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Biodegradation of natural textile materials in soil
Khubaib Arshad, Mikael Skrifvars, Vera Vivod, Julija Volmajer Valh, Bojana Vončina, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: World is facing numerous environmental challenges, one of them being the increasing pollution both in the atmosphere and landfills. After the goods have been used, they are either buried or burnt. Both ways of disposal are detrimental and hazardous to the environment. The term biodegradation is becoming more and more important, as it converts materials into water, carbon dioxide and biomass, which present no harm to the environment. Nowadays, a lot of research is performed on the development of biodegradable polymers, which can “vanish” from the Earth surface after being used. In this respect, this research work was conducted in order to study the biodegradation phenomenon of cellulosic and non-cellulosic textile materials when buried in soil, for them to be used in our daily lives with maximum efficiency and after their use, to be disposed of easily with no harmful effects to the environment. This research indicates the time span of the use life of various cellulosic and non-cellulosic materials such as cotton, jute, linen, flax, wool when used for the reinforcement of soil. The visual observations and applied microscopic methods revealed that the biodegradation of cellulose textile materials proceeded in a similar way as for non-cellulosic materials, the only difference being the time of biodegradation. The non-cellulosic textile material (wool) was relatively more resistant to microorganisms due to its molecular structure and surface.
Keywords: biodegradation, composting, natural textile materials, FT-IR
Published: 21.12.2015; Views: 844; Downloads: 307
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Cyclodextrins in textile finishing
Bojana Vončina, Vera Vivod, 2013, independent scientific component part or a chapter in a monograph

Keywords: ciklodekstrini, oplemenitenje tekstilij, antimikrobne lastnosti, ognjevarna apretura
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 788; Downloads: 69
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Maleic acid/sodium hypophosphite - a new flame retardant for cotton
Vera Vivod, Charles Q. Yang, Bojana Vončina, 2013, unpublished conference contribution

Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 1209; Downloads: 23
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[Beta]-cyclodextrin as a retarding reagent in polyacrylonitrile dyeing
Bojana Vončina, Vera Vivod, Darja Jaušovec, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: ß-Cyclodextrin was tested as a dye complexing agent - as a dye retardant in the dyeing of PAN fibres with cationic dyes. Significant improvement of colouruniformity and some improvements in colour depth were observed when PAN fibres were dyed in the presence of ß-cyclodextrin as compared to dyeing in the presence of a commercial retardant.
Keywords: textile dyeing, cationic dyes, cyclodextrin, polyacrylonitrile fibres, complexation
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1338; Downloads: 16
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Grafting of ethylcellulose microcapsules onto cotton fibres
Roxana Badulescu, Vera Vivod, Darja Jaušovec, Bojana Vončina, 2008, original scientific article

Abstract: In this paper a treatment of cotton with ethylcellulose (EC) microcapsules wasinvestigated. EC microcapsules containing Rosemary oil were obtained by phase separation method. The surface and morphology of microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microcapsules with a regular spherical shape in the 10-90 m size range were prepared and grafted onto cotton using the crosslinking reagent 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) in the presence of catalysts. The influence of the two catalysts, cyanamide (CA) and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) on curing efficiency (grafting) was investigated. SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to study the formation of ester bonds between BTCA and hydroxyl groups of cotton and/or hydroxyl groups of EC. When DCC was used as acatalyst, the esterification took place slowly at room temperature. In the case of CA, the cotton was cured at 110 °C for several minutes. After 2 min curing, the microcapsules, which kept their original shape, were bonded to thecotton fibers. Increasing the curing time altered the microcapsule shell. Grafting and crosslinking reactions of the thermofixed EC microcapsules onto cotton were proposed.
Keywords: textiles, chemical modification, cotton fibres, ethylcellulose, microcapsules, BTCA, SEM, FT-IR, grafting
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1455; Downloads: 34
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Zamreženje celuloznih tekstilnih substratov z nenasičenimi karboksilnimi kislinami
Vera Vivod, 2009, master's thesis

Abstract: V magistrski nalogi smo proučevali uporabo mešanice nenasičene bifunkcionalne karboksilne kisline (maleinska kislina) in natrijevega hidrogen fosfata I kot reagenta za doseganje polifunkcionalnosti bombažnega substrata. Preiskovali smo kemijske reakcije med maleinsko kislino (MA) in natrijevim hidrogen fosfatom I (SHP) v trdnem stanju pri povišani temperaturi, nadalje smo proučevali proces zamreženja MA in adicije SHP na dvojno C=C vez MA, ki je vezana na bombaž. Potek kemijskih reakcij mešanic MA in SHP v trdnem stanju smo proučevali z FT-Raman in ATR FT-IR spektroskopijo. Pri tem smo raziskali vliv temperature in časa segrevanja in molarnih razmerij med obema komponentama mešanice na mehanizem reakcije. Bombažni substrat smo obdelali z obdelovalnimi kopelmi, ki so vsebovale MA/SHP. Proučevali smo vpliv molarnih razmerij med obema komponentama v obdelovalni kopeli na učinkovitost apreture. Z MA/SHP sistemom obdelan celulozni tekstilni material je lahko potencialeno ognjevaren in ima istočasno vrhunske lastnosti (nemečkljivost, dimenzijska stabilnost). Mehanizem estrenja MA na hidroksilne skupine celuloze in adicija SHP na C=C dvojno vez maleinske kisline smo proučevali z ATR-FT IR in Raman spektroskopijo. Vsebnost fosforja na obdelanem tekstilnem substratu smo določili z ICP atomsko emisijsko spektroskopijo. Končni rezultat zamreženja hidroksilnih skupin celuloze z MA/SHP sistemom smo ovrednotili z merjenjem kotov razgubanja. Ugotovili smo, da lahko sistem MA/SHP uporabimo kot potencialni ognjevarni reagent, saj vsebuje fosfor in istočasno lahko tako obdelanemu materialu izboljšamo nemečkljivost. Iz rezultatov raziskovalnega dela lahko zaključimo, da poteka zamreženje bombažnega celuloznega substrata tako, da se natrijev hidrogen fosfat I adicijsko veže na dvojni C=C vezi maleinskih kislin, ki so vezane na hidroksilne skupine celuloze preko esternih vezi, pri čemer pride do premreženja.
Keywords: zamreženje, nenasičene karboksilne kisline, celuloza, FT-Raman spektroskopija, FT-IR spektroskopija
Published: 06.04.2009; Views: 2878; Downloads: 199
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