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Kompostiranje tekstilnih materialov
Polona Korošec, 2012, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: V okviru diplomskega dela smo kompostirali določene naravne in sintetične tekstilne materiale. Postopek kompostiranja bi lahko uporabljali za recikliranje tekstilnih odpadkov. Kompostiranje viskoze, volne, bombaža ( naravni tekstilni materiali) in PES ter PA 6,6 (sintetični tekstilni materiali) je potekalo tri mesece. Mesečno smo spremljali spremembe na vzorcih s pomočjo gravimetrične metode in metode vizualnega ocenjevanja in evidentiranja vzorcev med kompostiranjem. Vzorci iz viskoze, volne in bombaža so se po treh mesecih kompostiranja v celoti oziroma delno razgradili, pri vzorcih iz PES in PA 6,6 pa ni prišlo do razgradnje.
Keywords: tekstilni odpadki, recikliranje odpadkov, biorazgradljivost, kompostiranje tekstilnih materialov, kompost, viskoza, volna, bombaž, poliester, poliamid, gravimetrična metoda, vizualno ocenjevanje
Published: 27.10.2015; Views: 811; Downloads: 99
.pdf Full text (2,02 MB)

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Okoljsko naravoslovje II : gradivo za 1. letnik
Marija Beras Slana, Danilo Slana, 2011, higher education textbook

Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1467; Downloads: 96
URL Link to full text

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The applicability of an advanced oxidation process for textile finishing wastestreams & fate of persistent organic pollutants
Julija Volmajer Valh, Alenka Majcen Le Marechal, Boštjan Križanec, Simona Vajnhandl, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: The trend of sustainable use of available water resources encourages textile finishing enterprises to implement efficient wastewater treatment technologies that enable water recycling, and not just itćs discharging into the local wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This paper presents the results obtained from the H2O2/UV treatment of wastewater from Slovene textile finishing company. Laboratory scale decolouration experiments were performed on the most representative wastewater samples, collected in three months period. In general 80 % decolouration and 86 % total organic carbon (TOC) reduction was achieved. On the other hand, the use of ultraviolet (UV) radiation to degrade and destroy organic pollutants in textile wastewater could lead to the formation of toxic dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, groups of persistent organic pollutants, especially due to the presence of halogenated compounds in textile finishing processes. For these reasons, textile wastewater samples were analysed for any content of dioxins before and after the treatment with H2O2/UV.
Keywords: tekstilne odpadne vode, napredni oksidacijski procesi, H2O2/UV, dioksini, textile wastewater, advanced oxidation processes, H2O2/UV, ecological parameters, dioxins
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 752; Downloads: 27
URL Link to full text

6.
Vpliv temperature na učinkovitost obdelave celuloze s kopolimerom hitozan - eugenol
Anja Škrjanec, 2012, undergraduate thesis

Abstract: Problem prisotnosti mikroorganizmov na tekstilijah so funkcionalne, higienske in estetske težave, zato se tudi na področju tehnologije tekstilnih materialov vse bolj uveljavlja zaščita pred delovanjem različnih patogenih mikrobov. Mikroorganizmi, prisotni na tekstilijah, so predvsem glive in bakterije, lahko pa tudi alge. Za dosego učinkovite protimikrobne zaščite se na področju obdelave tekstilnih materialov vse bolj uveljavlja naravna spojina imenovana hitozan. V smislu optimalne protimikrobne zaščite tekstilnega materiala pa obdelava s hitozanom ne daje vedno pričakovanih rezultatov. Iz tega razloga se zdi zanimivo hitozan kombinirati še s katero izmed naravnih protimikrobno delujočih spojin, na primer eugenolom. Eugenol je sestavni del nageljnovih žbic, ki mu prav tako, kakor hitozanu pripisujejo odlično protimikrobno aktivnost. Ker je eugenol tako rekoč netopen v vodi, je potrebna sinteza eugenola s hitozanom na način tvorbe graft-kopolimera. V raziskavi smo uporabili viskozo, kot predstavnico celuloznih vlaken zato, ker je celuloza biološko razgradljiv substrat ob hkratni dobri površinski aktivnosti, kar pomeni, da jo je v smislu protimikrobne obdelave možno relativno učinkovito funkcionalizirati. Razen uspešne sinteze kopolimera hitozan/eugenol je pomembna tudi temperatura obdelave/sušenja s kopolimerom obdelane viskoze, saj je s pravilno izbiro temperature možno zagotoviti pogoje za optimalno vezavo kopolimera na izbrani substrat. Za vrednotenje uspešnosti sinteze graft-kopolimera hitozan/eugenol smo izbrali FT-IR spektroskopijo, s katero smo semi-kvantitativno določili učinkovitost kopolimerizacije hitozana z eugenolom. Spektrofotometrično metodo Acid Orange VII smo izbrali kot metodo na osnovi katere smo določili delež dostopnih aminskih skupin. V raziskavo smo vključili še mikrobiološko testiranje po principu redukcije izbranih patogenih mikroorganizmov, kar je bilo izvedeno na Zavodu za zdravstveno varstvo Maribor. Dobljene rezultate smo primerjali z rezultati obdelave viskoze z 1 % raztopino hitozana.
Keywords: hitozan, eugenol, funkcionalizacija, viskoza, FTIR spektroskopija, Acid Orange VII, protimikrobnost
Published: 14.11.2012; Views: 1618; Downloads: 138
.pdf Full text (1,43 MB)

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Biodegradation of natural textile materials in soil
Khubaib Arshad, Mikael Skrifvars, Vera Vivod, Julija Volmajer Valh, Bojana Vončina, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: World is facing numerous environmental challenges, one of them being the increasing pollution both in the atmosphere and landfills. After the goods have been used, they are either buried or burnt. Both ways of disposal are detrimental and hazardous to the environment. The term biodegradation is becoming more and more important, as it converts materials into water, carbon dioxide and biomass, which present no harm to the environment. Nowadays, a lot of research is performed on the development of biodegradable polymers, which can “vanish” from the Earth surface after being used. In this respect, this research work was conducted in order to study the biodegradation phenomenon of cellulosic and non-cellulosic textile materials when buried in soil, for them to be used in our daily lives with maximum efficiency and after their use, to be disposed of easily with no harmful effects to the environment. This research indicates the time span of the use life of various cellulosic and non-cellulosic materials such as cotton, jute, linen, flax, wool when used for the reinforcement of soil. The visual observations and applied microscopic methods revealed that the biodegradation of cellulose textile materials proceeded in a similar way as for non-cellulosic materials, the only difference being the time of biodegradation. The non-cellulosic textile material (wool) was relatively more resistant to microorganisms due to its molecular structure and surface.
Keywords: biodegradation, composting, natural textile materials, FT-IR
Published: 21.12.2015; Views: 581; Downloads: 221
.pdf Full text (1,41 MB)
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10.
Influence of the temperature on the efficiency of cellulose treatment using copolymer chitosan-eugenol
Olivera Šauperl, Jasna Tompa, Julija Volmajer Valh, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: In order to achieve effective antimicrobial protection of textile materials against microorganisms, a natural compound called chitosan has become very interesting. In regard to the antimicrobial protection of textile materials, functionalization with chitosan does not affect some other properties, such as anti-oxidative or any other action. For this reason, it seems appropriate for chitosan to be combined with any natural antimicrobial active compound, such as eugenol, an extract of clove oil. During this research viscose as a representative of cellulose fibers was used, because it can be functionalized relatively easily. In terms of functionalization, the drying temperature of viscose, after antimicrobial compound application onto substrate, as well as the successful synthesis of copolymer chitosan/eugenol is also important. FTIR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the efficiency of synthesizing a chitosan/eugenol graft copolymer. The spectrophotometric method Acid Orange 7 was chosen as a means for determining the proportion of available antimicrobial active amino groups. In addition, microbiological testing of selected pathogenic micro-organisms was also performed. The results were compared with the results for viscose functionalized by a 1% solution of chitosan.
Keywords: chitosan, eugenol, functionalization, viscose, FTIR spectroscopy, Acid orange 7, antimicrobial
Published: 02.08.2017; Views: 326; Downloads: 233
.pdf Full text (233,00 KB)
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