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Heterogeneous aspirations promote cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game
Matjaž Perc, Zhen Wang, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: To be the fittest is central to proliferation in evolutionary games. Individuals thus adopt the strategies of better performing players in the hopeof successful reproduction. In structured populations the array of those that are eligible to act as strategy sources is bounded to the immediate neighbors of each individual. But which one of these strategy sources should potentially be copied? Previous research dealt with this question either by selecting the fittest or by selecting one player uniformly at random. Here we introduce a parameter that interpolates between these two extreme options. Setting equal to zero returns the random selection of the opponent, while positive favor the fitter players. In addition, we divide the population intotwo groups. Players from group select their opponents as dictated by the parameter , while players from group do so randomly irrespective of . We denote the fraction of players contained in groups and by and , respectively. The two parameters and allow us to analyze in detail how aspirations in the context of the prisoner's dilemma game influence the evolution of cooperation. We find that for sufficiently positive values of there exist a robust intermediate for which cooperation thrives best. The robustness of this observation is tested against different levels of uncertainty in the strategy adoption process and for different interaction networks. We also provide complete phase diagrams depicting the dependence of the impact of and for different values of , and contrast the validity of ourconclusions by means of an alternative model where individual aspiration levels are subject to evolution as well. Our study indicates that heterogeneity in aspirations may be key for the sustainability of cooperation in structured populations.
Keywords: evolutionary game theory, prisoner's dilemma, spatial games, aspirations, social systems, physics and society
Published in DKUM: 19.06.2017; Views: 1336; Downloads: 369
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Danube Region Entrepreneurship Observatory : Diversity and Potential
Polona Tominc, Miroslav Rebernik, Barbara Bradač Hojnik, Karin Širec, scientific monograph

Abstract: There is no doubt about the importance of multi-country studies of entrepreneurial activity in enabling the comparison and replication of research and generating meaningful contributions to scholarship, practice and policy. This international comparison perspective is especially important when processes in each single economy are analysed against the broader global, European or regional environment. Since entrepreneurship is a complex social phenomenon, several dependencies can be understood only with comprehensive research that includes continuous positioning of national entrepreneurship in the European and global perspectives. Within Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) it is possible to compare data for more than 100 countries not only in the field of early-stage entrepreneurial activity but also in areas such as general attitudes of the adult population towards entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, etc. In this scientific monograph publication, we analyse the entrepreneurial profiles of Danube region countries, entrepreneurial intentions in the region and investigate the competition and aspirations of early-stage entrepreneurs in these countries.
Keywords: enterprises, entrepreneurship, business environment, characteristics, activities, economic development, human capital, competitivity, international comparisons, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Danube Region, Entrepreneurial Intentions, Entrepreneurial Growth Aspirations
Published in DKUM: 18.01.2017; Views: 2064; Downloads: 147
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