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Characterization of cast Al86Mn3Be11 alloy
Tonica Bončina, Boštjan Markoli, Franc Zupanič, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: An Al86Mn3Be11 alloy cast into copper mould was subjected to metallographic investigation. The as-cast microstructure consisted of a quasicrystalline icosahedral phase (i-phase), Be4AlMn phase and, occasionally, a hexagonal phase. Al-rich solid solution represented the dominant phase. The chemical compositions of phases were determined using AES. The composition of the Be4AlMn slightly deviated from the stoichiometric composition, whereas the composition of the i-phase was approximately Al52Mn18Be30, containing an appreciable amount of Be. The average composition of the hexagonal phase was Al66Mn21Be13. Deep etching and particle extraction provided a deep insight into the three-dimensional morphology of the i-phase and the hexagonal phase, whereas Be4AlMn was slightly attacked by the etchant. The i-phase was present predominantly in the form of dendrites and a rodlike eutectic phase. The hexagonal phase was primarily in the form of hexagonal platelets, whereas Be4AlMn was rather irregular in shape. The morphology of the i-phase can be explained by predominant growth in 3-fold directions and the lowest energy of the 5-fold planes, leading to the faceting and adopting a pentagonal dodecahedron shape. The brightnesses of phases in the backscattered electron images were rationalized by determining their backscattering coefficients. TEM investigation showed considerable phason strain in the i-phase, and the polycrystalline nature of the Be4AlMn phase.
Keywords: aluminium alloys, deep etching, metallography, particle extraction, quasicrystal
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1125; Downloads: 56
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The synthesis of iron-nickel alloy nanoparticles using a reverse micelle technique
Irena Ban, Mihael Drofenik, Darko Makovec, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: Nanosized Fe0.2Ni0.8 particles were prepared by reducing their salts with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in cationic water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions of water/cetyl-trimethyl-amonium bromide (CTAB) and n-butanol/isooctane at 25 °C.According to the TEM and X-ray diffraction analyses, the synthesized particles were around 4-12 nm in size. Due to their nanodimensions, the particles had a primitive cubic (pc) structure rather than the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure of the bulk material. An examination of the synthesis from the reverse micelle reveals that the morphology of the iron-nickel alloy nanoparticles depends mainly on the microemulsion`s composition. The magnetization of the nanoparticles was much lower than that of the bulk material, reflecting the influence of the nanodimensions on the particlesć magnetizations.
Keywords: magnetic materials, nickel/iron alloys, nanoparticles, synthesis, microemulsions, magnetic properties, reverse micelles
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1188; Downloads: 61
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The solidification path of the complex metallic Al-Mn-Be alloy
Boštjan Markoli, Tonica Bončina, Franc Zupanič, 2010, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The solidification paths of the Al86.1Mn2.5Be11.4 and Al84Mn5.1Be10.9 alloys, melt spun, cast into a copper mould and controlled cooled (during DSC) were investigated by means of light-optical microscopy (LOM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with thermogravimetry (TG) or simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) line in Elletra Trieste, Italy. The constitutions of samplesfrom both alloys were examined in all three states, i.e., after melt spinning, after casting into a copper mould and after differential scanning calorimetry. It was established that in the cast and controlled-cooled specimens the alloys consisted of an aluminium-rich ▫$alpha$▫Al-matrix, and the Al4Mn and Be4AlMn phases. In the case of casting and DSC the primary crystallization began with the precipitation of the Be4AlMn phase, followed by what can most likely be characterized as a uni-variant binary eutectic reaction L > (Be4AlMn + Al4Mn). The solidification process continued with an invariant ternary eutectic reaction, where the remaining melt (L) formed the heterogeneous structure (▫$alpha$▫Al + Al4Mn + Be4AlMn) or a ternary eutectic. When extremely high cooling rates were employed, as is the case with melt-spinning,the constituting phases of both alloys were precipitated in a very small form and the Be4AlMn phase was completely absent in the form of primary polygonal particles and replaced by the icosahedral quasicrystalline phase or the i-phase. There was also no evidence of the Al4Mn phase. The distribution, size and shape of all the constituents in the melt-spun alloys also varied from the contact surface towards the free surface of the ribbons. The smallest constituents were established at the contact surface, measuring less than 0.1 ▫$mu$▫m, to 0.5 ▫$mu$▫m at the free surface. The grains of the aluminium-rich matrix had mean diameters of less than 20 ▫$mu$▫m, close to the freesurface, down to 1 m at the contact surface.
Keywords: complex Al-Mn-Be alloys, metallography, solidification
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1169; Downloads: 54
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Composition and morphology of diborides in Al-Ti-B alloys after annealing at 1873 K
Franc Zupanič, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: In the investigation, Al-Ti-B alloys with different Ti/B ratios were annealed at 1873 K for 10 hours. Under this condition diboride particles were in contact with molten aluminium. During annealing considerable growth of remaining unmelted diboride particles took place. The composition of diboride particles shifted extremely close to the composition of pure TiB2 regardless of the Ti/B ratios in the alloys, indicating that in equilibrium almost pure TiB2 coexisted with a melt. Diboride particles were bound with well-defined crystal facets. Types and relative size of the facets depended on the Ti/B ratio. It is strongly indicated that an excess of Ti (B) in the melt over that needed to form TiB2 stabilizes crystal planes having planar arrangement of Ti (B) atoms.V tej raziskavi smo več zlitin Al-Ti-B, ki so imele različna razmerja Ti/B, žarili 10 ur pri 1873 K. V teh razmerah so bili delci diborida v kontaktu z aluminijevo talino. Med žarjenjem so diboridni delci močno zrasli. Njihova sestava se je v vseh raziskanih zlitinah močno približala sestavi čistega TiB2, kar kaže, da je v termodinamskem ravnotežju s talino praktično čisti TiB2. Diboridni delci so bili obdani s kristalnimi fasetami. Vrsta in relativna velikost faset je bila močno odvisna od razmerja Ti/B. Obstajajo trdni dokazi, da presežek Ti (B) nad vrednostjo, ki je potrebna za tvorbo TiB2, stabilizira kristalne ravnine, ki imajo ravninsko razporeditev Ti (B) atomov.
Keywords: Al-Ti-B alloys, diboride phase, high-temperature annealing, morphology, microstructure
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 934; Downloads: 15
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Development of an Al-Mn-Be-Cu alloy with improved quasicrystalline forming ability
Franc Zupanič, Tonica Bončina, Niko Rozman, Ivan Anžel, Werner Grogger, Christian Gspan, Ferdinand Hofer, Boštjan Markoli, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: An Al94Mn2Be2Cu2 cast alloy was developed displaying increased quasicrystalline formation ability at moderate cooling rates. The as-cast microstructure consisted of a mainly icosahedral phase in the Al-matrix. The microstructure remained stable during uniform heating to 580 °C and isothermalannealing at 400 °C. Most of the icosahedral phase was preserved even after 24 h annealing at 500 °C. For that reason, this alloy presents a promising basis for further development of cast Al-alloys containing quasicrystals.
Keywords: alluminium alloys, casting, quasicrystals, TEM, SEM
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1138; Downloads: 64
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Metallographic techniques for the characterization of quasicrystalline phases in aluminium alloys
Tonica Bončina, Boštjan Markoli, Ivan Anžel, Franc Zupanič, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: Several Al-alloys strengthened by quasicrystalline phases have been developed over the last few years showing the considerable potential for practical application. Therefore there is a strong need for developing new metallographic methods or adapting the traditional ones in order to identify and characterize quasicrystalline phases in a reliable, quick and economical way. This paper describes different techniques: the classical metallographic method, deep etching, particle extraction technique and cross-sectioning using focused ion beam (FIB), and discusses their advantages and disadvantages when identifying quasicrystalline particles. It was discovered that particle extraction techniques are very powerful methods for the identification of phases according to their morphology, and preparation of quality samples for X-ray diffraction (XRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses are also possible provided the extracted particles are thin enough.
Keywords: alluminium alloys, quasicrystal, metallography, deep etching, particle extraction
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1231; Downloads: 72
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Metallographic sample preparation of orthodontic Ni-Ti wire
Lidija Zorko, Rebeka Rudolf, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: Shape memory alloys (SMA) has been at the forefront of research for the last several decades. In this field especially, Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys have been found to be the most useful of all SMA. The most important applications of SMA Ni-Ti alloys are namely in medicine and dentistry, where they are used as orthodontic wires. In this paper we describe the procedure of preparing metallographic samples of typical orthodontic Ni-Ti wires which are nowadays used in dentistry praxis. We prepared the samples for microstructure observation using a light microscope. Special attention is given to the metallographic preparation, which could result in damages and deformations of the sample surfaces if the procedure is incorrect. Finally, we illustrated the typical metallographic recipe for Ni-Ti SMA alloys for optical observation.
Keywords: shape memory alloys, Ni-Ti wire, metallographic preparation, microstructure
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1016; Downloads: 17
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Protection of copper and its alloys using corrosion inhibitor-literature review
Milorad V. Tomić, Miomir Pavlović, Milovan Jotanović, Regina Fuchs-Godec, 2010, original scientific article

Abstract: A review of the literature dealing with the electrochemical corrosion of copper and its alloys with purpose to find the most suitable inhibitor for its protection has been done. According to their chemical composition of corrosion inhibitors are divided into inorganic and organic inhibitors. Inhibition of alloying metals are possible (such as the addition of arsenic alloy components in brass, preventing its unzincanization). The paper reviews the theoretical basis of application of inhibitors to protect metals from corrosion as well as an overview of current research application of inhibitorsto protect copper and copper alloys. Benzotriazole (BTA) is most often used corrosion inhibitor for copper and its alloys in acidic and alkaline solution, because of its high inhibition efficiency. The lowest concentration of inhibitor for protection of copper in various solutions was 0.05%, and for the protection of copper in contact with steel is 0.1%. On the surface of copper and brass BTA forms a protective Cu-BTA film. However, BTA is like many other synthesized organic inhibitors is very toxic and if used invery small concentrations. It turnedout that the AETD, AETDA and PTAT good corrosion inhibitors of copper mixed type with the efficiency of inhibition increases with concentration. Due to the adverse effects on the environment, health and other bodies in recent times the focus of researchis transferred to the inhibiting action of biological molecules or mixtures of natural compounds called "Green inhibitors".
Keywords: corrosion inhibitors, protection of metals, inorganic inhibitors, organic inhibitors, alloys elements, green inhibitors
Published: 31.05.2012; Views: 1340; Downloads: 64
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Thermal stability of Al-Mn-Be melt-spun ribbons
Gorazd Lojen, Tonica Bončina, Franc Zupanič, 2011, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Keywords: icosahedral quasicrystals, aluminium alloys
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 869; Downloads: 42
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Microstructure of rapidly solidified Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy ribbons
Gorazd Lojen, Ivan Anžel, Albert C. Kneissl, Elfride Unterweger, Borut Kosec, Milan Bizjak, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs) are currently the only available high temperature SMAs, showing a good resistance against functional fatigue. In polycrystalline state, they are very brittle and exhibit, in general, only small reversible deformations. By melt spinning, thin Cu-Al-Ni ribbons can be manufactured directly from the melt. Appropriate casting parameters can ensurea single layer columnar structure with a fibre texture, which significantly increases the maximal reversible strain in longitudinal direction. Cu-Al-Ni ribbons, containing 13, 14 and 15 wt.% Al were cast by free jet melt spinning. Because of the alloys' low thermal conductivity, the cooling rate was surprisingly low - considering the crystal grain size - significantly below 103 K/s. Therefore, wide ribbons having a single layer columnar and (except the ribbons containing 13 wt.% Al) completely martensiticstructure could not be obtained. Regardless the chemical composition, the ribbons have a single layer columnar structure only if the thickness does not exceed approximately 50 m, otherwise the structure consists of at least two layers of equiaxed grains. In as-cast condition, only ribbons containing 13 wt.% Al seem to be completely martensitic. Heat treatments at temperatures up to 900 °C improved the structure of 13 and 14 wt.% Al ribbons. All ribbons exhibit one-way shape memory effect in as-cast condition. Heat-treated ribbons containing 13 wt.% Al exhibited two-way shape memory effect already after one bending and heating cycle.
Keywords: metallurgy, shape memory alloys, Cu-Al-Ni alloy, microstructure, melt spinning
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1103; Downloads: 66
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