Opis: Provisional measures can be of utmost importance to creditors especially in relationships with a cross-border element. The Regulation 1215/2012 is the legal source that provides rules regarding the jurisdiction to issue a provisional measure but also offers imperfect provisions regarding the recognition and enforcement of foreign provisional measures issued in other Member States of the European Union. Due to the inadequate regulation, CJEU case law has played an important role, but nevertheless the article finds and opens new questions that have not yet been answered.Ključne besede: Regulation 44/2001, Regulation 1215/2012, provisional measure, jurisdiction, recognition, enforcement, arbitration clause, real connecting linkObjavljeno: 15.01.2021; Ogledov: 147; Prenosov: 0
Opis: Unilateral arbitration clauses are clauses that provide one party with an option to choose between either arbitral or court proceedings. The other party does not have such choice, but its dispute resolution mechanism is predetermined from the outset. For that exact reason, the question is raised whether such clauses are problematic. This question stems from the proposition that there is inherent inequality between the parties arising out of the nature of such agreement. Especially problematic aspect of inequality is highlighted when the disadvantaged party is not granted any other contractional benefit in return.
Interpretation regarding as to what is breaching the principle of equal treatment and at the same time possibly public policy of a relevant country differs throughout different jurisdictions. Highest regard must be given to interpretations of countries of the seat of arbitration or the countries where the final award is to be recognised and enforced. This is due to the fact that if the clause is considered contrary to public policy of these countries there is risk of award being set aside or of the refusal of recognition and enforcement of the award. However, even in the event that consequences are not as grave the risk remains that such arbitration agreement will not be respected its entirety.
Thus, the utilisation of unilateral arbitration clauses is clouded by uncertainty. The uncertainty exists specifically in regard to the disadvantaged party as until the procedure is initiated, that party will not be able to anticipate what type of proceeding it will be subjected to. Further, there is uncertainty from the perspective of both parties as the concerns regarding validity and enforcement are ever present. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for parties to draft unilateral arbitration agreements with absolute precision and with due regard to the possible obstacles.Ključne besede: international commercial arbitration, international investment arbitration, arbitration clause, unilateral arbitration clause, party equality, enforceabilityObjavljeno: 11.11.2020; Ogledov: 565; Prenosov: 83 Celotno besedilo (536,03 KB)