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INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS: PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS UNDER PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
Ana Povh, 2014, diplomsko delo

Opis: Preceeding work is analysing a highly problematic field of public international law, where in one actual state several principles of international law, humanitarian legal rules, international political interests and humanitarian conscience are coliding intensely. This is the case of civil wars where human rights of civilians are violated on a massive scale. Since they do not include a foreign element by the nature, possibilities of international protection are very lessened. Apathy of the international community and the failure to enforce international law are both permitting for human suffering of unimaginable extensions taking place in immediate vicinity of the 'developed world'. Rules of conduct in the international community are being set by the international public law, which serves in interests of States. Until inclusion of international organisations with supranational authorities legal order was therefore designed only by their will. Later development has made it possible that rules were created by global consensus which suggested creation of norms with humanitarian nature. This leads to conclusion that there is no centralised legislator present in the international sphere and that obligatory norms are hard to find. Nevertheless humanitarian norms with cogent nature are still present, their uncovery is linked to the source from which they derive. Determining the source therefore leads to determination of those humanitarian rules that subjects need to respect in all circumstances. Such enforcement inside State's territorial integrity sadly still represents a meeting point for two contradictoring but hierarchally ecvivalent principles of international order, resulting in unsanctionising of mass breaches of international humanitarian rules. These two principles are the principle of State's sovereignty and the principle for respect of human rights and they result in such international policy which places the primal responsibilty for ensuring the respect of human rights in the hands of a State. Any external intervention is almost impossible.Consequences of such international understanding are vividly seen in civil or internal conflicts where protection of civilian population is in sole discretion of the warring parties. Still, universally applicable international law which can not be violated even in the times of war exists. Determination of humanitarian rules which have to be performed on the field, is dependant on the qualification of the sources from which they derive. International treaties, by their nature being obligatory for their signatories, comprise the first group of sources. Second group is producing rules which are waiting for bestowment of this quality and their possible cogency is dependant on State practice and on the so-called common legal sense of obligation. Most important of them is international customary law which produces rules, essential for filling those legal holes, left behind by international treaties. Moreover they are obligatory for every Party involved, even though they have not expressed their commitment. Together with universal human rights, provided by international human rights law, they represent a cornerstone of international legal order for the field of internal armed conflicts. Their enforcement is in the most benefit of civilian population.
Ključne besede: International public law, international humanitarian law, human rights law, internal armed conflicts, non-international armed conflicts, fundamental guarantees, war, Geneva Conventions, United Nations, civilian population, peremptory norms, customary law.
Objavljeno: 09.06.2014; Ogledov: 564; Prenosov: 37
.pdf Polno besedilo (1014,07 KB)

3.
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL - HISTORY, PRESENT, FUTURE
Klementina Dolinšek, 2014, diplomsko delo

Opis: While one of the greatest achievements of the United Nations has been the creation of international human rights norms and standards, its human rights protection mechanisms have failed to fulfil their mandate. In the early 2000’s, the Commission on Human Rights, as the major United Nations body working to promote and protect human rights, started to lose its credibility. It was criticised by a wide spectrum of the international community including states, non – governmental organizations and academics for its politicisation and polarisation, double standards, loss of focus, ineffectual decision making and a dubious membership composition. As a consequence of persistent negative responses, in June 2006 the Commission on Human Rights was replaced by the Human Rights Council, in an attempt to create a credible United Nations human rights body. This thesis focuses on the institutional differences between both bodies, their application in practice, and the advantages and disadvantages of the new human rights watchdog. In order to provide as comprehensive a comparison as possible, the research also includes examination of various United Nations documents, media postings, contributions made by non – governmental organizations, and academic studies.
Ključne besede: Commission on Human Rights, Human Rights Council, criticism, advantage, disadvantage, membership composition, politicisation, credibility, losing focus, Universal Periodic Review.
Objavljeno: 08.05.2014; Ogledov: 574; Prenosov: 55
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,16 MB)

4.
HATE SPEECH AND INTERNET HUMOUR
Aja Lovrec, 2014, magistrsko delo

Opis: There are different ways of perceiving and understanding humour. Some people comprehend the content on the internet social sites as humorous, others as hateful. The aim of this master’s thesis is to raise awareness of hate speech on the internet. The survey was designed for the purpose of highlighting the difference between hate speech and humour in the example of internet memes. There were 513 Slovene participants answering the questionnaire on how they understand selected internet memes – as humour or as hate speech. The sample of English native speakers was smaller (57 respondents), yet enough to compare the results based on different independent variables (English language proficiency and gender). It was confirmed that there is a thin line between hate speech and humour. Some memes that were considered humorous for Slovene respondents were understood as offensive for English native speakers. We concluded that the level of English proficiency does not significantly influence considering memes as humorous or hate speech. The independent variable of gender has some influence on the respondens perception of a meme as humorous or hateful. Based on the survey analysis, it is concluded that memes which might be perceived as hate speech could also be understood as humorous due to the general purpose of a meme (memes are meant to be humorous and funny).
Ključne besede: hate speech, humour, internet memes, human rights, free speech
Objavljeno: 08.10.2014; Ogledov: 1079; Prenosov: 138
.pdf Polno besedilo (5,17 MB)

5.
5 th Traditional Law Conference of the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Law, Özyegin University Istanbul, Faculty of Law, and University of Maribor, Faculty of Law: Corruption – A Deviation or an Inherent Part of Human Society? Some Legal Considerations
2017

Opis: Corruption is a dishonest or unethical conduct by a person (also company, state…) entrusted with a position of authority, with the intention to acquire certain benefits or advantages. Nowadays, corruption is present in all states and societies, and could be widespread in all legal and human relations. Corruption is mostly associated with embezzlement, bribery, coercion, extortion, blackmail… Therefore, the corruption is mostly of illegal nature. International and national anti-corruption initiatives and actions pay special attention to the fields where the impact of corruption affects the most vulnerable groups of people. On the international level the most active role is played by Transparency International, an international organisation fighting against corruption.
Ključne besede: corruption, criminal law, human rights, illicit arms trafficking, family law
Objavljeno: 10.03.2017; Ogledov: 181; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,76 MB)

6.
Human rights education in foreign language learning
Melita Kukovec, 2017, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Today's world is marked by numerous violations of human rights. As teachers, we would like to believe that future violations can be prevented through human rights education which empowers individuals to build and promote a universal human rights culture. Young people should be given the chance to practise what it means to live together in an open and free society while at school; they, therefore, need to be equipped with a knowledge of human rights and the skills to put these rights into practice. The paper addresses issues relating to including lessons on human rights into Slovene primary and secondary education as part of the foreign language learning syllabus, as well as the need to empower future teachers to react appropriately if their students reject other people's perspectives out of hand, or even express radical ideas in class that run contrary to democratic values. It also presents various strategies for enabling future teachers to develop the skills necessary to implement human rights education.
Ključne besede: human rights, education, personal development, foreign language learning
Objavljeno: 09.08.2017; Ogledov: 102; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (98,94 KB)

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