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44. The influence of porosity on geomechanical characteristics of snail soil in the Ljubljana MarshBojan Žlender, Ludvik Trauner, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: This article focusses on mineralogical and physical characteristics of snail soil and their influence on parameter values of geomechanical characteristics.Snail soil, which got its name from fossil remains, is a typical layer observed in the Ljubljana marsh. It is distincltly porous, saturated and in a liquid consistency state. Snail soil was investigated for mineralogical and physical characteristics in the Laboratory of Soil Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University in Maribor. Mineral and chemical composition, visual appearance, specific surface and grain property were determined. Physical characyteristics show that snail soil is saturated in nature, highly porous and almost liquid. Geomechanical characteristics were investigated for their interdependency on physical characteristics. A series of triaxial tests were performed on snail soil samples of different porosity, density and water content. Cylindrical samples of the height of 100 mm and the diameter of 50 mm were tested using threeaxial testing apparatus. The results of the tests show that interdependency exists between geomechanical characteristics and porosity. These relationships can be expressed as functions of density, porosity or water content. It is evident from the results that changes of the coefficient of permeability, the coefficient of consolidation, and the coefficient of volume compressibility are nonlinear with respect to changes in porosity. Changes of mechanical parameters, such as Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio andfriction angle are indistinct and almost linear at lower changes of porosity. Ključne besede: geomechanics, properties of soils, snail soil, triaxial testing, porosity, permeability, consolidation, Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio, shear angle Objavljeno: 17.05.2018; Ogledov: 323; Prenosov: 23 Celotno besedilo (486,06 KB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

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47. The dynamic properties of the snail soil from the Ljubljana marshBojan Žlender, Ludvik Trauner, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: A series of cyclic triaxial tests was performed on snailsoil samples with different porosities. The cyclic loading was performed with a Wykeham Farrance cyclic triaxial system. The investigation was based on a series of tests in which the following conditions were varied: the initial effective pressures (50, 100, and 150 kPa), the void ratio after consolidation (2.0–1.2) and the cyclic loading expressed by the cyclic stress ratio CSR (0.1–1.0). Measurements were made of the stress, the deformation and the porewater pressure.
The results of the tests show that interdependency exists between the geomechanical characteristics and the porosity. These relationships can be expressed as functions of the density, the porosity or the water content. It is evident from the results that the changes in the coefficient of permeability, the coefficient of consolidation, and the coefficient of volume compressibility are nonlinear with respect to the changes in the porosity. However, the changes at high porosity are much greater than the changes at low porosity, and the changes of the mechanical parameters, such as the Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the friction angle, are indistinct and almost linear at lower changes of porosity, and after that become nonlinear.
The initial void ratio e is extremely high and the snail soil is liquid after consolidation; a volume strain of εvol > 16 % is needed for the plastic limit state.
The chemical and mineral composition, the particle size distribution and the remains of microorganisms in the snail soil are constants. In addition, the specific surface is independent of the porosity and the density or unit weight, the porosity and the volume strain are in the wellknown correlation.
The performed cyclic triaxial tests show the dynamic characteristics of the snail soil and the influence of the porosity on the cyclic loading strength. The snail soil was recognized as a highly sensitive material. A large strain appears after the initial cycles. The pore pressure, increases already during the first cycle, to the hydrostatic part of the cyclic loading, or more (depending on CSR).
The damping ratio increases exponentially with strain, after some cycles it reach its maximum value, and after that it decreases to the asymptotic value. The reason for such behaviour is the large deformation. The maximum and asymptotic values of the damping ratio are a changed minimum with a void ratio. There is obviously no influence of the porosity on the damping ratio.
The shear modulus is described in relation to shear strain. The increasing of the pore pressure is independent of the porosity until it reaches some value of the porepressure ratio (>0.7). Similarly, the increasing of the shear strain becomes dependent on the void ratio until it reaches some particular value of the shear strain (>3%).
The deformation and failure lines for the different porosities are determined from the relationship between the shear stress and the effective stress at some shear strain, after 10 cycles.
The relationships between the shear stress and the effective stress at some value of the porepressure ratio are expressed in a similar way.
Two kinds of criteria were used to determine the triggering of liquefaction during the cyclic triaxial tests: first, when the pore pressure becomes equal to the effective confining pressure, and, second, when the axial strain reaches 5% of the double amplitude. Ključne besede: snail soil, cyclic triaxial test, porosity, permeability, consolidation, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, damping ratio, Poisson’s ratio, friction angle Objavljeno: 18.05.2018; Ogledov: 581; Prenosov: 33 Celotno besedilo (479,11 KB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...

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50. Analysis of concentration and sedimentation of suspended load in the reservoirsHelena VreclKojc, Bojana Dolinar, Roman Klasinc, Ludvik Trauner, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: This paper deals with the sedimentation of suspended load in the reservoirs. As an example the reservoir of the hydroelectric power plant Boštanj on the Sava River is shown. The objective of the described studies was to determine the quantity and type of deposited material in the reservoir during the selected time period. For this purpose, the mineral and chemical composition, and the concentration and the particle size of the suspended load at the intake of the water into the reservoir and at its outflow were examined. In order to determine the concentration of the suspended load, 24 water samples from the area of the intake and outflow from the reservoir were taken. At the same time the discharge of the Sava River was measured. Solid particles were removed from the water with the help of sedimentation and in the final stage of water evaporation. The results of the studies showed that the concentration of the suspended material was changing in relation to the location and the flow rate of the water. This ratio can be described with an exponential function.
In suspended load composition carbonates, muscovite/illite and quartz dominate; however, chlorite was also found, as well as small quantities of plagioclase and organic detritus. With regard to the size of the particles the examined samples are classified as silt.
It was determined that the concentration of the suspended load, at the same flow rate of water, at the intake into the reservoir is larger than at the outflow. The difference is represented by the material that was sedimented in the reservoir due to the decreased speed of the water as a result of the river's impoundment. A comparison of the composition of the samples from both collection sites showed that at the outflow site of the water from the reservoir there is a somewhat smaller share of carbonate grains and heavy minerals than at the intake site, and a higher content of organic detritus and clay particles can also be observed. Considering the actual discharge of water in the period between July 2006 and July 2007 and the examined ratio between the flow rate of the water and the quantity of suspended and deposited material, the total quantity of sedimented material in this period was estimated. Ključne besede: suspended load, sedimentation, sediment transport, water storage reservoir Objavljeno: 05.06.2018; Ogledov: 970; Prenosov: 28 Celotno besedilo (348,17 KB) Gradivo ima več datotek! Več...
