scheduling under nonconvex time-cost relations represents a challenging problem in construction management. The nonconvex time-cost relations may appear in a construction project when several different duration options are available for its activities due to alternative technological processes enabled for their realization or wide accessibility of production resources. The source of nonconvexity of the project scheduling optimization problem can also be the project penalty- or bonus-duration relations arranged within the construction contract. The aim of this paper is to present the mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) based optimal time scheduling of construction projects under nonconvex costs. For this purpose, the MINLP model was developed and applied. A numerical example from literature and an example of construction project time-cost trade-off analysis under practical nonconvex penalty function are given in the paper to demonstrate advantages of MINLP optimization. The example from literature first presented the capability of the MINLP approach to obtain the optimal solution for difficult, highly combinatorial nonconvex discrete project scheduling problem. Thereupon, the following example revealed that the optimal project time-cost curve may take very nonuniform shape on account of discrete nature of activity direct cost options and nonconvex relation between project duration and total cost. In this way, the presented study intends to provide practitioners with new information from the field of optimization techniques for project scheduling as well as an alternative view on performance of total cost when project duration is changed.
Ključne besede: extreme environments, construction management, discrete optimization, mixed-integer nonlinear programming, nonconvex costs, time scheduling
Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 646; Prenosov: 302
.pdf Celotno besedilo (807,33 KB)
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15.
Evaluating costs of vehicle use in military logistics
Leon Grašič, Tone Lerher, Bojan Rosi, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The article presents an analytical model of evaluating costs of vehicle use in military logistics adapted to specific construction demands and characteristics of military vehicles, profile (conditions and manner) of use and technological procedures of preventive and remedial maintenance of military vehicles. The proposed model of evaluation enables an equivalent comparison of total costs in advance of use of similar vehicles made by different manufacturers throughout the entire operating period (their service life). Initial (entry) and boundary conditions are clearly defined within the proposed model. The implementation of the analytical model ensures the evaluation and planning of maintenance costs and costs of direct vehicle use in military logistics already at the point of purchasing new vehicles, as well as evaluation of optimal operating period (service life) of vehicles, which leads to increased reliability and availability, and, consequently, to more effective use of military vehicles.
Ključne besede: analytical model, evaluating costs, vehicle use, military vehicles, effective use, military logistics
Objavljeno: 11.07.2017; Ogledov: 687; Prenosov: 277
.pdf Celotno besedilo (514,57 KB)
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16.
Activity-based management of logistic costs in a manufacturing company
Julijana Krajnc, Klavdij Logožar, Bojana Korošec, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Both the transparent reporting of logistics costs and the related accounting of their cost drivers present a significant factor for the successful management of material flows and the related logistics activities in production companies. These costs, which are mainly reported as part of overhead (indirect) costs in such companies, usually remain hidden or are not explicitly visible when the traditional method of accounting is applied. The aim of this research is to create a model of activity-based accounting of logistics costs in a production company, and to test its efficiency in the disclosure of logistics costs compared with traditional cost accounting. The application of the model in a production company shows that an activity based approach discloses as much as 108% more logistics costs at the level of a group of products than the traditional cost accounting approach. Further, detailed information on logistics costs obtained in this way enables their more efficient management.
Ključne besede: logistic costs, activity-based costing, cost allocation, cost visibility, cost management
Objavljeno: 31.05.2017; Ogledov: 679; Prenosov: 103
.pdf Celotno besedilo (449,77 KB)
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17.
Reduction of the mean hedging transaction costs
Miklavž Mastinšek, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Transaction costs of derivative hedging appear in financial markets. This paper considers the problem of delta hedging and the reduction of expected proportional transaction costs. In the literature the expected approximate proportional transaction costs are customarily estimated by the gamma term, usually the largest term of the associated series expansion. However, when options are to expire in a month or few weeks, other terms may become even larger so that more precise estimates are needed. In this paper, different higher-order estimates of proportional transaction costs are analyzed. The problem of the reduction of expected transaction costs is considered. As a result, a suitably adjusted delta is given, for which the expected approximate proportional transaction costs can be reduced. The order of the mean and the variance of the hedging error can be preserved. Several examples are provided.
Ključne besede: derivatives, delta hedging, transaction costs, hedging error
Objavljeno: 03.04.2017; Ogledov: 470; Prenosov: 98
.pdf Celotno besedilo (662,21 KB)
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18.
A feasibility study of fruit brandy production
Jernej Turk, Črtomir Rozman, 2002, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Fruit brandy production is considered as one of the very possibilities for home fruit processing. When considering to set up new farm business, the information regarding the economic feasibility o9f individual agricultural households should be obteinded by each farm entrepreneur. The simulation cost model for Slovene brandy production on the fruit farms is developed in this study. The break-even price and break-even yield were calculated for different kinds of fruit brandy. The sensitivity analysis was simultaneously conducted in order to determine the impact of different prices on the net financial result gained. The results show that home fruit brandy production could be economically feasible. The highest financial result was achived with plum brandy production, followed by pear brandy production and peach brandy production. Several aspects of tax legislation concerning the brandy production are also discussed here.
Ključne besede: fruit production, brandy, costs, simulation model
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 941; Prenosov: 34
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19.
SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT
Eva Lorenčič, 2013, diplomsko delo

Opis: Unemployment negatively affects the government budget and inflicts costs on the unemployed individuals as well as on the society as a whole in many ways. The direct costs of unemployment for the state budget arise due to the benefits paid out to the unemployed, and due to foregone direct and indirect taxes. On the level of an individual, nonmonetary costs are a multiple of the monetary ones, which indicates that employment plays a central role in a person’s well-being. Unemployment has a spill-over effect on the society as a whole and affects not only the unemployed, but also the employed population, particularly in the areas experiencing high unemployment rates. We take the case study of Germany, the country often used as a quintessence of how to overcome the problem of massive unemployment. Before the four Hartz reforms, which were implemented in years 2003, 2004 and 2005, Germany was characterized as the »sick man of Europe« owing to its exploding levels of unemployment, dysfunctional labor market, unsustainable social budget, and rising public debt. As the reforms were put into force, the situation in the German labor market underwent a 360° turnaround and became portrayed as the »German economic miracle«. The true effects of the reforms fully transpired in the economic and financial crisis of 2008/2009, when most countries experienced escalating unemployment rates, while Germany kept them at bay. Studies show that flexible working-time arrangements and short-time work have played a major role in inhibiting lay-offs in German companies during the recent crisis, and hence in preventing a spike in unemployment rates, which we use as one of the points that validate our Model of employment. The government subsidies made it possible for companies to reduce the working hours of their employees instead of laying them off. An important feature of the German labor market is a comparatively high percentage of part-time workers (around 25% in years 2006–2011), which also explains the low unemployment rates Germany has been recording since the reforms were introduced. The reforms cut the amount and duration of unemployment benefits, which gave the unemployed more incentives to find a job. A negative aspect of the reform may be an increased divide between the core work force and the marginal workers, which intensifies social differences and is currently on the agenda of German politics. Also some researches stress the importance of social cohesion and that the risks and opportunities in the labor market should be more evenly distributed. In the accompanying explanations to the Model of employment, some of the successful measures of Germany’s Hartz reforms may be spotted, while at the same time we avoid the »mistakes« of these reforms, thus making sure that social differences among people would narrow down upon the real-life implementation of the Model. When the number of job vacancies sharply exceeds the number of unemployed, and when there are poor prospects of new job openings in the near future, the only viable solution to the problem of unemployment is to reduce the working hours of the existing employees. The Model of employment that we develop represents a possible solution to the problem of unemployment and thus addresses the need to reduce the costs of unemployment to the unemployed individual, to the state budget, and to the society as a whole. The crux of the Model is a re-distribution of the total number of workplaces and total annual working hours among the »new actively employed population«, which comprises all persons having the potential to become or stay employed or self-employed in a given year. The model allows for a flexible arrangement of working hours – from four and up to eight hours per employee per day. Our solution will release the working hours, make them available to the currently unemployed, and hence ensure a more equitable distribution of income and work load amongst the population. In addition, as the workers will be less tired and stressed-out, their productivity will in
Ključne besede: unemployment, labor force, labor market, part-time employment, full-time employment, labor market flexibility, costs of unemployment, Hartz reforms
Objavljeno: 30.08.2013; Ogledov: 1674; Prenosov: 146
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,23 MB)

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