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Tveganje v bančništvu in njihovo upravljanje
Terezija Branda, 2009, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Banke igrajo ključno vlogo v nacionalnih ekonomijah večine držav po svetu. Zdrav bančni sistem je pomemben element finančne stabilnosti, ki pomeni osnovo za vzdževanje in razvoj gospodarskega sistema. Osnovna funkcija bančnega sistema je finančno posredništvo: zbiranje finančnih sredstev od tistih, ki imajo presežke in njihovo posojanje tistim podjetjem ali posamezniku, ki jih potrebujejo. Prevzemanje tveganj je neločljivo povezano z bančništvom, pomanjkljivo zavedanje in upravljanje s tveganji pa lahko vodi v izgubo in ogrozi varnost bančnih vlog. Zaradi pomembne vloge v nacionalni ekonomiji in zaupanja, ki ga imajo vlagatelji v banke, morajo te poslovati skrbno in varno ter vzdrževati primeren nivo kapitala in rezervacij za zaščito pred morebitnimi tveganji, ki izhajajo iz poslovanja. Vse banke so v ta namen podvržene nadzoru s strani države za to pooblaščenih institucij. V zadnjih letih je finančni sektor doživel mnogo sprememb. Današnji bančni sistem zaznamujejo predvsem: * naraščajoči obsegi trgovalnih aktivnosti, * razvoj finančnih instrumentov, * pojav globalizacije (24-urni trgi), * povezovanje finančnih institucij, * kompleksni poslovni odnosi z največjimi strankami, * podružnice postajajo prodajna mesta za vrsto različnih produktov, * naraščajoča odvisnost od informacijske tehnologije, * vse bolj zahtevna regulativa. Našteti dejavniki so botrovali vse hitrejšemu razvoju novih finančnih instrumentov, vzporedno s katerimi se pojavljajo nove oblike tveganj, ki so bolj kompleksne in manj transparentne. Če so v preteklosti finančni in računovodski izkazi bank služili kot osnovno orodje za ocenjevanje varnosti in finančne moči banke, postaja danes njihova izrazna moč v smislu tveganosti banke vse bolj omejena. Analiza stanj na presežne datume ne zagotavlja več ustrezne slike glede dejanske tveganosti banke. Spremembam bančne prakse mora slediti tudi nadzorna praksa, ki se iz pregleda usklajenosti z zakonodajo razširja na ugotavljanje in ocenjevanje tveganj. Ker pa je tveganje rezultat kombinacije izpostavljenosti pripadajočemu tveganju in zmanjševanju le – tega z notranjimi kontrolami, so predmet ocenjevanja poleg pripadajočega tveganja tudi notranje kontrole. Bančni nadzornik, ki po funkciji sam sicer ni nagnjen k prevzemanju tveganj, razume, da je temelj bančništva v prevzemanju tveganj in da bo banka vedno izpostavljena določenemu obsegu tveganja. Pomembno pri tem pa je, da se banka zaveda tveganja in da ima vzpostavljene ustrezne obrambne mehanizme za njegovo obvladovanje. Banke so zadnja leta izvedle pomembne investicije v razvoj novih metodologij, procedur in kontrol z namenom boljšega identificiranja, merjenja in upravljanja tveganj. Vendar pa vzpostavljanje notranjih kontrol ni enkraten proces, ampak jih je treba redno pregledovati, preverjati in po potrebi nadgrajevati. Upravljanje s kapitalom je zelo pomemben del strateškega planiranja vsake banke. Prenizka raven kapitala lahko banko izpostavlja prekomernemu tveganju propada, po drugi strani pa previsok kapital banko sili k dvigovanju marž in provizij, da bi lahko zagotovila delničarjem primeren donos na vložena sredstva. Banka mora imeti vzpostavljen takšen proces upravljanja s kapitalom, ki bo zajel vsa materialna tveganja, ki se jim izpostavlja in bo pravočasno zaznaval spremembe v posamezni vrsti tveganja in temu ustrezno tudi prilagajal obseg razpoložljivega kapitala. Vzpostavljanje pisne strategije, politike in procedure predstavljajo del notranjih kontrol, ki lahko bistveno zmanjšajo kapitalsko tveganje banke. Interne politike in procedure morajo postati strateški element upravljanja s tveganjem, pri čemer je potrebno doseči, da se bodo dosledno izvajale in ne bodo same sebi namen.
Keywords: * advanced measurement approach – napredni pristop * basic indicator approach – enostavni pristop * capital adequacy – kapitalska usreznost * compliance – skladnost s predpisi * inherent risk – pripadajoče tveganje * internal auditing – notranje revidiranje * moral hazard – moralno tveganje * off-site supervision – zunanji nadzor * on-site supervision – notranji nadzor * risk-based supervision – nadzor, ki temelji na tveganju * standardised a
Published: 03.07.2009; Views: 2514; Downloads: 240
.pdf Full text (613,93 KB)

3.
ANALIZA IN PRIMERJAVA SISTEMOV ZA UPRAVLJANJE VSEBIN IN RAZŠIRITEV NJIHOVIH FUNKCIONALNOSTI
Ožbej Poberžnik, 2010, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Vedno bolj nepogrešljivi del vsakega podjetja, ustanove, posameznika ter drugih, je njihova predstavitev na spletu. Kaj delamo, kako delamo, ter kje nas najdejo, so pomembna vprašanja posameznika, ki potrebuje določeno pomoč pri raznolikem delu. Predstaviti se na spletu je lahko draga stvar, še posebej, kadar je na strani veliko podatkov. Zato so nam v pomoč sistemi za upravljanje vsebin, saj lahko sami ažuriramo podatke in s tem prihranimo velike stroške. Sistemov za upravljanje vsebin je več vrst, katerega izbrati je odvisno od samega posameznika in njegovih želja. Nalaganje ter uporaba različnih sistemov sta si lahko zelo podobna, njihove razlike pa se vidijo večinoma v funkcionalnosti.
Keywords: sistem za upravljanje vsebin, CMS, Joomla!, Drupal, Bitrix Site Manager, namestitev, uporaba, analiza, primerjava
Published: 14.01.2011; Views: 1759; Downloads: 186
.pdf Full text (8,90 MB)

4.
OMREŽNA VARNOST Z UPORABO IPSEC IN VPN
Miran Jelušič, 2011, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Diplomska naloga podaja osnovno razumevanje IPsec VPN protokolov, ki nudijo varno povezavo prek interneta. Predstavi, kako se na Cisco usmerjevalnikih postavi IPsec povezava med vozliščema, za katero uporabimo Cisco IOS ukaze v konzolnem načinu. V nadaljevanju prikaže, kako s pomočjo Cisco programa Security Device Manager postavimo IPsec VPN povezavo med vozliščema in uporabimo »Easy VPN« strežnik. Cisco SDM deluje v grafičnem načinu in omogoča konfiguriranje s pomočjo čarovnika. Če je potrebno nastaviti veliko VPN povezav ali pa VPN strežnik, nam pri tem SDM prihrani veliko časa. Za zaključek vzpostavimo varno VPN povezavo s programom Cisco VPN Client na VPN strežnik.
Keywords: IPsec Site-to-Site VPN, IKE, ISAKMP, Cisco VPN Client, SDM
Published: 25.02.2011; Views: 3201; Downloads: 446
.pdf Full text (5,42 MB)

5.
Effective control of unanticipated on-site events : a pragmatic, human-oriented problem solving approach
Aleš Magdič, Danijel Rebolj, Nataša Šuman, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: Unanticipated events on building sites are inevitable. The frequency of unanticipated events is usually high due to the inherent complexity and dynamics of construction projects. A proper mobile interactive personal network can make use of the rich knowledge and experience of site staff, to handle and effectively resolve on-site problems caused by unanticipated events. Immediate on-site problem solving significantly impacts subsequent project characteristics and leads to a more productive organizational processes as a whole. This paper focuses on the importance of interactive personal communication as a basis for immediate on-site problem solving. For communications support, a human-oriented pragmatic solution in the form of a mobile, interactive, context-sensitive personal network is presented.
Keywords: civil engineering, information technology, mobile computing, project management, construction site, rapid communication
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1395; Downloads: 33
URL Link to full text

6.
SYNTHESIS OF PROCESSES AND PROCESS SUBSYSTEMS FOR ENTIRE LIFETIME
Andreja Nemet, 2015, doctoral dissertation

Abstract: Economically viable process designs should be, in addition to other criteria, profitable over their entire process lifetimes not only at the present time. An improved process design can be achieved by establishing an appropriate trade-off between product income, raw material, operating costs, and investment. The full lifetime of the processes and future prices have to be considered rather than optimising them on a yearly basis using current prices. Single-period optimisation and synthesis models for processes reflects current prices only. The prices can fluctuate rather quickly and the optimal solution may be very different from one year to the another. Therefore, the traditional superstructural synthesis approach applying a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model was upgraded: i) over time, by considering an entire lifetime, which can be described by a multi-period model and ii) the whole field of variation regarding uncertain future prices. A stochastic approach considering the statistical distribution of price projections over an entire lifetime was used on different case studies instead of the traditional deterministic approach accounting for nominal future price projection. The objective was the maximisation of the expected net present value of a process or the expected incremental net present value of different process subsystem. The heat exchanger network has been one of the subsystem, which can significantly contribute to operating costs due to savings of external utility consumption. For this subsystem a deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) synthesis models have been developed in order to account for future price projections. Considering higher energy prices gives rise to larger initial investments compared to solutions obtained with current prices. However, due to the uncertainties of utility prices' forecasts, retrofitting using an extension of HEN during future years of the lifespan might be a better strategy. The objective is to identify a design that is the most suitable for effective future extensions and preferably with the lowest sensitivity to energy price fluctuations, as there can be various designs featuring similar initial investment. The results supports that it is economically beneficial to consider future utility prices as the incremental investment is not only paid-off but additional savings are achieved. Process-to-process Heat Integration can also significantly affect the trade-off between investment and operating cost. The aim of Total Site (TS) HEN synthesis was to develop a model synthesis for the TS that, besides many other important features, would also consider future utility prices. Two strategies for TS synthesis have been developed: i) sequential, when HI is performed within a process during the first step and then after a process-to-process HI has been performed, and ii) simultaneous, where the HI is performed within and between processes simultaneously. The second strategy can reveal additional opportunities for heat recovery that might not be identified when applying the first strategy. Comparison of the results obtained at consideration of current utility prices and forecasted utility prices indicates that is worth to account for future utility prices. The separation processes also consume a significant amount of energy. The synthesis of a distillation column sequence integrated within its heat exchanger network was used as a case study for the separation of a multi-component stream into pure component products by considering future utility prices. This analysis has been performed in order to evaluate the magnitude of the influence of forecasted utility prices. It can be concluded that forecasted utility prices can be beneficial, however, the technical limits of the systems should be carefully observed. The price fluctuation can also be observed for other prices not only utility prices, e.g. raw material cost, product price, etc
Keywords: future prices, forecasted prices, stochastic optimisation, mathematical programming, Heat Exchanger Network, Total Site, distillation column sequence, methanol production
Published: 04.05.2015; Views: 1065; Downloads: 95
.pdf Full text (4,74 MB)

7.
Predicting geotechnical investigation using the knowledge based system
Bojan Žlender, Primož Jelušič, 2016, original scientific article

Keywords: site investigation, nonlinear programing (NLP), ANFIS
Published: 12.04.2016; Views: 881; Downloads: 284
.pdf Full text (1,61 MB)
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8.
The influence of social networking sites on recruiting human resources in the Czech republic
Lucie Bohmova, Antonín Pavlíček, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: This paper is focused on the usage of social networking sites (SNS) for human resources departments in the process of hiring new employees. It also maps the development and influence of SNS on recruiter's behavior and customs. The main aim is to find out, whether SNS could/will replace traditional online job boards in the Czech Republic. The motivation for the research is to determine whether SNS can be used for serious and practical business purposes. Methods: The paper presents authors’ empirical research with two interconnected instruments used for data collection: (1) Questionnaire with 15 questions devoted to usability, evaluation and comparison of SNS with job portals (N=286 HR specialists) and (2) Comparison of 3 online job advertising methods – job portals, SNS and business website. Results: HR specialists regularly use publicly available information on candidates’ Facebook profiles. Similar results have been observed using both instruments. SNS's in the Czech Republic are not yet used by recruiters as the main tool for recruitment, however, are often used as a support tool for decision making in the final stage of recruitment. Use of SNS's by recruiters is universal; we have not found any significant differences in terms of demographics (men, women, old, young HR professionals). The rate of utilization of SNS's by recruiters in the Czech Republic is gradually increasing, but does not reach the US level. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the rising importance of social networking sites (SNS) usage as a new recruiting technology. However, as a major player in the field of recruitment, job boards (eg. Jobs.cz) are still important. However, the expectation is that in the near future, this will change and SNS‘s may replace the job boards.
Keywords: human resources, new trends, social networks, social networking site, SNS, job boards, competitive advantage
Published: 22.01.2018; Views: 411; Downloads: 250
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9.
A microtremor HVSR study of the seismic site effects in the area of the town of Brežice (SE Slovenia)
Andrej Gosar, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: The wider region of Brežice is one of the most seismically active areas of Slovenia. The most damaging earthquake occurred in 1917, when Brežice was hit by an ML=5.7 earthquake that had an VIII MSK maximum intensity. Seismic site effects due to Quaternary sediments can be expected in the whole area of the town. Since there is a lack of boreholes and geophysical data to assess the site effects, the microtremor (ambient vibrations) horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was applied at 113 free-field measuring points. In general, clear spectral peaks were obtained, but there were also examples of flat spectral ratios indicating a low impedance contrast between the sediments and the bedrock. A map of the sediment resonance frequency was drawn, which shows a frequency range of 1–15 Hz. In the southern part of the town higher frequencies correspond to the thin sediments (the Brežice terrace and the middle Sava terrace) and the high HVSR peak amplitudes indicate a great impedance contrast with the Sarmatian and Badenian bedrock. The northern part is characterized by very low frequencies, indicating thick sediments (Plio-Quaternary gravel) and a small impedance contrast with Pontian marl. The transition between the high and low frequencies is relatively steep. In addition, measurements were performed in 12 characteristic houses to assess the longitudinal and transverse building frequencies. The established building frequency range of 5–10 Hz indicates some areas in the southern part of the town where there is a potential danger of soil-structure resonance. Two buildings show direct evidence of a potential soil-structure resonance. According to this study, more pronounced seismic site effects are expected in the southern part of Brežice.
Keywords: ambient vibrations, microtremors, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), seismic site effects, soil-structure resonance
Published: 06.06.2018; Views: 508; Downloads: 97
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10.
Determination of Vs30 for seismic ground classification in the Ljubljana area, Slovenia
Janez Rošer, Andrej Gosar, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: The shear modulus, known as Gmax, is a key parameter for predicting the static and dynamic behavior of soils. Its value decreases by increasing the shear strain. This is because of reducing the soil’s stiffness as a result of increasing the shear deformation. The increasing of the shear modulus by increasing the shear strain is affected by some of the soil properties, such as the Void ratio (e), the Over consolidated ratio (OCR), the Normal stress (σ), the Plasticity index (PI), the Water content (ω%), the Shear strain rate, the Soil structure, and the Loading history, etc. In this paper, undrained, direct shear tests were conducted to study the effect of the plasticity index (PI) and the normal stress (σ) on the shear behavior and the shear modulus of remolded clays. The results show that the normalized shear modulus at a constant strain will generally increase as the σ and PI increase, and the common empirical equations for undisturbed soils at γ = 0~0.1 might be applicable for the disturbed soils too.
Keywords: microtremor survey methods, shear-wave velocity, seismic site effect, microzonation, Eurocode 8
Published: 11.06.2018; Views: 284; Downloads: 40
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