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Medicine between ethics and scientific progress
Joseph Straus, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The progress of medicine is heavily dependent on the progress of science and technology, which in turn depend on costly and risky investment in research and development. In this contribution, based on some concrete examples, new scientific achievements are presented as basis of modern medicine and source of ethical concerns. Addressed are also the role of scientists in coping with safety in ethical concerns as regards hazards of new technologies, costs of R&D investment in drug development and the role of patents in this context. In some detail the legal situation existing at an international and European level as regards exclusions from patentability based on reasons of ethics and morals is presented. A critical appraisal of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union as regards patentability of embryonic stem cells is offered.
Ključne besede: ethics, scientific progress, costs of R&D, role of patents, CJEU case law
Objavljeno: 08.10.2018; Ogledov: 221; Prenosov: 40
.pdf Celotno besedilo (840,59 KB)
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Material and energy balance in the planning of production costs
Manuela Ingaldi, Dorota Klimecka-Tatar, 2016, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Ključne besede: material, energy, manufacturing system model, production costs, planning
Objavljeno: 11.05.2018; Ogledov: 638; Prenosov: 65
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,03 MB)
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Material flow cost accounting
Manuela Ingaldi, Dorota Klimecka-Tatar, 2016, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Ključne besede: material costs, material efficiency, material flow, material flow cost accounting, MFCA
Objavljeno: 11.05.2018; Ogledov: 1350; Prenosov: 55
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,29 MB)
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Thinking in costs and revenues – calculating prices and controlling costs
Edeltraud Günther, Daria Meyr, 2016, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Opis: In contrast to the investment calculation, that has a project-related, cross-period view the cost accounting refers to individual time slices (meaning usually month, quarter or year ) and is more position oriented, respectively division oriented.
Ključne besede: costs, revenues, calculation, controlling, ecology
Objavljeno: 11.05.2018; Ogledov: 386; Prenosov: 49
.pdf Celotno besedilo (815,63 KB)
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Transport cost function
Marjan Sternad, 2016, samostojni znanstveni sestavek ali poglavje v monografski publikaciji

Ključne besede: transport costs, railway transport, rail lines, railway market, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 09.05.2018; Ogledov: 477; Prenosov: 86
.pdf Celotno besedilo (638,74 KB)
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Use of ergonomic principles in manual order picking systems
Nina Labus, Brigita Gajšek, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Successful companies are continually striving to streamline costs and optimize processes, enabling them to grow progress, develop and ensure competitiveness on the market. A large part of the costs arises in warehouses, where up to 55% of total costs are generated by order- picking, which makes it important and interesting in terms of research. The paper explores "picker to part" order- picking concept, which enables flexible work and is the optimal choice for most companies. The concept is associated with a high level of work- related injuries and work -related illnesses. Work requires physical efforts resulting from handling heavy goods, performing repetitive movements and using manipulative means. Hum an as the main actor of the concept affects the costs caused by picking and the quality of work done, which depends on technological support, physically and psychologically capable and motivated people. Due to the high costs of service, the focus on time planning and productivity increases. Contrary, the lack of attention is paid to the working conditions and the health status of the pickers. To overcome this gab, a review of scientific and professional literature on ergonomic principles in picking concept "picker to part" was carried out, followed by a quantitative survey of ergonomic properties in warehousing activities. Results revealed that more than 60% of the surveyed order-pickers associate problems with health with the characteristics of work, about 24% of them associate health problems with the use of a particular means of transport, and all agree that provided measures to reduce physical effort and greater support of technologies influence on increased speed of work and better health status of order-pickers.
Ključne besede: injuries, picker-to-part, ergonomics, picking, productivity, costs
Objavljeno: 25.04.2018; Ogledov: 559; Prenosov: 278
.pdf Celotno besedilo (344,50 KB)
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The costs of container transport flow between Far East and Serbia using different liner shipping services
Vladislav Rajkovič, Nenad Đ. Zrnić, Đorđe Stakić, Borut Mahnič, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Liner shipping is the most efficient mode of transport for goods. International liner shipping is a sophisticated network of regularly scheduled services that transports goods from anywhere in the world to anywhere in the world at low cost and with greater energy efficiency than any other form of international transportation. Liner shipping connects countries, markets, businesses and people, allowing them to buy and sell goods on a scale not previously possible. Today, the liner shipping industry transports goods representing approximately one-third of the total value of global trade. Ocean shipping contributes significantly to international stability and security. Considering the large and constant struggle in the market in terms of competitive pricing of products, a very important and indispensable role represents the container transport with a clear task to define the final price of the product. This paper analyzes the costs of container transport flow between Far East and Serbia, using different liner shipping services, observing the six world’s largest container operators (Maersk Line, Mediterranean Shipping Company, CMA CGM, Evergreen Line, China Ocean Shipping Company and Hapag-Lloyd) and inland (truck-rail-river) transport corridors. These corridors include distance between selected Mediterranean ports (Koper, Rijeka, Bar, Thessaloniki, Constanta) and Serbia. As a result, in this paper is considered a mathematical model that provides a comparative analysis of transportation costs on the different routes. It is observed already existing transport routes and it is also given hypothetical review to the development of new transport routes. The main goal of this research is to provide an optimal route with lowest transportation cost during container transport. Selection of the best route in the intermodal network is a very difficult and complex task. The costs in all modes of transport and the quality of their services are not constant parameters and changes depending on a number of conditions and characteristics. The analysis of this model within combined maritime and land-based networks would prove helpful for the study of logistics chains, the hinterland-foreland continuum, intermodal transport systems, and market competitiveness.
Ključne besede: costs, container transport, liner shipping, mathematical model
Objavljeno: 17.11.2017; Ogledov: 992; Prenosov: 277
.pdf Celotno besedilo (568,57 KB)
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Estimating truck operating costs for domestic trips
Eleftherios Sdoukopoulos, Maria Boile, Afroditi Anagnostopoulou, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The transport sector represents a vital component of national economies and has significant impacts on productivity and social welfare. In 2012, the transport sector in Europe was estimated to account for 3.7% of the European Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 5.1% for employment. Road transport proves to be the predominant mode for moving goods within Europe holding a share of approximately 45.8% in 2012 (in ton-kms). In Greece, the share of road freight transport is significantly higher (98%) indicating the importance of this sector for the Greek economy. To this end and considering the existing needs of road freight transport operators in Greece, the objective of this research is to establish an analytical and documented basis for estimating the operating cost of a truck on specific urban or national freight transport routes. To achieve this goal, an extended literature review has been conducted resulting in the identification of the main components comprising the total truck operating cost, which were then updated and validated through a series of personal interviews with selected road freight transport professionals. An excel-based application tool was also developed in order to facilitate operating cost estimates for different cases, through selection of the proper values of the relevant parameters. The resulting tool was used to analyse four test cases, which demonstrate the tool’s usability and applicability. Results from this analysis have been also validated by industry experts and they reflect real-world transport scenarios.
Ključne besede: cost calculation tool, road freight transport, truck operating costs
Objavljeno: 17.11.2017; Ogledov: 403; Prenosov: 93
.pdf Celotno besedilo (339,45 KB)
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Advantages and disadvantages of the single European patent
Klara Glazer, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In February 2013, the European Union successfully completed more than 30 years of negotiations and formally signed an agreement establishing a single European patent. The agreement brought about a more competitive patent law compared with that in the United States and Japan. The agreement resulted in a number of advantages, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises, such as the reduction of costs by as much as 80%, simplification of procedures, and the adoption of the Unified Patent Court. With the new unitary patent, intellectual property will grow in importance. Yet experts warn that the new patent results in new forms of unwanted behavior, such as forum shopping and the emergence of patent trolls. This study presents both sides-the pros and cons-to predict the effects on business and cover the widest possible range of experts, providing their views on the topic.
Ključne besede: Single European patent, single patent court, reduce costs, patent trolls, simplified procedures, forum shopping, European Union
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 585; Prenosov: 88
.pdf Celotno besedilo (312,36 KB)
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