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Chemical binding of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles onto oxidized cellulose
Olivera Šauperl, Mirjana Kostić, Jovana Milanovic, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze binding of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles onto cellulose via oxidized cellulose. The ability of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles to be adsorbed onto surfaces was determined by the use of the XPS spectroscopy which provided information about chemical composition of the fiber surface. On the other hand, the gravimetric method was also used by which the amount of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles bounded onto surface was calculated based on the difference in masses before and after functionalization. The most important was to study the influence of aldehyde groups on the stability of chitosan binding onto cellulose. Thus, desorption of chitosan/chitosan nanoparticles from the fiber surfaces was evaluated by the presence of total nitrogen (TN) in desorption bath as well as by polyelectrolyte titrations. Together with these two methods, desorption was evaluated also by gravimetric method, where the extent of desorption was evaluated on the basis of the differences in the masses of fibers before and after desorption. It is concluded that the chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles are more efficiently bounded onto oxidized cellulose in comparison with the non-oxidized (reference) ones. Despite the binding of the positively-charged amino groups with the negative groups of cellulose and consequently smaller amount of available/residual protonated amino groups that are responsible for bioactivity, such functionalized fibers are still specifically antimicrobial.
Keywords: cellulose, oxidized cellulose, oxidation, chitosan, chitosan nanoparticles, FTIR, XPS, antimicrobial functionalization
Published: 02.08.2017; Views: 684; Downloads: 378
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Synthesis comparison and characterization of chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles prepared with different methods
Gordana Hojnik Podrepšek, Željko Knez, Maja Leitgeb, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: In this study, magnetic maghemite nanoparticles were prepared with the coprecipitation method, due to its simplicity and productivity. Thereafter, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized with three different methods, the micro-emulsion process, the suspension cross-linking technique and the covalent binding. Subsequently, a comparison of the used methods was done using various analyses such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vibrating-sample magnetometry (VSM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The characterization results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated a successful binding of chitosan on the magnetic nanoparticles. SEM pictures showed that spherical structured particles with an increased particle size were obtained as the chitosan layer around the particles was increased. Considering that the magnetic-separation technique has the advantages of rapidity, high efficiency, cost-effectiveness and lack of negative effect on the biological activity, these carriers may be applied in enzyme immobilization.
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, chitosan, surface functionalization
Published: 23.03.2017; Views: 824; Downloads: 80
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4.
Antimicrobial medical textiles based on chitosan nanoparticles for gynaecological treatment
Tijana Ristić, 2014, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: The aim of this dissertation was to develop a novel medical tampon for alternative gynaecological treatment using chitosan nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent or as a drug delivery system. For this purpose viscose tampon band was used and functionalized with chitosan and trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles. A comprehensive of interactions between chitosan and cellulose as well as characterization of prepared materials were done. At the beginning, chitosan (CS) and trimethyl chitosan (TMC) solutions, as well as nanoparticles synthesised by ionic gelation were studied. Their characterization was focused on determining the charge and antimicrobial properties against common pathogenic microorganism. The influence of cationic charge on the inhibition of microbial growth was confirmed. Since CS and TMC solutions and nanoparticles dispersions exhibited antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus, a detailed investigation in chitosan’s antimicrobial mode of action was performed using a novel diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (D-NMR). D-NMR allowed the monitoring of intra- and extracellular water exchange from the cells indicating the membrane alteration and leakage of intracellular constituencies. Further, in order to study the adsorption phenomena and molecular interactions between CS/TMC (solution or nanoparticles) and cellulose material, model cellulose surfaces were used, and adsorption was studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. CS and TMC were favourably deposited onto cellulose model surface at higher ionic strength, higher pH values, i.e. factors causing lower solubility, where the presence of electrostatic interactions was negligible and non-electrostatic interactions were dominant. The knowledge gained from the model surfaces was extremely helpful in characterization of real systems, i.e. functionalized cellulose fibres and for understanding the obtained results. Immobilization of CS and TMC (in the form of solution and/or nanoparticles) onto cellulose viscose fibres was confirmed with several analytical methods. The attachment of chitosan onto fibres was reversible, as endorsed with desorption studies mimicking the conditions of vaginal usage. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties was performed using two different techniques, both revealing a high inhibition of the tested microorganism. In addition, Lactobacillus susceptibility testing has shown that chitosan-coated fibres do not have any negative influence on the resident microbiota. Assessment of in-vitro cytotoxicity demonstrated that samples do not cause a cytotoxic effect in direct contact. Additionally, model drug was incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles and subsequently attached onto fibres in order to create modern, vaginal drug delivery systems. Antimicrobial medical textiles investigated in the scope of this dissertation show the potential for their exploitation in gynaecological field as preventive or curative treatment without triggering any adverse effects for the user.
Keywords: chitosan, N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan, nanoparticles, antimicrobial activity, cellulose model films, regenerated cellulose fibres, diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, vaginal infections, drug delivery systems, cytotoxicity
Published: 13.02.2014; Views: 2503; Downloads: 111
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