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1.
A Short review of chain controlling systems in livestock production technology
Dejan Škorjanc, Maksimiljan Brus, Igor Vojtic, 2005, review article

Abstract: There is a general agreement that the main reason for domestication was to provide a reliable source of food protein. Wild animals were hunted for thousands of years, killed for meat, wool, fur, and liquid by our predecesors.This one-way relationship between humans and animals was changed much later, during domastication and until know, the men took responsibility for animals and changed and developed different production system and ethical relationship with animals. After Second World War, the governments tried to change so called traditional agriculture to more intensive. Animals have been kept in high concentration and for the continuous production as a consequence,disease control became essential. European Union issued the paper on food safety (White paper on food safety 2000) where the EU commission triedto push forward a framework of legislation for further improvement and to develope more transparent and improved quality standards throughout a food chain from farm to table. This paper reviews a number of recent developments, starting with an integrated quality control system that collecting important data from the animal birth, through to the animal rearing phase to the end (i.e. slaughter). The importance of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is discussed together with their concepts to assure safe animal food production.
Keywords: animals, chain controlling systems, food safety
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 425; Downloads: 10
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2.
International Clostridium difficile animal strain collection and large diversity of animal associated strains
Sandra Janežič, Valerija Tkalec, Bart Pardon, Alexander Indra, Branko Kokotovic, Jose Luis Blanco, Christian Seyboldt, Rodriguez Diaz, Ian Poxton, Vincent Perreten, Ilenia Drigo, Alena Jiraskova, Matjaž Ocepek, Scott Weese, Glenn Songer, Mark Wilcox, Maja Rupnik, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile strains from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria of one strain (PCR ribotype) per animal species per laboratory. Results: Altogether 112 isolates were collected and distributed into 38 PCR ribotypes with agarose based approach and 50 PCR ribotypes with sequencer based approach. Four PCR ribotypes were most prevalent in terms of number of isolates as well as in terms of number of different host species: 078 (14.3% of isolates; 4 hosts), 014/020 (11.6%; 8 hosts); 002 (5.4%; 4 hosts) and 012 (5.4%; 5 hosts). Two animal hosts were best represented; cattle with 31 isolates (20 PCR ribotypes; 7 countries) and pigs with 31 isolates (16 PCR ribotypes; 10 countries). Conclusions: This results show that although PCR ribotype 078 is often reported as the major animal C. difficile type, especially in pigs, the variability of strains in pigs and other animal hosts is substantial. Most common human PCR ribotypes (014/020 and 002) are also among most prevalent animal associated C. difficile strains worldwide. The widespread dissemination of toxigenic C. difficile and the considerable overlap in strain distribution between species furthers concerns about interspecies, including zoonotic, transmission of this critically important pathogen.
Keywords: Clostridium difficile, animals, ribotyping, geographic distribution, strain collection
Published: 29.06.2017; Views: 409; Downloads: 207
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3.
Identification of risk factors influencing Clostridium difficile prevalence in middle-size dairy farms
Petra Bandelj, Rok Blagus, France Briški, Olga Frlic, Aleksandra Vergles-Rataj, Maja Rupnik, Matjaž Ocepek, Modest Vengušt, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Farm animals have been suggested to play an important role in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the community. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with C. difficile dissemination in family dairy farms, which are the most common farming model in the European Union. Environmental samples and fecal samples from cows and calves were collected repeatedly over a 1 year period on 20 mid-size family dairy farms. Clostridium difficile was detected in cattle feces on all farms using qPCR. The average prevalence between farms was 10% (0-44.4%) and 35.7% (3.7-66.7%) in cows and calves, respectively. Bacterial culture yielded 103 C. difficile isolates from cattle and 61 from the environment. Most C. difficile isolates were PCR-ribotype 033. A univariate mixed effect model analysis of risk factors associated dietary changes with increasing C. difficile prevalence in cows (P = 0.0004); and dietary changes (P = 0.004), breeding Simmental cattle (P = 0.001), mastitis (P = 0.003) and antibiotic treatment (P = 0.003) in calves. Multivariate analysis of risk factors found that dietary changes in cows (P = 0.0001) and calves (P = 0.002) increase C. difficile prevalence; mastitis was identified as a risk factor in calves (P = 0.001). This study shows that C. difficile is common on dairy farms and that shedding is more influenced by farm management than environmental factors. Based on molecular typing of C. difficile isolates, it could also be concluded that family dairy farms are currently not contributing to increased CDI incidence.
Keywords: farm animals, clostridium difficile infection (CDI), dairy farms
Published: 29.06.2017; Views: 404; Downloads: 189
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