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1.
Turkey’s transition to face-to-face schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic
Mahmut Özer, H. Eren Suna, Matjaž Perc, Sadri Şensoy, Sevil Uygun İli̇khan, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background/aim: The COVID-19 pandemic majorly disrupted conventional schooling and many countries maintained educational services through distance education. The duration of school closures in Turkey was longer than most OECD countries, thus Turkey prioritized school reopenings in the 2021-2022 academic year to mitigate possible negative outcomes of closures. Here we study the compatibility of implications for school reopenings in Turkey with these practices and assess the first semester of face-to-face schooling. Materials and methods: We have used document analysis to present and compare the practices in Turkey with international practices. We also used a comparative approach to assess the coherence between policies in Turkey and international suggestions. Results: We find that vaccination rates of teachers and education staff are quite high in Turkey. Other practices, mandatory face masks, class-based closures and quarantine policies, are also in agreement with international practices. These steps are supported with frequent cleaning and ventilation of school environments, as well as with social distancing measures in schools. Conclusion: Consequently, the rate of daily closed classrooms has been kept below 1%, and the patterns of closures and openings are in general agreement with the changes of positive cases in the Turkish society. The net rate of closed classrooms decreased with the decline of quarantine days in Turkey. We hope that these insights will inform about school openings and contribute to best practices for faceto-face schooling.
Keywords: school system, school reopening, face-to-face education, COVID-19, educational equality, vaccination
Published in DKUM: 11.07.2024; Views: 10; Downloads: 0
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2.
The protective role of resilience in the development of social media addiction in tertiary students and psychometric properties of the Slovenian Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS)
Mark Žmavc, Andrej Šorgo, Branko Gabrovec, Nuša Crnkovič, Katarina Cesar, Špela Selak, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, social media became one of the most utilized sources of information relating to the disease. With the increased reliance on social media, the risk of excessive use and the development of social media addiction emerges. The aim of the present study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Slovenian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, and to explore how psychological resilience affects social media addiction symptoms directly and indirectly through symptoms of depression, anxiety and mental distress. A large online cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2021 among Slovenian tertiary students (N = 4868). The results showed the high reliability, unidimensionality and criterion validity of the Slovenian Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. The proposed structural model fit the data well and showed a significant direct positive effect of depression and stress on social media addiction. Moreover, the majority of the negative effects of psychological resilience on social media addiction (87.2%) were indirect, through depression and stress symptoms, whereas resilience had a significantly smaller impact on social media addiction by reducing anxiety symptoms. The overall prevalence of social media addiction symptoms was 4.6%, with females exhibiting higher proportions than men. Additionally, female social media users reported a complete absence of social media addiction symptoms less often compared to males. Future research should further explore the mechanisms behind social media addiction, in order to gain a better understanding of the apparently different risk levels for both genders.
Keywords: social media addiction, behavioral addictions, resilience, validation, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), COVID-19
Published in DKUM: 09.07.2024; Views: 49; Downloads: 2
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3.
Uporaba digitalnih tehnologij s strani managerjev v času pandemije in po njej
Nik Pek, 2024, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Diplomsko delo obravnava uporabo digitalnih tehnologij managerjev v času pandemije covida-19 ter njihovo uporabo in uveljavitev v delovnem procesu, tudi po koncu epidemije. Digitalne tehnologije prispevajo k prilagodljivosti zaposlenih, saj omogočajo delo od doma oziroma delo na daljavo, hkrati pa ohranjajo produktivnost. Ta prilagodljivost je bila še posebej ključna med epidemijo, ko so bili fizični stiki omejeni. Podjetjem omogoča hitro prilagajanje spreminjajočim se razmeram, hkrati pa delavcem omogoča, da uskladijo svoje obveznosti z zahtevami osebnega življenja. Povečujeta se njihovo zadovoljstvo pri delu in predanost. Ključna digitalna orodja, ki so bila med pandemijo še posebej dragocena, vključujejo orodja za podporo sestankov in videoklice platforme za sodelovanje pri izmenjavi dokumentov in vodenja projektov ter napredna komunikacijska orodja, kot so aplikacije za komuniciranje in virtualni delovni prostori. Poleg tega je ključnega pomena upoštevati varnostne posledice uporabe tehnologij glede na porast transakcij in komunikacij, ki povečujejo tveganje kibernetskih groženj in kršitev varnosti podatkov. Zato je ključnega pomena, da vodje in zaposleni pridobijo znanja in spretnosti za uporabo digitalnih orodij, podjetja pa morajo izvajati inovativne varnostne ukrepe za zaščito podatkov in delovne sile. V diplomskem delu smo raziskovali, kako je uvedba orodij vplivala na učinkovitost delovnih postopkov in zadovoljstvo zaposlenih v podjetjih med izbruhom covida-19. Poleg tega smo proučili pristope, ki jih uporabljajo organizacije pri uvajanju tehnologij v svoje dejavnosti, in izzive, s katerimi so se pri tem srečale. Na koncu so podana priporočila za izkoriščanje potenciala vseh tehnologij na delovnih mestih za povečanje prilagodljivosti, produktivnosti in zadovoljstva zaposlenih, ne glede na zdravstvene ali druge izredne razmere.
Keywords: digitalne tehnologije, vodenje na daljavo, covid-19, sprememba poteka dela, uporaba digitalnih tehnologij v prihodnje, management, vodenje.
Published in DKUM: 09.07.2024; Views: 46; Downloads: 5
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4.
Has the COVID-19 pandemic affected mathematics achievement? : a case study of university students in social sciences
Anja Žnidaršič, Alenka Brezavšček, Gregor Rus, Janja Jerebic, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: This study examines the effects of COVID-19-related measures on the mathematics achievement of university students in social sciences in Slovenia. Our particular concern was to compare two student populations (pre-pandemic and pandemic) in terms of factors affecting student performance in mathematics courses. Data were collected over nine consecutive academic years (from 2013–2014 to 2020–2021) and analyzed using two-stage structural equation modelling (SEM). The analyses confirmed that the conceptual model developed before the pandemic was applicable during the pandemic period. For both populations (pre-pandemic and pandemic), mathematics confidence, perceived level of math anxiety, background knowledge from secondary school, and self-engagement in mathematics courses at university were confirmed as factors influencing mathematics achievement. Moreover, both populations perceived the effects of the factors in the same way, and the magnitude of the effects is comparable. The rather high values of determination coefficient for mathematics achievement (greater than 0.66 for both student populations) indicate that the variables “Perceived Level of Math Anxiety” and “Self-Engagement in Mathematics Course at University” together explain a significant proportion of the total variance before and during the pandemic. Consequently, the results of our case study indicated that pandemic measures did not have a significant impact on our students’ mathematics achievement. Although a more in-depth study of a broader sample of academic courses would be needed to confirm our findings, our experience indicates that mathematics courses at the tertiary level of education can be successfully delivered online.
Keywords: COVID-19, mathematics achievement, university students, social sciences, pre-pandemic population, pandemic population, comparison, multi-group structural equation modeling (MG-SEM)
Published in DKUM: 09.07.2024; Views: 37; Downloads: 2
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5.
Differences in treating patients with palpitations at the primary healthcare level using telemedical device Savvy before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
Staša Vodička, Erika Zelko, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: Palpitations are one of most common reasons why a patient visits a general practitioner (GP) and is referred to a cardiologist. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with new-onset arrhythmias, which are difficult to diagnose at the primary healthcare level during pandemic-related lockdown periods. Methods: A total of 151 patients with a complaint of heart rhythm disorder were included from before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as after the start of vaccination, in this cohort retrospective study. We used a telemedical device-namely, a personal electrocardiographic (ECG) sensor called Savvy-to investigate heart rhythm in patients. The primary outcome of the study was to evaluate the number of actual heart rhythm disorder patients and any differences that infection with or vaccination for COVID-19 had on patients handled in a primary healthcare setting. Results: We found a heart rhythm disorder in 8.6% of patients before the COVID-19 pandemic and in 15.2-17.9% of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, where the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.002). During the COVID-19 pandemic, we found a heart rhythm disorder in almost 50% of patients that had tested positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus) more than one month ago. After the vaccinations started, we also found a heart rhythm disorder in almost 50% of non-vaccinated patients. Conclusions: Using a telemedical approach or remote consultation is a useful method, at the primary healthcare level, for diagnosing and treating patients with palpitations during times of lockdown.
Keywords: COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, cardiac arrhythmia, primary healthcare level, referrals, telemedicine
Published in DKUM: 08.07.2024; Views: 24; Downloads: 2
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6.
How did general practices organize care during the COVID-19 pandemic : the protocol of the cross-sectional PRICOV-19 study in 38 countries
Esther Van Poel, Piet Van den Bussche, Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, Sara Willems, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: General practitioners (GPs) play a crucial role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic as the first point of contact for possibly infected patients and are responsible for short and long-term follow-up care of the majority of COVID-19 patients. Nonetheless, they experience many barriers to fulfilling this role. The PRICOV-19 study investigates how GP practices in 38 countries are organized during the COVID-19 pandemic to guarantee safe, effective, patient-centered, and equitable care. Also, the shift in roles and tasks and the wellbeing of staff members is researched. Finally, PRICOV-19 aims to study the association with practice- and health care system characteristics. It is expected that both characteristics of the GP practice and health care system features are associated with how GP practices can cope with these challenges. This paper describes the protocol of the study. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, data are collected through an online questionnaire sent to GP practices in 37 European countries and Israel. The questionnaire is developed in multiple phases, including a pilot study in Belgium. The final version includes 53 items divided into six sections: patient flow (including appointments, triage, and management for routine care); infection prevention; information processing; communication; collaboration and self-care; and practice and participant characteristics. In the countries where data collection is already finished, between 13 and 636 GP practices per country participated in the study. Questionnaire data are linked with OECD and HSMR data regarding national policy responses to the pandemic and analyzed using multilevel models considering the system- and practice-level. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, the PRICOV-19 study is the largest and most comprehensive study that examines how GP practices function during the COVID-19 pandemic. Its results can significantly contribute to better preparedness of primary health care systems across Europe for future major outbreaks of infectious diseases.
Keywords: family medicine, primary health care, COVID-19
Published in DKUM: 05.07.2024; Views: 67; Downloads: 3
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7.
SME top management perception of environmental uncertainty and gender differences during COVID-19
Sabina Veršič, Polona Tominc, Tjaša Štrukelj, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Environmental scanning has become increasingly crucial for an organisation’s existence and a matter of interest for scholars and professionals. This research presents an outline of the situation in the field of multidimensional environmental scanning, focusing on Slovenian micro, small and medium sized organisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the paper aims to examine if top managers perceive the multidimensional (external) environment as uncertain and if there have been gender differences in multidimensional (external) environmental uncertainty perception during the COVID-19 pandemic. We researched the field of ecological, social, technological, economic, and political–legal environments. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test and descriptive statistics were used to test the research hypotheses. The results show that top managers are not aware enough of multidimensional environmental uncertainty. They do not perceive the ecological and social environment as unpredictable at all. Among the studied environments, they perceive the political–legal environment as most unpredictable. There are no statistically significant gender differences in perceptions of ecological, social, technological, economic, and political–legal environmental uncertainty. We suggest SME top managers pay more attention to environmental uncertainty and use environmental scanning methods to achieve more sustainable development.
Keywords: strategic management, environmental uncertainty, ecological environment, social environment, technological environment, economic environment, political–legal environment, SME top managers, COVID-19 pandemic, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 05.07.2024; Views: 75; Downloads: 15
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8.
Crisis management and CSR in Slovenian companies : the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
Duško Uršič, Andrej Smogavc Cestar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The main aim of this article was to outline how the appearance of COVID-19 changed the global competitiveness of Slovenian companies through the lenses of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and crisis management. Based on concepts of CSR and crisis management, we analyzed the responses of companies to ensure their competitiveness in a crisis situation. Two surveys among managers in Slovenian companies were carried out, one in March 2020 (N = 618) and the other in May 2020 (N = 486). Our results showed that internationally oriented companies responded more comprehensively and proactively to the challenges of doing business in the COVID-19 crisis compared to the companies that had operated mainly in the domestic market during this period. The analysis also showed that internationally oriented companies responded to the COVID-19 crisis with more comprehensive measures also using the concept of CSR and crisis management in comparison with companies that, in the time of the pandemic, operated mainly in the domestic market and used fewer principles of CSR and crisis management. The main theoretical implications of this survey are related to CSR development. They emphasize the interdependent importance of experience and impact in international business in connection with the concept of CSR and crisis management in times of COVID-19. Practical implications include proposals to streamline operations to maintain competitiveness and to take advantage of new business opportunities and effects, which are also encouraged through the use of the CSR concept and crisis management.
Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, companies, competitiveness, CSR, crisis management, Slovenia
Published in DKUM: 05.07.2024; Views: 71; Downloads: 15
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9.
Confronting SARS-CoV-2 infection : patients’ experience in the first pandemic wave - cross-sectional study
Maja Sočan, Vanja Erčulj, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the real-life experience of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Slovenia in the first pandemic wave and how the buffering effect of social and informational support affected negative feelings. We used a self-administrated questionnaire. There were 1182 eligible notified cases with the response rate 64.9%. At least 62% of responders were able to follow the isolation rules, while 21.1% did not or could not organize their living separately from other household members. The main providers during the isolation period were close family members. The most prevalent emotion in our study was worry (70.3%) and fear (37.6%). Worry and fear during the illness were less probable for men than women, but more probable for older patients. Participants with strong emotional support had lower odds of being sad. Those who were exposed to a larger number of sources of information had higher odds of being worried. Those patients who used a higher number of more credible sources of information had higher odds of being afraid during illness. Pets did not play a special role in psychological well-being. The role of the media and public health communications should be explored further to achieve an improved response.
Keywords: COVID-19, first pandemic wave, isolation, information, social support, feelings, stigma
Published in DKUM: 04.07.2024; Views: 63; Downloads: 10
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10.
STEMI patients in the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in northeast Slovenia - a retrospective, single-center observational study
Andreja Sinkovič, Manja Kraševec, David Šuran, Martin Marinšek, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in most countries. We aimed to retrospectively assess the admissions, treatments, complications, and mortality of STEMI patients in the northeast of Slovenia during the first (March–May 2020) and second waves (October–December 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic and to compare them with data from 2019 (March–October). Comparing 2019 and both waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, we observed nonsignificant differences in the number of STEMI admissions, baseline characteristics, use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within the first 3 (40.5%* vs. 38.7% vs. 25%*, *p = 0.074) or 6 h, TIMI III flow after primary PCI, and hospital complications, as well as significant increases in hospital heart failure (23.3% vs. 42%, p = 0.015) and mitral regurgitation in the second wave (10% vs. 26.9%, p = 0.008) of the pandemic and a nonsignificant increase in hospital mortality (8.9% vs. 9.4% vs. 13.6%) during both waves of the pandemic. We conclude that, due to the increased severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in the second wave, there were longer delays to primary PCI in STEMI patients, resulting in significantly increased hospital heart failure and non-significantly increased hospital mortality.
Keywords: ST-elevation myocardial infarction, COVID-19, time delay, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, heart failure, mortality, pandemic
Published in DKUM: 04.07.2024; Views: 58; Downloads: 14
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