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2. NZflows in strong products of graphsWilfried Imrich, Iztok Peterin, Simon Špacapan, CunQuan Zhang, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: Za krepki produkt ▫$G_1 boxtimes G_2$▫ grafov ▫$G_1$▫ in ▫$G_2$▫ dokažemo, da je ▫${mathbb{Z}}_3$▫pretočno kontraktibilen natanko tedaj, ko ▫$G_1 boxtimes G_2$▫ ni izomorfen ▫$Tboxtimes K_2$▫ (kar poimenujemo ▫$K_4$▫drevo), kjer je ▫$T$▫ drevo. Sledi, da za ▫$G_1 boxtimes G_2$▫ obstaja NZ 3pretok, razen če je ▫$G_1 boxtimes G_2$▫ ▫$K_4$▫drevo. Dokaz je konstruktiven in implicira polinomski algoritem, ki nam vrne NZ 3pretok, če ▫$G_1 boxtimes G_2$▫ ni ▫$K_4$▫drevo, oziroma NZ 4pretok sicer. Ključne besede: matematika, teorija grafov, celoštevilski pretoki, krepki produkt, poti, cikli, nikjer ničelni pretok, mathematics, graph theory, integer flows, strong product, paths, cycles Objavljeno: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 337; Prenosov: 56 Povezava na celotno besedilo 
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4. Progressive fastICA peeloff and convolution kernel compensation demonstrate high agreement for high density surface EMG decompositionMaoqi Chen, Aleš Holobar, Xu Zhang, Ping Zhou, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: Decomposition of electromyograms (EMG) is a key approach to investigating motor unit plasticity. Various signal processing techniques have been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition, among which the convolution kernel compensation (CKC) has achieved high decomposition yield with extensive validation. Very recently, a progressive FastICA peeloff (PFP) framework has also been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition. In this study, the CKC and PFP methods were independently applied to decompose the same sets of high density surface EMG signals. Across 91 trials of 64channel surface EMG signals recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of 9 neurologically intact subjects, there were a total of 1477 motor units identified from the two methods, including 969 common motor units. On average, 10.6 ± 4.3 common motor units were identified from each trial, which showed a very high matching rate of 97.85 ± 1.85% in their discharge instants. The high degree of agreement of common motor units from the CKC and the PFP processing provides supportive evidence of the decomposition accuracy for both methods. The different motor units obtained from each method also suggest that combination of the two methods may have the potential to further increase the decomposition yield. Ključne besede: EMG, electromyograms, muscle, convultions Objavljeno: 15.06.2017; Ogledov: 381; Prenosov: 172 Celotno besedilo (1,18 MB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

5. Different reactions to adverse neighborhoods in games of cooperationChunyan Zhang, Jianlei Zhang, Franz Weissing, Matjaž Perc, Guangming Xie, Long Wang, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: In social dilemmas, cooperation among randomly interacting individuals is often difficult to achieve. The situation changes if interactions take place in a network where the network structure jointly evolves with the behavioral strategies of the interacting individuals. In particular, cooperation can be stabilized if individuals tend to cut interaction links when facing adverse neighborhoods. Here we consider two different types of reaction to adverse neighborhoods, and all possible mixtures between these reactions. When faced with a gloomy outlook, players can either choose to cut and rewire some of their links to other individuals, or they can migrate to another location and establish new links in the new local neighborhood. We find that in general local rewiring is more favorable for the evolution of cooperation than emigration from adverse neighborhoods. Rewiring helps to maintain the diversity in the degree distribution of players and favors the spontaneous emergence of cooperative clusters. Both properties are known to favor the evolution of cooperation on networks. Interestingly, a mixture of migration and rewiring is even more favorable for the evolution of cooperation than rewiring on its own. While most models only consider a single type of reaction to adverse neighborhoods, the coexistence of several such reactions may actually be an optimal setting for the evolution of cooperation. Ključne besede: cooperation, public goods, phase transitions, social dilemmas, coevolution, physics of social systems Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 452; Prenosov: 199 Celotno besedilo (481,90 KB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

6. Evolution of interactions and cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma gameChunyan Zhang, Jianlei Zhang, Guangming Xie, Long Wang, Matjaž Perc, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are allowed to establish new interactions with others. By employing a simple coevolutionary rule entailing only two crucial parameters, we find that different selection criteria for the new interaction partners as well as their number vitally affect the outcome of the game. The resolution of the social dilemma is most probable if the selection favors more successful players and if their maximally attainable number is restricted. While the preferential selection of the best players promotes cooperation irrespective of game parametrization, the optimal number of new interactions depends somewhat on the temptation to defect. Our findings reveal that the "making of new friends" may be an important activity for the successful evolution of cooperation, but also that partners must be selected carefully and their number limited. Ključne besede: evolutionary games, prisoner's dilemma, coevolution, complex networks, friendship Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 237; Prenosov: 192 Celotno besedilo (309,95 KB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

7. Resolution of the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma by means of particle swarm optimizationJianlei Zhang, Chunyan Zhang, Tianguang Chu, Matjaž Perc, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: We study the evolution of cooperation among selfish individuals in the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We equip players with the particle swarm optimization technique, and find that it may lead to highly cooperative states even if the temptations to defect are strong. The concept of particle swarm optimization was originally introduced within a simple model of social dynamics that can describe the formation of a swarm, i.e., analogous to a swarm of bees searching for a food source. Essentially, particle swarm optimization foresees changes in the velocity profile of each player, such that the best locations are targeted and eventually occupied. In our case, each player keeps track of the highest payoff attained within a local topological neighborhood and its individual highest payoff. Thus, players make use of their own memory that keeps score of the most profitable strategy in previous actions, as well as use of the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, to find the best available strategy for themselves and the society. Following extensive simulations of this setup, we find a significant increase in the level of cooperation for a wide range of parameters, and also a full resolution of the prisoner's dilemma. We also demonstrate extreme efficiency of the optimization algorithm when dealing with environments that strongly favor the proliferation of defection, which in turn suggests that swarming could be an important phenomenon by means of which cooperation can be sustained even under highly unfavorable conditions. We thus present an alternative way of understanding the evolution of cooperative behavior and its ubiquitous presence in nature, and we hope that this study will be inspirational for future efforts aimed in this direction. Ključne besede: cooperation, prisoner's dilemma, particle swarm optimization, stochastic strategies Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 392; Prenosov: 186 Celotno besedilo (627,24 KB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

8. Winstayloselearn promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma gameYongkui Liu, Xiaojie Chen, Lin Zhang, Long Wang, Matjaž Perc, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: Holding on to one's strategy is natural and common if the later warrants success and satisfaction. This goes against widespread simulation practices of evolutionary games, where players frequently consider changing their strategy even though their payoffs may be marginally different than those of the other players. Inspired by this observation, we introduce an aspirationbased winstayloselearn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are not subject to change. We find that the proposed winstayloselearn rule promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and independently of the initial conditions. In fact, we show that even a minute initial fraction of cooperators may be sufficient to eventually secure a highly cooperative final state. In addition to extensive simulation results that support our conclusions, we also present results obtained by means of the pair approximation of the studied game. Our findings continue the success story of related winstay strategy updating rules, and by doing so reveal new ways of resolving the prisoner's dilemma. Ključne besede: social dilemmas, prisoner's dilemma, cooperation, networks Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 359; Prenosov: 196 Celotno besedilo (390,56 KB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

9. Evolution of conditional cooperation under multilevel selectionHuanren Zhang, Matjaž Perc, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: We study the emergence of conditional cooperation in the presence of both intragroup and intergroup selection. Individuals play public goods games within their groups using conditional strategies, which are represented as piecewise linear response functions. Accordingly, groups engage in conflicts with a certain probability. In contrast to previous studies, we consider continuous contribution levels and a rich set of conditional strategies, allowing for a wide range of possible interactions between strategies. We find that the existence of conditional strategies enables the stabilization of cooperation even under strong intragroup selection. The strategy that eventually dominates in the population has two key properties: (i) It is unexploitable with strong intragroup selection; (ii) It can achieve full contribution to outperform other strategies in the intergroup selection. The success of this strategy is robust to initial conditions as well as changes to important parameters. We also investigate the influence of different factors on cooperation levels, including group conflicts, group size, and migration rate. Their effect on cooperation can be attributed to and explained by their influence on the relative strength of intragroup and intergroup selection. Ključne besede: conditional cooperation, public goods, multilevel selection, physics of social systems Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 223; Prenosov: 186 Celotno besedilo (1,65 MB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

10. Regulation of irregular neuronal firing by autaptic transmissionDaqing Guo, Shengdun Wu, Mingming Chen, Matjaž Perc, Yangsong Zhang, Jingling Ma, Yan Cui, Peng Xu, Yang Xia, Dezhong Yao, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: The importance of selffeedback autaptic transmission in modulating spiketime irregularity is still poorly understood. By using a biophysical model that incorporates autaptic coupling, we here show that selfinnervation of neurons participates in the modulation of irregular neuronal firing, primarily by regulating the occurrence frequency of burst firing. In particular, we find that both excitatory and electrical autapses increase the occurrence of burst firing, thus reducing neuronal firing regularity. In contrast, inhibitory autapses suppress burst firing and therefore tend to improve the regularity of neuronal firing. Importantly, we show that these findings are independent of the firing properties of individual neurons, and as such can be observed for neurons operating in different modes. Our results provide an insightful mechanistic understanding of how different types of autapses shape irregular firing at the singleneuron level, and they highlight the functional importance of autaptic selfinnervation in taming and modulating neurodynamics. Ključne besede: neuronal dynamics, autapse, regulation, excitation Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 399; Prenosov: 219 Celotno besedilo (2,65 MB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...
