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Comparison of the mechanical properties of hardfacings made by standard coated stick electrodes and a newly developed rectangular stick electrode
Edvard Bjelajac, Andrej Skumavc, Gorazd Lojen, Mirza Manjgo, Tomaž Vuherer, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Cladding with a stick electrode is one of the oldest arc processes for adding a deposit on a base material. The process is suitable for outdoor working, but the disadvantages are low productivity and large dilution rates. In this work, a simple solution is proposed, which would enable cladding of a larger area with one pass and decrease the dilution rate at the same time—a new type of electrode was developed, exhibiting a rectangular cross-section instead of a round one. Hardfacings, welded with E Fe8 electrodes according to EN 14 700 Standard were welded on mild steel S355 J2 base material with three different coated stick electrodes. The first one was a commercially available, standard, round hardfacing electrode, the second was the same, but with a thinner coating, and the third one was a newly developed rectangular electrode. All three types had equal cross-sections of the metallic core and the same type of coating. Manufacturing of the rectangular electrodes in the laboratory is explained briefly. One- and multi-layer deposits were welded with all three types. Differences were observed in the arc behavior between the round and rectangular electrodes. With the rectangular electrode, the microstructure of the deposit was finer, penetration was shallower, and dilution rates were lower, while the hardness was higher, residual stresses predominantly compressive, and the results of instrumented Charpy impact tests and fracture mechanics tests were better.
Ključne besede: hardfacing, dilution rate, hardness, Charpy impact toughness, residual stress, fracture toughness
Objavljeno v DKUM: 14.05.2024; Ogledov: 116; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,82 MB)
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Uporaba različnih postopkov navarjanja za izboljšanje obrabne obstojnosti : magistrsko delo
David Novak, 2024, magistrsko delo

Opis: Navarjanje je pomemben postopek povečevanja obrabne obstojnosti strojnih delov. V magistrski nalogi sta predstavljena postopka navarjanja z MAG tehnologijo in s PTA tehnologijo. Izvedli smo navarjanje z dodajnimi materiali, ki so trenutno v uporabi v podjetju Farmtech d. o. o., in jih primerjali z novima za uporabo s PTA in MAG tehnologijo. Za primerjavo smo izvedli test obstojnosti proti obrabi, meritev trdot v prerezu talonov in meritev površin namešanja. To smo nadgradili tudi s stroškovno in časovno analizo. Rezultati bodo služili kot smernice za odločitev k implementiranju PTA tehnologije v obstoječo proizvodnjo.
Ključne besede: navarjanje, obrabna obstojnost, obrabni preskus, PTA tehnologija navarjanja, MAG tehnologija navarjanja
Objavljeno v DKUM: 06.05.2024; Ogledov: 72; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,74 MB)

Advance analysis of the obtained recycled materials from used disposable surgical masks
Alen Erjavec, Julija Volmajer Valh, Silvo Hribernik, Tjaša Kraševac Glaser, Lidija Fras Zemljič, Tomaž Vuherer, Branko Neral, Mihael Brunčko, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The production of personal protective equipment (PPE) has increased dramatically in recent years, not only because of the pandemic, but also because of stricter legislation in the field of Employee Protection. The increasing use of PPE, including disposable surgical masks (DSMs), is putting additional pressure on waste collectors. For this reason, it is necessary to find high-quality solutions for this type of waste. Mechanical recycling is still the most common type of recycling, but the recyclates are often classified as low-grade materials. For this reason, a detailed analysis of the recyclates is necessary. These data will help us to improve the properties and find the right end application that will increase the value of the materials. This work represents an extended analysis of the recyclates obtained from DSMs, manufactured from different polymers. Using surface and morphology tests, we have gained insights into the distribution of different polymers in polymer blends and their effects on mechanical and surface properties. It was found that the addition of ear loop material to the PP melt makes the material tougher. In the polymer blends obtained, PP and PA 6 form the surface (affects surface properties), while PU and PET are distributed mainly inside the injection-molded samples.
Ključne besede: mechanical recycling, disposable surgical mask, morphology, surface properties, mechanical properties, nonwoven materials, PPE
Objavljeno v DKUM: 09.04.2024; Ogledov: 115; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,08 MB)
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Determination of shear bond strength between PEEK composites and veneering composites for the production of dental restorations
Anamarija Kuchler, Klementina Pušnik Črešnar, Iztok Švab, Tomaž Vuherer, Majda Žigon, Mihael Brunčko, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We studied the shear bond strength (SBS) of two PEEK composites (BioHPP, BioHPP plus) with three veneering composites: Visio.lign, SR Nexco and VITA VM LC, depending on the surface treatment: untreated, sandblasted with 110 μm Al2O3, sandblasted and cleaned ultrasonically in 80% ethanol, with or without adhesive Visio.link, with applied Visio.link and MKZ primer. For the BioHPP plus, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed a slightly lower glass transition temperature (Tg 150.4 ± 0.4 °C) and higher melting temperature (Tm 339.4 ± 0.6 °C) than those of BioHPP (Tg 151.3 ± 1.3 °C, Tm 338.7 ± 0.2 °C). The dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed a slightly higher storage modulus of BioHPP (E’ 4.258 ± 0.093 GPa) than of BioHPP plus (E′ 4.193 ± 0.09 GPa). The roughness was the highest for the untreated BioHPP plus, and the lowest for the polished BioHPP. The highest hydrophobicity was achieved on the sandblasted BioHPP plus, whereas the highest hydrophilicity was found on the untreated BioHPP. The highest SBSs were determined for BioHPP and Visio.lign, adhesive Visio.link (26.31 ± 4.17 MPa) or MKZ primer (25.59 ± 3.17 MPa), with VITA VM LC, MKZ primer and Visio.link (25.51 ± 1.94 MPa), and ultrasonically cleaned, with Visio.link (26.28 ± 2.94 MPa). For BioHPP plus, the highest SBS was determined for a sandblasted surface, cleaned ultrasonically, with the SR Nexco and Visio.link (23.39 ± 2.80 MPa).
Ključne besede: BioHPP, CAD/CAM milling, BioHPP plus, pressing, veneering composites, roughness, wettability, shear bond strength
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.04.2024; Ogledov: 94; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,92 MB)
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High-cycle fatigue behaviour of the aluminium alloy 5083-H111
Branko Nečemer, Franc Zupanič, Tomaž Vuherer, Srečko Glodež, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Ključne besede: aluminium alloys, rolling direction, high-cycle fatigue, fracture analysis
Objavljeno v DKUM: 04.04.2024; Ogledov: 82; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,97 MB)
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Prediction of the form of a hardened metal workpiece during the straightening process
Tadej Peršak, Jernej Hernavs, Tomaž Vuherer, Aleš Belšak, Simon Klančnik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In industry, metal workpieces are often heat-treated to improve their mechanical properties, which leads to unwanted deformations and changes in their geometry. Due to their high hardness (60 HRC or more), conventional bending and rolling straightening approaches are not effective, as a failure of the material occurs. The aim of the research was to develop a predictive model that predicts the change in the form of a hardened workpiece as a function of the arbitrary set of strikes that deform the surface plastically. A large-scale laboratory experiment was carried out in which a database of 3063 samples was prepared, based on the controlled application of plastic deformations on the surface of the workpiece and high-resolution capture of the workpiece geometry. The different types of input data, describing, on the one hand, the performed plastic surface deformations on the workpieces, and on the other hand the point cloud of the workpiece geometry, were combined appropriately into a form that is a suitable input for a U-Net convolutional neural network. The U-Net model’s performance was investigated using three statistical indicators. These indicators were: relative absolute error (RAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), and relative squared error (RSE). The results showed that the model had excellent prediction performance, with the mean values of RMSE less than 0.013, RAE less than 0.05, and RSE less than 0.004 on test data. Based on the results, we concluded that the proposed model could be a useful tool for designing an optimal straightening strategy for high-hardness metal workpieces. Our results will open the doors to implementing digital sustainability techniques, since more efficient handling will result in fewer subsequent heat treatments and shorter handling times. An important goal of digital sustainability is to reduce electricity consumption in production, which this approach will certainly do.
Ključne besede: sustraightening process, hardened workpiece, manufacturing, U-Net convolutional neural network, modeling, point cloud, digital sustainability
Objavljeno v DKUM: 02.04.2024; Ogledov: 115; Prenosov: 14
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,52 MB)
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Experimental study of crack propagation through cladded 316L/S355 steel produced by the hot-roll bonding process
Edvard Bjelajac, Andrej Skumavc, Fidan Smaili, Gorazd Lojen, Jožef Predan, Tomaž Vuherer, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: A hot-rolled clad plate made of 316L stainless steel and S355 carbon steel was produced in a real industrial environment via GMAW welding, vacuuming, preheating to 1240 °C, and hot-roll bonding on four stand plate mills in nine passes with reduction rates between 20-6% per pass. The clad plates were solution annealed to achieve the usual delivery condition. Ultrasound testing showed a bonding rate of 100%. Metallographic examination revealed predominantly low concentrations of oxides at the interface. The tensile strength of the bond reached 155 MPa. The shear strength always satisfied the requirements of ASTM A264. It was observed that the concentration of oxide particles influenced the shear strength strongly. The lowest measured value was 172 MPa. Specimens notched in the base material and specimens notched in the clad layer were used in the Charpy impact test. In every case, only the notched layer broke, while the other layer was only bent. The absorbed energies were always higher than those of each material alone. Fracture mechanic tests gave similar results. The crack could not propagate from the notched layer into the other one, regardless of the material of the notched layer. Instead, delamination occurred. Due to delamination, K1c could not be determined, so KQ was given instead.
Ključne besede: clad plate, hot-roll bonding, shear strength, tensile strength, impact toughness, crack propagation
Objavljeno v DKUM: 28.03.2024; Ogledov: 85; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,79 MB)
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Preiskava navara iz stelita 21 na avstenitno nerjavno jeklo : diplomsko delo
Aljaž Plešej, 2022, diplomsko delo

Opis: V diplomski nalogi bo najprej opisan cilj same naloge. Temu sledi kratka predstavitev podjetja. Pred izvajanjem kakršnihkoli preizkusov bo opisano še teoretično ozadje plazemskega varjenja, navarjanja ter izvedenih preizkusov za splošno razumevanje tematike. Nato bo po korakih detajlno opisano eksperimentalno delo od začetka izdelave plošče z navarom do vseh analiz in preizkusov. Po vseh opravljenih preizkusih bodo predstavljeni rezultati: nateznih preizkusov, udarne žilavosti in meritve trdote. Narejena bo tudi analiza mikrostrukture navara.
Ključne besede: navarjanje, mehanski preizkusi, natezni preizkus, trdota, udarna žilavost
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.03.2024; Ogledov: 210; Prenosov: 19
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,80 MB)

Evaluation of the impact and fracture toughness of a nanostructured bainitic steel with low retained austenite content
Mihael Brunčko, Peter Kirbiš, Ivan Anžel, Leo Gusel, Darja Feizpour, Tomaž Irgolič, Tomaž Vuherer, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The impact and fracture toughness of a nanostructured, kinetically activated bainitic steel was determined using Standard methods. Prior to testing, the steel was quenched in oil and aged naturally for a period of 10 days in order to obtain a fully bainitic microstructure with a retained austenite content below 1%, resulting in a high hardness of 62HRC. The high hardness originated from the very fine microstructure of bainitic ferrite plates formed at low temperatures. It was determined that the impact toughness of the steel in the fully aged condition improved remarkably, whereas the fracture toughness was in line with expectations based on the extrapolated data available in the literature. This suggests that a very fine microstructure is most beneficial to rapid loading conditions, whereas material flaws such as coarse nitrides and non-metallic inclusions are the major limitation for obtaining a high fracture toughness.
Ključne besede: evaluation of fracture toughness, impact toughness, nanostructured bainite, natural aging, low retained austenite content, kinetically activated bainite KAB
Objavljeno v DKUM: 16.02.2024; Ogledov: 256; Prenosov: 17
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Delavniška proba in testiranje tehnologije varjenja S770QL jeklenih cevi
Urška Steiner, 2023, magistrsko delo

Opis: Magistrsko delo opisuje sistematično postopanje, kadar je potrebno podjetje in varilca certificirati, za izvajanje zahtevnega varilnega postopka. V prvem koraku, je treba s pomočjo teoretične oziroma raziskovalne metode določiti tehnologijo varjenja, na osnovi katere nato v procesu delavniške probe izdelamo varjence in sočasno izvedemo nadzor varjenja. Ustreznost izbire varilne tehnologije, ovrednotimo na osnovi mehanskih lastnosti zvarnega spoja. Analiza meritev nadzora varjenja, je pokazala odstopanje od zastavljene tehnologije varjenja, s čim je dokazana smiselnost izvedbe delavniške probe, pred postopkom certifikacije. Mehanske lastnosti drugega poizkusa zvarnega spoja, ki so rezultat opravljenih neporušnih in porušitvenih preiskav so ustrezne, torej je tehnologija varjenja ustrezna.
Ključne besede: Zvar, toplotno vplivano območje, visokotrdnostna jekla
Objavljeno v DKUM: 03.01.2024; Ogledov: 353; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,44 MB)

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