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Advancements in data analysis for the work-sampling method
Borut Buchmeister, Nataša Vujica-Herzog, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The work-sampling method makes it possible to gain valuable insights into what is happening in production systems. Work sampling is a process used to estimate the proportion of shift time that workers (or machines) spend on different activities (within productive work or losses). It is estimated based on enough random observations of activities over a selected period. When workplace operations do not have short cycle times or high repetition rates, the use of such a statistical technique is necessary because the labor sampling data can provide information that can be used to set standards. The work-sampling procedure is well standardized, but additional contributions are possible when evaluating the observations. In this paper, we present our contribution to improving the decision-making process based on work-sampling data. We introduce a correlation comparison of the measured hourly shares of all activities in pairs to check whether there are mutual connections or to uncover hidden connections between activities. The results allow for easier decision-making (conclusions) regarding the influence of the selected activities on the triggering of the others. With the additional calculation method, we can uncover behavioral patterns that would have been overlooked with the basic method. This leads to improved efficiency and productivity of the production system.
Ključne besede: work sampling, observations, analysis, proportions, correlations, interdependence between activities
Objavljeno v DKUM: 09.05.2024; Ogledov: 63; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,19 MB)
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Sarcopenia parameters in active older adults : an eight-year longitudinal study
Kaja Teraž, Uroš Marušič, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Primož Pori, Bruno Grassi, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Pietro Enrico Di Prampero, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Gianni Biolo, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background Sarcopenia is a common skeletal muscle syndrome that is common in older adults but can be mitigated by adequate and regular physical activity. The development and severity of sarcopenia is favored by several factors, the most influential of which are a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate changes in sarcopenia parameters, based on the EWGSOP2 definition in a population of active older adults after eight years. It was hypothesized that selected active older adults would perform better on sarcopenia tests than the average population. Methods The 52 active older adults (22 men and 30 women, mean age: 68.4±5.6 years at the time of their first evaluation) participated in the study at two time points eight-years apart. Three sarcopenia parameters were assessed at both time points: Muscle strength (handgrip test), skeletal muscle mass index, and physical performance (gait speed), these parameters were used to diagnose sarcop0enia according to the EWGSOP2 definition. Additional motor tests were also performed at follow-up measurements to assess participants’ overall fitness. Participants self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior using General Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up measurements. Results In the first measurements we did not detect signs of sarcopenia in any individual, but after 8 years, we detected signs of sarcopenia in 7 participants. After eight years, we detected decline in ; muscle strength (-10.2%; p<.001), muscle mass index (-5.4%; p<.001), and physical performance measured with gait speed (-28.6%; p<.001). Similarly, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior declined, too (-25.0%; p=.030 and −48.5%; p<.001, respectively). Conclusions Despite expected lower scores on tests of sarcopenia parameters due to age-related decline, participants performed better on motor tests than reported in similar studies. Nevertheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia was consistent with most of the published literature. Trial registration The clinical trial protocol was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04899531
Ključne besede: elderly, physical activities, sedentary behavior, skeletal muscle disorder, sarcopenia
Objavljeno v DKUM: 25.03.2024; Ogledov: 118; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,47 MB)
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Factors affecting tourism activity selection among silver hair tourists
Mihaela Kežman, Jana Goriup, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Demographic changes are visible in many areas of life, including tourism. Silver hair tourism is on the rise and this target group is becoming an increasingly important segment of the tourism market. The market for silver hair tourists is growing. They have high purchasing power, relatively higher than younger groups. Therefore, tourism needs to respond to new demographic challenges in society, such as population aging and active longevity, with new types and forms of tourism. The travel experience of silver hair tourists also has a significant impact on the quality and satisfaction of life in general. In many ways it adds value in the life of elderly adults, in the field of well-being, gaining new experiences, learning, expanding the social network, improving health and much more. Therefore, knowing the demographic characteristics of silver hair tourists is all the more important and necessary for the creation of good tourist offers. Within this paper we have conducted a survey among silver hair tourists aged between 65 and 75 years inclusive. Data was collected in Multigenerational Centres across Slovenia with a paper-pencil survey. We obtained 405 valid questionnaires. In the analysis of empirical data, we looked for statistically significant differences in five socio-demographic and economic variables. We found statistically significant differences between men and women and between the age groups of silver hair tourists regarding the choice of tourism activities. In terms of demographic factors such as education, income and assessment of health status, we find a connection between tourism activities and demography. Travel raises the quality of life of ‘silver hair tourists,’ so it is important to offer them programs that will be more tailored to them. This article provides some answers that can help us create programmes like that.
Ključne besede: silver hair tourists, tourist activities, elderly tourism, demography
Objavljeno v DKUM: 18.01.2024; Ogledov: 195; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (195,56 KB)
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Independence and caregiver preferences among community-dwelling older people in Slovenia : a cross-sectional study
Katarina Galof, Anja Žnidaršič, Zvone Balantič, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Although Slovenia is becoming an aging society, very little is known about the abilities and needs of home-dwelling older people or their preferences regarding assistance. The aim of the study was to explore the need for assistance in daily activities among older Slovenian people living at home. Older adults aged between 65 and 97 years (N = 358) participated in the crosssectional survey study. A questionnaire that assessed independence in daily activities and assistance in the home environment was developed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a nonparametric test (Wilcoxon signed rank test), and the chi-square test. The results showed that older Slovenians were more independent in activities of daily living (ADLs) than instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Independence was the highest for using the toilet, feeding, and mobility transfers, and the lowest for bathing. With IADLs, assistance was most often required with shopping and housework; this assistance was usually provided by family members. The provider of assistance was generally compatible with older people’s preferences concerning assistance at home. We found no differences in care preferences between urban and rural settings. Assistance in the home environment was predominantly provided by unpaid helpers, which reflects recent developments in health and social services that put an emphasis on a person’s social network. Due to demographic changes and the decrease in the number of adult children, reliance on close relatives might soon become a challenge. These findings can help policy makers understand older people’s choices and preferences better when planning long-term care.
Ključne besede: older adults, activities of daily living, intergenerational support, long-term care, aging in place
Objavljeno v DKUM: 14.07.2023; Ogledov: 378; Prenosov: 23
.pdf Celotno besedilo (157,18 KB)
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Production of enzymes from medicinal mushrooms : master's thesis
Gonzalo Herranz Gómez, 2022, magistrsko delo

Opis: The purpose of this master's thesis was to determine the ability of certain organisms of the kingdom Fungi to produce a series of enzymes in their active form by solid-state fermentation. In this study, two types of fungi were used, Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum. For this purpose, different growth media, cultivation times (8 and 10 days), extraction procedures (shaking and homogenization) and extraction medium (distilled water, sodium citrate buffer and sodium phosphate buffer) were used. First, for P. ostreatus mushroom, the optimization of the extraction procedure and time for isolation of enzymes in their active form (α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, laccase, and protease) was studied. It was observed that the highest total protein concentration in mycelium extract was obtained by 8 min of homogenization (0.8607 mg/mL, and distilled water). Using the shaking procedure, the highest enzyme activities were achieved for α-amylase (24 h, 8.0413 U/mL, and sodium citrate buffer) and protease (3 h, 0.0040 U/mL, and sodium citrate buffer). With the homogenization process, the highest activities were achieved for the enzymes glucoamylase (10 min, 6.7113 U/mL, and sodium citrate buffer) and laccase (8 min, 12.2500 U/mL, and sodium citate buffer). For the mushroom G. lucidum, the growth medium and the extraction procedure were optimized, using the same extraction medium (sodium citrate buffer). In this case, α-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, laccase, protease, catalase, peroxidase, superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and lipase were studied. It was observed that the highest total protein concentration was obtained with 4 min of homogenization (0.0338 mg/mL). Furthermore, using the homogenization process, the highest activities were achieved for α-amylase (4 min, 16.3459 U/mL) and SOD (4 min, 9.2615 U/mL). With the shaking procedure, the highest activities were achieved for cellulase (3 h, 1.6332 U/mL), lipase (3 h, 16.924 U/mL), glucoamylase (3 h, 14.6737 U/mL), peroxidase (3 h, 0.0156 U/mL), protease (3 h, 0.0080 U/mL) and laccase (24 h, 20.7083 U/mL).
Ključne besede: medicinal mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, total proteins, enzymes activities.
Objavljeno v DKUM: 06.07.2022; Ogledov: 1704; Prenosov: 35
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,56 MB)

Standard of control under Article 8 ARSIWA : magistrsko delo
Leon Brulc, 2019, magistrsko delo

Opis: State responsibility is considered an essential part of international law, since the whole body of international law would in essence be deemed ineffective if the States were not held liable for their conduct. States are the principal bearers of international obligations because of their legal personality. As a consequence, the fact that States have certain obligations, means that responsibility is heavily interlinked with the notion of sovereignty and vice versa. Similarly to individuals, sovereignty of States is limited with the rights of other States. However, this does not mean that State responsibility is an abandonment of State’s sovereignty, but rather its attribute. A State cannot act on its own. It can only conduct its operations through its organs and through private actors. While the conduct of an organ of a State might automatically be attributed to that State, the attributability of a private actor’s conduct appears to be more problematic. One of the grounds of attribution of a private actor’s conduct is found in Article 8 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA). Under Article 8 of the ARSIWA, private actor’s conduct is attributable to a State if that State instructs a private actor or if it controls or directs it. When it comes to the attribution on the grounds of control, the case law and theory, as to the degree of control required to trigger State responsibility, are at odds. While part of the theory defends the test adopted by the International Court of Justice (the effective control test), other academics defend the test proposed by International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (the overall control test). This clash is the focal point of the thesis. While both of these tests were developed in a (para)military context, the question arises whether they can be applied to private corporations, and if the answer is yes, to what extent. In addition to proposing an appropriate test for corporations, this thesis also tries to find the appropriate test for (para)military group and determine whether there should be only one test for attribution or if there ought to be multiple.
Ključne besede: State responsibility, Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, Article 8, Attributability, Control, Tadić case, Military activities in Nicaragua case, Bosnian genocide case, effective control test, overall control test
Objavljeno v DKUM: 27.06.2019; Ogledov: 1965; Prenosov: 402
.pdf Celotno besedilo (732,55 KB)

Encouraging Speaking Skills by Teaching Adults English as a Foreign Language
Rebeka Očko, 2018, magistrsko delo

Opis: English language has become the international language of communication. It is being used in almost every company; therefore the need for English-speaking staff is increasing. Making learners speak and actively participate in order to practice and improve their speaking skills is one of the hardest tasks for a teacher. Children learn best through play, but it is also adults that learn best when stimulated by different activities that put them in authentic situations. The purpose of this thesis is to find the importance and the effect that well-structured activities have on adult-learners’ speaking skills and to what extent they contribute to their level of proficiency of the English language. The theoretical part of this thesis contains information on what affects adult’s learning of a foreign language, and approaches of teaching them. There are methods presented on how to encourage learners to speak and actively participate. It is explained how to deal with adult-learners’ errors in the most productive way and how to teach pronunciation. As the red thread of this research, there are activities listed that actively engage and motivate learners to speak. In the empirical part there are nine activities presented that were applied when teaching two courses, the beginner’s course (ten participants) and the advanced course (ten participants), during the period of one year. The research was conducted to see how these activities affected twenty learners’ speaking skills, which of the activities were the most motivating for them and which helped develop their speaking skills, while dividing between beginner learners and advanced learners. Another point of the research was to see which activities helped learners remember new vocabulary for a longer period of time. The research results are then analyzed and the improvement of learners’ speaking skills is described, while the important findings are summarized at the end of the thesis.
Ključne besede: adult learners of a foreign language, English language, speaking skills, encouragement, activities.
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.09.2018; Ogledov: 1683; Prenosov: 92
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,16 MB)

Influence of tertiary activities on transformation of the rural settlements in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Rahman Nurković, 2010, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: In Bosnia and Herzegovina, tertiary activities strongly affect the modern spatial and functional structure of rural settlements. In economic and social life they are complementary, which is a good prerequisite for general development of the country. They are followed by specialised shops (bank services, legal services, higher educational institutions, large market, diverse manpower, extensive public services, car show rooms, gas stations, furniture shops, commercial centres, hotels, motels, computer equipment, and alike).
Ključne besede: tertiary activities, new rural development of the settlements, restructuring of economic activities
Objavljeno v DKUM: 29.03.2018; Ogledov: 1164; Prenosov: 100
.pdf Celotno besedilo (118,38 KB)
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Involvement in sports clubs and informal sport activities of primary and secondary school children in Liechtenstein
Jürgen Kühnis, Beat Wachter, Christian Frommelt, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1262 children in primary (5th grade) and secondary (7th and 9th grades) school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender). The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 %) appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade). After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 %) shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.
Ključne besede: sports club, leisure-time activities, school-aged children, Liechtenstein
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.09.2017; Ogledov: 1182; Prenosov: 109
.pdf Celotno besedilo (190,16 KB)
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