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Cross-cultural comparison of online job advertisements
Irena Gorenak, Sonja Mlaker Kač, Sara Orthaber, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Job advertisements should reflect an ideal candidate that the company is looking for. This is especially important for logistic companies which - due to their service-oriented nature - are inseparably connected with their employees. This paper aims to compare and analyse Slovenian, German and British online job advertisements from the field of logistics. Furthermore, this paper will discuss the structure and special features of job advertisements whereby relevant cultural differences between the three countries will be emphasized. With this in mind, differences in understanding logistics as such will be identified and cultural differences regarding employees' characteristics further discussed. For this purpose, six online job ads published in October 2008 in different online media in Slovenia, Germany and the UK will be qualitatively analysed. In the analysis relevant cross-cultural differences and similarities will be addressed and their implications further discussed.
Ključne besede: online recruitment, cultural differences, logistics, Slovenia, Germany, UK
Objavljeno: 05.06.2012; Ogledov: 1383; Prenosov: 33
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Do women see things differently than men do?
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender on brain activity. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved simple auditory and visual tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The attended task condition was based on the oddball paradigm. Respondents had to mentally count infrequent target stimuli - tones or shapes. In the unattended condition they just listened to tones or viewed different shapes. Gender related differences in EEG activity were only observed in the amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response and the P3 component. Women displayed higher amplitudes than men. A second finding was that these differences were more pronounced for the visual than for the auditory stimuli. No gender related differences were observed in the ERP latencies, as well as in the amplitudes of the P1-N1 complex, and the induced gamma response. The NIRS data showed that males in their frontal brain areas displayed a higher percentage of StO2 than did females; and males also showed a higher increase in %StO2 during task performance as compared with the resting condition. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males. The data are discussed in the theoretical framework of the evolutionary theory of human spatial sex differences.
Ključne besede: psychology, functional neuroimaging, brain activities, neuropsychology, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 945; Prenosov: 53
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Intercultural counseling as a current issue and what makes competent intercultural counselor
Marija Javornik Krečič, 2009, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: In the first part of the paper, the author finds that in the present the question of collaboration between members of the majority and the members of cultural, religious, social and other minorities is one of the most essential civilisational questions. Consequently, intercultural pedagogy and intercultural education play an important role here. Due to such multicultural conditions, school counseling, too, has developed some special features. Further on in the paper, the author defines and presents the characteristic features of intercultural counseling set up for pupils who are members of cultural minorities and immigrants, as well as for people who live and work with them. The final part of the paper defines the intercultural competence of a school counselor. The latter should be able to detect cultural aspects relating to the counselee, to recognise their role in the causing of the problem of the person seeking counsel and its solution. He/she should be able to incorporate them in the counseling situation and process.
Ključne besede: education, intercultural differences, intercultural counseling, counseling, minorities, immigrants
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 710; Prenosov: 10
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Cross-cultural insight into the association between religiousness and authoritarianism
Sergej Flere, Rudi Klanjšek, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The current study investigated the possible existence of a relationship between authoritarianism and religiousness and the possible strength of this potential relationship. The study involved samples from four cultural environments known to differ substantially in terms of religious salience and content: Slovenia (predominantly Catholic), Serbia (predominantly Eastern Orthodox), Bosnia and Herzegovina (predominantly Muslim), and the United States (predominantly Protestant). Religiousness was assessed by way of religious orientation (including intrinsic and extrinsic orientation) as proposed by Allport (1950), whereas authoritarianism was tapped by a modified Lane scale (1955). Results from zero-order correlations indicated a strong and positive association between authoritarianism and all types of religious orientation, regardless of the sample analyzed. Residualizing the main study constructs by demographic variables did not alter the results. The association changed only when each dimension of religious orientation was controlled for the effect of other dimensions. Results did not lend support to the hypothesis that authoritarianism is more strongly linked to those who are more extrinsically oriented.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, authoritarianism, religiosity, intercultural differences, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, Slovenian catholicism, Bosnian Islam, US protestantism
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 835; Prenosov: 58
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Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level
Sergej Flere, Miran Lavrič, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah). The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, civil religion, authoritarianism, religiosity, intercultural differences, religious orientation, Serbian orthodoxy, Slovenian catholicism, Bosnian Islam, cross-cultural analyses, anxiety
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 768; Prenosov: 147
.pdf Celotno besedilo (258,08 KB)
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Gender related differences in visual and auditory processing of verbal and figural tasks
Norbert Jaušovec, Ksenija Jaušovec, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The aim of the present study was to investigate gender related differences in brain activity for tasks of verbal and figural content presented in the visual and auditory modality. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved four tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The main findings of the study can be summarized as follows. (1) Most pronounced differences between males and females were observed for the factor modality-visual/auditory. (2) Gender related differences in neuroelectric brain responses could be observed during the solution of auditory and visual tasks; however, on the behavioral level only for the visual tasks did females display shorter reaction times than males. The ERP amplitudes of the early evoked gamma response, P1, and P3 were higher in females than males, whereas the N4 amplitude was higher in males than females. The differences were more noticeable in the visual modality. The NIRS showed a more bilateral involvement of the frontal brain areas in females as compared with a more left hemispheric frontal activity in males. In the task conditions an increase in right hemispheric activity in females was observed; however, this increase was less pronounced in the visual than the auditory domain, indicating a more lateralized processing of visual stimuli in females. Taken all together the results suggest that the females' visual event-categorization process is more efficient than in males.
Ključne besede: psychology, neuropsychology, brain activities, visual processing, auditory processing, gender, gender differences
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 1160; Prenosov: 60
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The role of culture in the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being
Miran Lavrič, Sergej Flere, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Several measures of religious practice and religious orientation (intrinsic/extrinsic/quest) and two measures of psychological well-being (positive affect and negative affect) have been employed in a cross-cultural survey of undergraduate university students from five different cultural/religious environments: Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, the United States of America, and Japan. Results suggest that measures of exstrinsic, intrinsic, and quest religiosity are not entirely applicable in most of the cultures observed. Nevertheless, it was possible to discern abbreviated cross-culturally valid scales for each dimension. The strength and direction of the correlation between psychological well-being and a particular type of religious orientation proved to depend substantially upon culture. More importantly, the cultural environment plays a crucial role in shaping the relationship between general measures of religiosity and psychological well-being. According to the data, higher general levels of religiosity at the societal level are linked to more positive correlations between religiosity and psychological well-being. The overall picture leads to the conclusion that there is no culturally universal pattern in the relationship between measures of religiosity and psychological well-being and that the particular cultural and religious context should always be considered in studies dealing with this issue.
Ključne besede: religiosity, culture, intercultural differences, religious belief, religious orientation, social differences, anxiety, psychological well-being, cross-cultural studies
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 977; Prenosov: 63
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Gender and religious orientation
Sergej Flere, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Gender has been proven to be a substantial indicator of differences with respect to religiosity within Christianity. Females are always more frequentlyand intensively religious in comparison to males (Francis, 1997). The question of whether this holds for other religions remains unanswered. In this study we focus on university students in Catholic, Christian Orthodox andMuslim environments of Central Europe and in an American, predominantly Protestant environment. Religiosity is studied by differentiating between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity (Allport and Ross, 1967). If it were foundthat females are more social-extrinsic religious, one couldspeak of a sociological, instrumental and situational religiosity among females. On the contrary, one is closer to speaking of an immanent difference between the genders. Sociological (with the exception of socialization) and Freudian explanations are not confirmed. Psychological explanations, which include anxiety, authoritarianism and femininity (Bem,1981) are good at explaining thedifferences in religiosity between the genders.
Ključne besede: sociology of religion, religious orientation, religious environments, religiosity, religious experiences, intrinsic orientation, extrinsic orientation, gender differences, gender
Objavljeno: 07.06.2012; Ogledov: 900; Prenosov: 43
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Nuša Basle, 2013, diplomsko delo

Opis: In this diploma seminar I investigate world cultures and present their features, similarities and differences. Based thereon, I attempt to find out the possible ways to conduct business in different cultures. My aim was also to prove if all the literature information can be used in real life experience. I interviewed people who work in international firms that operate aboard, specifically in Austria, Brazil and Russia for my empirical part. On the basis of their information I could conclude that theory applies to practice and can serve as a useful guideline for international companies who want to conduct international business.
Ključne besede: Culture, cultural differences, international business, communication, negotiation, resolving conflicts.
Objavljeno: 24.10.2013; Ogledov: 815; Prenosov: 96
.pdf Celotno besedilo (861,99 KB)

The issue of suggestibility in witness interviewing : graduation thesis
Tjaša Petek, 2014, diplomsko delo

Opis: The interviewing of witnesses, victims and suspects normally forms an essential part of a police investigation into criminal activities. There are various factors that affect accuracy in the eyewitness testimonies, one of which are suggestive interviewing techniques (Williamson, 2007). Suggestibility is a personality trait which is often referred to as a type of psychological vulnerability. Suggestibility can challenge the interviewee’s abilities to cope with the demands of the interview as well as the demands of following court procedures. It is due to these characteristics that suggestibility has an important impact on the outcome of the interview (Gudjonsson, 2010). As shown through the work of Ridley and Gudjonsson (2013), there are several varieties of suggestibility and the effects of suggestive influence should be taken extremely seriously during investigations. Our memories can be influenced and distorted in various ways because they are vulnerable and susceptible to decay, inner biases, social demands and expectations, leading questions, misleading information, conformity and mental disability. To support this, Bruck and Melnyk (2004) indicate that individual differences in the susceptibility to suggestibility make it harder to identify exactly where and when the effects of suggestibility are likely to manifest themselves. Reliable information about the types of people who are most likely to be tainted by suggestive interviewing has not been established yet and remains a subject for further research.
Ključne besede: suggestibility, witness interviews, criminal investigation, individual differences
Objavljeno: 06.11.2014; Ogledov: 842; Prenosov: 88
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,38 MB)

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