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Supplementary material for paper Comparison of the evolution of the COVID-19 disease between Romania and Italy
Ciprian Chiruţa, Emilian Bulgariu, Jurij Avsec, Brigita Ferčec, Matej Mencinger, 2020, complete scientific database or corpus

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic evolution, time dependent SIR model, coronavirus
Published: 23.12.2020; Views: 241; Downloads: 582
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Comparison of the evolution of the COVID-19 disease between Romania and Italy
Ciprian Chiruţa, Emilian Bulgariu, Jurij Avsec, Brigita Ferčec, Matej Mencinger, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: After the outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy, thousands of Romanian citizens who worked in Northern Italy, Spain or Germany returned to Romania. Based on the time-dependent susceptible–infected–recovered—SIR model, this paper compares the evolution of the COVID-19 disease between Romania and Italy, assuming that the parameter value of R0 in the time-dependent SIR model decreases to R1 < R0 after publicly announced restrictions by the government, and increases to a value of R2 < R1 when the restrictions are lifted. Among other things, we answer the questions about the date and extent of the second peak in Italy and Romania with respect to different values of R2 and the duration of the restrictions.
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic evolution, time dependent SIR model, coronavirus
Published: 22.12.2020; Views: 191; Downloads: 76
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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 on the quality of STEM higher education
Zorka Novak-Pintarič, Zdravko Kravanja, 2020, short scientific article

Abstract: Pandemic COVID-19 has forced universities around the world to go online virtually overnight. This has been a major challenge, especially for study programmes in STEM areas (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) where distance learning was not previously preferred. This was mainly due to a large proportion of the experimental laboratory work done by students, which could reach up to half of all contact hours. While the lectures were utilized practically immediately after lockdown using video conferencing systems, the implementation of the practical study contents posed a greater challenge. This paper presents specific adaptations for certain activities in the university education of chemical engineering that had to be implemented quickly, such as laboratory and computer exercises, students' final theses and dissertations, internships, knowledge examination and evaluation. We highlight the most critical activities and most urgent solutions that were initiated. Various measures taken against the spread of the coronavirus had to take into account many uncertainties about the duration of the pandemic to ensure that students acquire the desired competences and skills in time without being physically present in the laboratories. Particular attention is paid to examinations, especially calculus tests, which are difficult to apply remotely. First evaluations show that the adapted learning process has been carried out effectively, but the big unknown is how successfully the students will pass the exams and how the lessons will be conducted in next academic year.
Keywords: pandemic, higher education, COVID-19, coronavirus
Published: 16.12.2020; Views: 729; Downloads: 80
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Supplementary material for paper Early spread of COVID-19 in Romania: imported cases from Italy and human-to-human transmission networks
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, Jürgen Lerner, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: This individual-level dataset describes (a) the early spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and (b) the first human-to-human transmission networks, in Romania. Specifically, in the first set of data (a), we profile the first 147 cases referring to: whether an individual is an index case, place of residence, sex, age, probable citizenship, probable country and place of infection, arrival date to a Romanian county, COVID-19 confirmation date as well as the sources of information. Also, the second set of data (b) contains the first observed human-to-human COVID-19 transmission networks (attributes of the nodes and the direction of COVID-19 transmission, i.e. who infects whom). Networks embed 159 nodes and 203 transmission ties. Indirect identifiers are masked / de-identified.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, transmission networks, human mobility, migration, nosocomial infections
Published: 16.12.2020; Views: 152; Downloads: 39
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Early spread of COVID-19 in Romania: imported cases from Italy and human-to-human transmission networks
Marian-Gabriel Hâncean, Matjaž Perc, Jürgen Lerner, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: We describe the early spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the first human-to-human transmission networks, in Romania. We profiled the first 147 cases referring to sex, age, place of residence, probable country of infection, return day to Romania, COVID-19 confirmation date and the probable modes of COVID-19 transmissions. Also, we analysed human-to-human transmission networks and explored their structural features and time dynamics. In Romania, local cycles of transmission were preceded by imported cases, predominantly from Italy. We observed an average of 4.8 days (s.d. = 4.0) between the arrival to a Romanian county and COVID-19 confirmation. Furthermore, among the first 147 COVID-19 patients, 88 were imported cases (64 carriers from Italy), 54 were domestic cases, while for five cases the source of infection was unknown. The early human-to-human transmission networks illustrated a limited geographical dispersion, the presence of super-spreaders and the risk of COVID-19 nosocomial infections. COVID-19 occurred in Romania through case importation from Italy. The largest share of the Romanian diaspora is concentrated especially in the northern parts of Italy, heavily affected by COVID-19. Human mobility (including migration) accounts for the COVID-19 transmission and it should be given consideration while tailoring prevention measures.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, transmission networks, human mobility, migration, nosocomial infections
Published: 16.12.2020; Views: 153; Downloads: 57
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Supplementary material for paper Perceived threat of COVID-19 and future travel avoidance
Maja Turnšek, Boštjan Brumen, Marjetka Rangus, Mitja Gorenak, Janez Mekinc, Tanja Lešnik Štuhec, 2020, complete scientific database or corpus

Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, tourism, health threat perception, future travel avoidance, fear appeals
Published: 23.11.2020; Views: 14861; Downloads: 294
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Supplementary material for paper City size and the spreading of COVID-19 in Brazil
Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Andre S. Sunahara, Jack Sutton, Matjaž Perc, Quentin S. Hanley, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The current outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented example of how fast an infectious disease can spread around the globe (especially in urban areas) and the enormous impact it causes on public health and socio-economic activities. Despite the recent surge of investigations about different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic, we still know little about the effects of city size on the propagation of this disease in urban areas. Here we investigate how the number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 scale with the population of Brazilian cities. Our results indicate small towns are proportionally more affected by COVID-19 during the initial spread of the disease, such that the cumulative numbers of cases and deaths per capita initially decrease with population size. However, during the long-term course of the pandemic, this urban advantage vanishes and large cities start to exhibit higher incidence of cases and deaths, such that every 1% rise in population is associated with a 0.14% increase in the number of fatalities per capita after about four months since the first two daily deaths. We argue that these patterns may be related to the existence of proportionally more health infrastructure in the largest cities and a lower proportion of older adults in large urban areas. We also find the initial growth rate of cases and deaths to be higher in large cities; however, these growth rates tend to decrease in large cities and to increase in small ones over time.
Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, scaling, city size, epidemic, prediction
Published: 19.11.2020; Views: 217; Downloads: 67
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Could sex/gender differences in ACE2 expression in the lungs contribute to the large gender disparity in the morbidity and mortality of patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus?
Gregor Majdič, 2020, short scientific article

Abstract: COVID-19 morbidity and mortality have significant gender disparities, with higher prevalence and mortality in men. SARS-CoV-2 enters the lungs through the ACE2 enzyme, a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Although there are no data for the lung, the expressions of RAS components in other tissues are modulated by sex hormones, androgens, and estrogens. However, there are no data on sex-specific differences in ACE2 expression. If there is a sex difference in the expression of ACE2 in the lung, this could theoretically explain the gender disparity in COVID-19 disease. More importantly, although modulation of ACE2 will certainly not provide a cure for the COVID-19 disease, modulation of ACE2 by sex hormone modulators, if they affect the expression of ACE2, could potentially be developed into a supportive therapy for COVID-19 patients.
Keywords: lung, ACE2, COVID-19, coronavirus, sex difference, androgens
Published: 12.11.2020; Views: 118; Downloads: 102
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