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Analysis of dynamics and fit of diving suits
Maja Mahnić, Slavenka Petrak, Jelka Geršak, Tomislav Rolich, 2017, published scientific conference contribution

Keywords: textile fabrics, 3D body scanning, 3D simulation, garment design
Published in DKUM: 04.04.2018; Views: 906; Downloads: 248
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Simulating various terrestrial and UAV LiDAR scanning configurations for understory forest structure modelling
Marina Hämmerle, Niko Lukač, K.-C. Chen, Zsófia Koma, C.-K. Wang, K. Anders, B. Höfle, 2017, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: Information about the 3D structure of understory vegetation is of high relevance in forestry research and management (e.g., for complete biomass estimations). However, it has been hardly investigated systematically with state-of-the-art methods such as static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or laser scanning from unmanned aerial vehicle platforms (ULS). A prominent challenge for scanning forests is posed by occlusion, calling for proper TLS scan position or ULS flight line configurations in order to achieve an accurate representation of understory vegetation. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of TLS or ULS scanning strategies on (1) the height of individual understory trees and (2) understory canopy height raster models. We simulate full-waveform TLS and ULS point clouds of a virtual forest plot captured from various combinations of max. 12 TLS scan positions or 3 ULS flight lines. The accuracy of the respective datasets is evaluated with reference values given by the virtually scanned 3D triangle mesh tree models. TLS tree height underestimations range up to 1.84 m (15.30 % of tree height) for single TLS scan positions, but combining three scan positions reduces the underestimation to maximum 0.31 m (2.41 %). Combining ULS flight lines also results in improved tree height representation, with a maximum underestimation of 0.24 m (2.15 %). The presented simulation approach offers a complementary source of information for efficient planning of field campaigns aiming at understory vegetation modelling.
Keywords: forest structure, understory, laser scanning simulation, full waveform, 3D point cloud analysis, field campaign planning
Published in DKUM: 09.10.2017; Views: 1417; Downloads: 364
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Mathematical model for the selection of processing parameters in selective laser sintering of polymer products
Ana Pilipović, Igor Drstvenšek, Mladen Šercer, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly applied in the development projects from the initial idea to the finished product. The reasons are multiple, but what should be emphasised is the possibility of relatively rapid manufacturing of the products of complicated geometry based on the computer 3D model of the product. There are numerous limitations primarily in the number of available materials and their properties, which may be quite different from the properties of the material of the finished product. Therefore, it is necessary to know the properties of the product materials. In AM procedures the mechanical properties of materials are affected by the manufacturing procedure and the production parameters. During SLS procedures it is possible to adjust various manufacturing parameters which are used to influence the improvement of various mechanical and other properties of the products. The paper sets a new mathematical model to determine the influence of individual manufacturing parameters on the polymer product made by selective laser sintering. Old mathematical model is checked by statistical method with central composite plan and it is established that old mathematical model must be expanded with new parameter beam overlay ratio. Verification of new mathematical model and optimization of the processing parameters are made on SLS machine.
Keywords: manufacturing system, inteligent methods, 3D scanning
Published in DKUM: 12.07.2017; Views: 923; Downloads: 355
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The characterization of phase transformations in rapidly solidified Al-Fe and Cu-Fe alloys through measurements of the electrical resistance and DSC
Milan Bizjak, Ladislav Kosec, Borut Kosec, Ivan Anžel, 2006, original scientific article

Abstract: For the characterization of the phase transformations in the alloys during the heat treatment the various methods of the thermal analyses are available. Thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are the most frequently used methods. The phase transformations proceed in two stages, i.e. nucleation and the growth of the new phase. Both processes are closely linked with the movement of the atoms. Rapidly solidified alloys often contain the elements with the low diffusivity. During the transition from the unstable to the stable state the energy changes are small, therefore the characterization of the changes by DTA, DSC is very difficult and could not be measured. During the heat treatment the phase transformations of the rapidly solidified alloys of Al-Fe and Cu-Fe were successfully detected by the simultaneous measurements of the electrical resistance, and were compared by the DSC method. By determination of the temperature regions of the phase transitions or temperatures, where the dynamics of the changes is maximal, the samples were heat treated and analysed by the scanning and transmission electron microscopy respectively.
Keywords: rapidly solidified Al-Fe alloy, rapidly solidified Cu-Fe alloy, transformations, electrical resistance, differential scanning calorimetry
Published in DKUM: 03.07.2017; Views: 1660; Downloads: 113
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A benchmark of lidar-based single tree detection methods using heterogeneous forest data from the alpine space
Lothar Eysn, Markus Hollaus, Eva Lindberg, Frédéric Berger, Jean-Matthieu Monnet, Michele Dalponte, Milan Kobal, Marco Antonio Pellegrini, Emanuele Lingua, Domen Mongus, Norbert Pfeifer, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: In this study, eight airborne laser scanning (ALS)-based single tree detection methods are benchmarked and investigated. The methods were applied to a unique dataset originating from different regions of the Alpine Space covering different study areas, forest types, and structures. This is the first benchmark ever performed for different forests within the Alps. The evaluation of the detection results was carried out in a reproducible way by automatically matching them to precise in situ forest inventory data using a restricted nearest neighbor detection approach. Quantitative statistical parameters such as percentages of correctly matched trees and omission and commission errors are presented. The proposed automated matching procedure presented herein shows an overall accuracy of 97%. Method based analysis, investigations per forest type, and an overall benchmark performance are presented. The best matching rate was obtained for single-layered coniferous forests. Dominated trees were challenging for all methods. The overall performance shows a matching rate of 47%, which is comparable to results of other benchmarks performed in the past. The study provides new insight regarding the potential and limits of tree detection with ALS and underlines some key aspects regarding the choice of method when performing single tree detection for the various forest types encountered in alpine regions.
Keywords: single tree extraction, airborne laser scanning, forest inventory, comparative testing, co-registration, mountain forests, Alpine space, matching
Published in DKUM: 21.06.2017; Views: 842; Downloads: 355
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DSC/TG of Al-based alloyed powders for p/m applications
Borivoj Šuštaršič, Jože Medved, Srečko Glodež, Marko Šori, Albert Korošec, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Al-based alloyed powders, appropriate for the sintering procedure (powder metallurgy, P/M) contain the alloying elements with a high solid solubility in Al, enabling reaction and liquid-phase sintering. They are surface oxidised because of a high affinity of Al to oxygen. Besides, this type of powders contains a polymeric lubricant (wax), which reduces the friction on die walls during automatic die compaction into the final compact shape of a product. This lubricant has to be removed slowly during the first stage of sintering in order to prevent deformations and cracking of the product. Consequently, its sintering is very complex. Generally, these powders are sintered in pure nitrogen with a low dew point. The optimum sintering conditions are generally determined on the basis of light and scanning electron microscopy. The investigation can also be completed very successively with differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetry. The first one allows an insight into the endo- and exothermic reactions, taking place during the heating and cooling of a compacted metal powder, and the second one allows an insight into the processes, connected with the mass loss (a reduction, a lubricant removal, etc.) or mass increase (an oxidation). The DSC/TG of three commercial Al-based alloyed powders was performed in the frame of our investigations. The results were compared with the theoretical thermodynamic-based calculations and the optimum sintering conditions were proposed.
Keywords: aluminium powders, sintering, differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetry
Published in DKUM: 15.03.2017; Views: 1001; Downloads: 110
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Possibilities of using three-dimensional optical scanning in complex geometrical inspection
Tomaž Brajlih, Tadej Tasič, Igor Drstvenšek, Bogdan Valentan, Miodrag Hadžistević, Vojko Pogačar, Jože Balič, Bojan Ačko, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Brezkontaktno optično zajemanje, merjenje in digitalizacija postajajo vedno bolj razširjeni postopki v sistemih zagotavljanja kakovosti. Prednosti optičnega skeniranja v primerjavi s konvencionalnimi kontaktnimi merilnimi postopki so preprosto zajemanje, visoka gostota pridobljenih podatkov ter povezava med povratnim inženirstvom in preverjanjem oblike. Optični skener se zaradi trirazsežnega zajemanja podatkov pogosto obravnava kot alternativa koordinatni merilni napravi. Prednost optičnega skeniranja je predvsem večja hitrost zajemanja podatkov, medtem ko natančnost še ne dosega ravni koordinatne merilne tehnike. Ta prispevek obravnava možnosti uporabe optičnega skenerja pri preverjanju natančnosti izdelave. Predstavljen je primer, pri katerem je za preverjanje natančnosti izdelka uporabljen optični skener GOM ATOS II. V prvem delu prispevka je predstavljeno specifično področje preverjanja natančnosti medicinskih vsadkov. Predstavljene so prednosti, zaradi katerih je optično skeniranje pri takšnih izdelkih primernejše od koordinatnega merjenja. V drugem delu prispevka so predstavljeni rezultati optičnega zajemanja geometrije merilnih kladic ter merilna negotovost postopka. V zadnjem delu je predstavljena neposredna primerjava rezultatov optičnega skeniranja in koordinatnega merjenja krogle. Glede na rezultate merjenja merilnih kladic in primerjave rezultatov merjenja krogle smo dokazali, da je natančnost optičnega skenerja GOM ATOS II primerna za preverjanje oblike medicinskih vsadkov z ozirom na zahtevano natančnost izdelka pred samim operacijskim posegom. Nadaljnje raziskave na tem področju bodo namenjene predvsem ločevanju in vrednotenju merilnih pogreškov optičnega zajemanja, ki so posledica nenatančnosti same naprave ter pogreškov, ki nastajajo zaradi naknadne poobdelave (poligonizacije) zajetih podatkov. Preizkus natančnosti optičnega sistema je bil omejen na merjenje merilnih kladic in na primerjavo meritve krogle s koordinatno merilno napravo. Prispevek predstavlja izvirno področje preverjanja natančnosti izdelave kompleksnih geometrijskih oblik. Predstavljena sta postopek zajemanja in poobdelave podatkov ter metoda preizkusa natančnosti naprave. Prispevek je namenjen vsem, ki se ukvarjajo s preverjanjem kompleksnih geometrijskih oblik, saj se bo z razvojem novih sistemov za optično zajemanje oblik povečevala tudi njihova natančnost. Te naprave bodo zato postajale vedno pomembnejše na širšem področju zagotavljanja kakovosti in ne samo na specifičnem primeru, predstavljenem v tem članku.
Keywords: 3D optical scanning, uncertainty of measurement, geometry inspection, rapid manufacturing, reverse enginering, quality assurance
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1343; Downloads: 124
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Subsolidus phase equilibria and the Li[sub]5Nd[sub]4FeO[sub]10 phase in the Li[sub]2O-Nd[sub]2O[sub]3-Fe[sub]2O[sub]3 system
Irena Ban, Mihael Drofenik, Danilo Suvorov, Darko Makovec, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: A survey of the subsolidus phase equilibria in the system Li2O-Nd2O3-Fe2O3 wasmade at subsolidus temperatures in the range 1000-1050 °C. A ternary phase was identified. The phase is centered on Li5Nd4FeO10, with a cubic lattice a =11.9494 A. The compound melts incongruently at 1105 °C. The magnetic susceptibility was measured in the temperature range 4-300 K. The compound is paramagnetic in the temperature range 150-300 K and follows the Curie-Weiss law. At about TN = 10 K, a long-range magnetic ordering is observed.
Keywords: lithium ferrites, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, magnetic properties, phase equilibrium
Published in DKUM: 01.06.2012; Views: 2079; Downloads: 34
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