Hygiene monitoring of textiles used in the food industrySabina Fijan
, Avrelija Cencič
, Sonja Šostar-Turk
, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Protective clothing is required in the food-processing industry, to protect workers from contamination by bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions etc. contained in the secretions and raw meat of slaughtered animals, and to protect the meat from being contaminated by microorganisms carried by the workers. It is well-understood that textiles are a control point (CP), and must be appropriately cleaned and disinfected in order to prevent biocontamination. Although the laundering procedure itself is important for achieving disinfection, it is also essential to maintain an appropriate hygiene level in the laundry, in order to prevent recontamination of textiles by environmental viable microorganisms. In this study, a sanitary-microbiologicalanalysis was carried out in selected CPs in two laundries. Chemo-thermal washing efficiency was determined by evaluating the anti-bacterial effect against Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. The hygienic state of the laundries was determined by evaluating the number and type of microorganisms at selected CPs throughout the whole laundering procedure. The results indicated that the sanitary condition of both laundries did not reach the required levels and that several microbes were resistant to cleaning and disinfecting agents. It is obvious from the results that achievement of an appropriate hygiene level during laundering textiles from the food processing industry requires the implementation of appropriate corrective monitoring measures.
Ključne besede: laundry hygiene, textiles, food-processing industry, occupational health
Objavljeno: 30.05.2012; Ogledov: 1357; Prenosov: 187
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Isolation and concentration of natural antioxidants with high-pressure extractionMajda Hadolin Kolar
, Andreja Rižner Hraš
, Davorin Bauman
, Željko Knez
, 2004, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: In present work, the purification of crude rosemary extract with supercritical fluids is presented. Carbon dioxide was used as a solvent. The crude extract was prepared from rosemary with conventional extraction process. The supercritical CO2 extraction of crude extracts was performed at pressures 10 and 20 MPa and temperatures 35 and 60 °C. The best results were obtained at pressure 10 MPa and temperature 35 °C. The content of carnosic acid in the samples before and after high pressure extraction was identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The content of carnosic acid in purified extract is higher compared to crude extract. The antioxidative efficiency of extracts was determined by measuring peroxide value. Activity ofpurified rosemary extracts is higher compared to crude extracts.
Ključne besede: chemical processing, high pressure technology, extraction, CO2, natural antioxidants, rosemary extract, food additives
Objavljeno: 01.06.2012; Ogledov: 1248; Prenosov: 63
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POTENTIAL INDICATORS FOR Sustainability assessment of food production on the field levelSaša Štraus
, 2012, doktorska disertacija
Opis: The issue of sustainable agriculture has attracted considerable attention. Sustainable agriculture encompasses economic viability, social acceptance, conservation of the environment, and food quality. The present thesis aims to evaluate the sustainability of conventional (CON), integrated (INT), and organic (ORG) production systems (PS). The assessment of sustainability of different PS was made in terms of the four most significant aspects of sustainability—agronomic, economic, environmental, and food quality—at the field level (i). Agronomic parameters such as the number of leaves, leaf area index, fruit characteristics, and seed/oil yield and economic feasibility were evaluated for oil seed pumpkin (ii). The environmental sustainability was assessed through the ecological footprint and weed biodiversity index (iii). The study of food quality determined the internal quality (total phenol, sugar, organic acid, vitamin C, mineral, and nitrate content and antioxidant activity) and sensory evaluation (iv, v). The sustainability of the PS for the four crops was assessed using a qualitative multi-attribute model (DEXi methodology (vi). Because field trial was conducted in protected landscapes (PL), the options for the development of PLs with the ORG PS were evaluated. To obtain the data, a field trial was conducted on a 4000 m2 area in the years 2008 to 2011. Wheat, oil seed pumpkin, red beet, and cabbage grown by the three different PSs—CON, INT, and ORG—and a control plot were studied. They were arranged in a randomized complete block split-plot design with four replications. The production systems differed in plant protection and fertilization strategies, as defined by legislation and standards.
Survey of literature point out that indicator are the basis of assessing sustainability, the assessment of sustainability should encompass at least three pillars of sustainability (i).
Agronomic parameters (ii) and economic feasibility were evaluated for oil seed pumpkin in the field trial. The leaf area index differed significantly between CON (4.8 for CON and 4.1 for ORG) and other production systems at later growth stages (BBCH = 600-700), and it was highly correlated with the yield (808 kg ha-1 for CON and 723 kg ha-1 for ORG). The yield and all agronomic parameters were significantly lower in ORG; however, the economic feasibility analysis showed that the financial results could be higher because of lower production costs (1.784 € ha-1 for CON and 1.434.5 € ha-1 for ORG) and higher product prices. The same economic feasibility analysis results were also obtained for cabbage and red beet (iii).
The Biodiversity Ecological Footprint index (iii) were interpreted using the SPIonExcel tool and the Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index for the weeds species diversity. The ecological footprint of ORG was 3.3 times lower than that of CON (21 ha to 70 ha), and the Shannon-Weaver diversity index of ORG was significantly higher than that of CON (which was 20% higher, 0.66 for CON and 0.86 for ORG).
The internal quality were studied for red beet and white cabbage. Sensory evaluation of sauerkraut samples was made. In the case of red beet, the differences were significant for vitamin C (23.3% higher for ORG than for CON), antioxidant activity (30.3% higher for ORG than for CON), and some microminerals (Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) (iv). In the case of cabbage, a significantly lower amount of P and N and a significantly higher amount of Na, Mg, and total phenols (in ORG 0.360 GAE mg g-1 FW and in CON 0.310 GAE mg g-1 FW) was found for ORG than for CON cabbage. The concentration of nitrates is significantly lower in ORG (530 mg kg-1 for CON and 370.37 mg kg-1 for ORG). The sensory evaluation of sauerkraut samples was performed by 100 consumers using a nine-point hedonic scale. The ORG and control samples were evaluated significantly better than the INT and CON samples (overall acceptability was 5.94 for ORG and 5.34 for CON) (v).
The core of the qualitative multi-model (DEXi methodology) is a hierarchical tree that divides
Ključne besede: Sustainable agriculture, agronomic parameters, environmental parameters, economic feasibility, food quality, DEX, protected landscapes
Objavljeno: 29.11.2012; Ogledov: 1991; Prenosov: 223
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Application of gut cell models for toxicological and bioactivity studies of functional and novel foodsMartin Trapečar
, Avrelija Cencič
, 2012, pregledni znanstveni članek
Opis: The concept of functional and novel foods undoubtedly bears great potential as an asset to human health. However, this very same quest for ever new bioactive ingredients calls for reliable and distinct risk assessment as they may be potentially hazardous to human health. Most of today's methodologies still rely on decades old routines of animal trials and use of tumor-derived cell lines. Since such methodologies are not in line with the actual processesin the human body and with the 3R (replacement, reduction, refinement) concept, the results are often unreliable and misleading. Therefore, in this paper we propose the utilization of available untransformedsmall intestinal cell lines derived from human and pig tissue of non-tumor origin and describe several available cell models of the gut that offer a functional, close resemblance with the in vivo environment.
Ključne besede: gut, cell models, risk assessment, toxicology, functional food
Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 517; Prenosov: 54
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