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1.
Numerical-experimental analysis of the foldable containers strength
Sevket Celović, Miloš Tipsarević, Taško Maneski, Tomaž Vuherer, Dražan Kozak, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: This paper describes the numerical and the experimental methodology for analysis of plastic packaging strength characteristics that are representative of its strength in the real life. Numerical analysis was conducted by the application of finite elements using "KOMIPS" software. The experiments were executed with the equipment "GOM" and software application "ARAMIS". The main issues we want to answer are related to correctly ordering and defining characteristics of container. This article will show how we can predict experimental results by the means of finite element analysis; we find this is a very strong learning tool that would enable designers to improve the structural strength of new products in the future. Experimental and numerical analysis results have to date shown a high degree of correlation.
Keywords: experiment, FEM, foldable container, strength
Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 542; Downloads: 265
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2.
Influence of kinematic factors of friction stir welding on the characteristics of welded joints of forged plates made of EN AW 7049 A aluminium alloy
Milenko Perović, Sebastian Baloš, Dražan Kozak, Darko Bajić, Tomaž Vuherer, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: In this paper, the influence of rotation speed and welding speed on the impact strength, microstructure and cross section micro hardness of FSW welded joints of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu high strength aluminium alloy is studied. Rotation speed was varied from 750 min−1 to 850 min−1 and welding speed from 60 mm/min to 80 mm/min. It was found that the energy of crack propagation is up to three times higher than the energy of crack initiation. This ratio was found by testing the Charpy notched specimens taken from left and right from the weld centre, 4 mm from the notch in a direction opposite to a direction of welding. Micro hardness distribution in the nugget does not show large dissipation of value regardless if the measuring point is in the upper or lower section of the nugget. Weld microstructure characteristics and zones are clearly defined at the basis of grain size and material flow.
Keywords: dynamic recrystallization, friction stir welding, impact strength, micro hardness distribution
Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 678; Downloads: 291
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3.
Simulation of the casting process - a powerfull tool for enchanced design of the cutting teeth in surface mining
Radomir Slavković, Zvonimir Jugović, Dražan Kozak, Aleksandar Veg, Radomir Radiša, Snežana Dragićević, Marko Popović, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Recent development in the computer simulation technology caused a tremendous influence on a rapid prototyping in casting process. These computational tools facilitate engineering work and urge moulding verification in foundries. Among dedicated software packages the MAGMASoft is selected for availability reasons. Its effectiveness is proved with the simulation of moulding process of the cutting teeth for a bucket wheel excavator Use of MAGMASoft enables a shortcut to a forceful and durable product, without internal cavities and micro-porosity. Such advancement of the moulding process is described in this paper.
Keywords: casting, porosity, wear, simulation, MAGMASoft
Published: 03.07.2017; Views: 1657; Downloads: 94
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4.
Factors influencing the yielding constraint by cracked welded components
Dražan Kozak, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, Nenad Gubeljak, Damir Semenski, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: The effect of strength mismatch for welded joints performed with different geometries on the yielding constraint has been investigated in the context of single-edged fracture-toughness specimens subjected to bending SE(B) using the finite-element method. The crack was located in the centre of the weld. Two geometri cal parameters have been identified as being the most important: the crack-Iength ratio a/W and the sIenderness of the welded joint (W-a)/H. They were systematically varied as follows: a/W = 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5 and W = 2H, 4H, 8H, 16H, 24H. Basic equations and plane-strain finite-element solutions for the overmatched SE(B) specimen with all configuration combinations are given. The results are in good agreement with those in literature. This paper aims to establish yield-Ioad solutions for the same weldment configurations, but with materials dissimilarity present within the weld. This situation is usually encountered during repair welding. For this purpose, a practical combination of filler materials, with the same portion of overmatched part with M = 1.19 and undermatched part with M = 0.86, has been selected. Plane-strain solutions for the heterogeneous weld with the cracklocated in the overmatched half were obtained. The influence of the yielding-constraint key parameters has al so been evaluated. Yield-Ioad results for the specimens performed with different weld widths have the greatest scattering for the a/W = 0.5. The transition from the overmatched to the undermatched solution with increasing H is evident. On the other hand, the behaviour of the specimen with a shallow crack is dictated by the overmatch region ahead of the crack tip and depends very little on the weld slenderness. An approximated 3-D area of the yield-Ioad solutions depending ona/W and (W-a)lH has been proposed. Furthermore, the stress triaxility parameter h has been calculated using 2-D and 3-D finite-element analysis, and given as a field in the spec imen to get an insight into yielding-constraint regions. It was found that the 3-D yield-Ioad solutions are very close to the plane-strain solutions. Also, the effect of a/W on the yielding constraint is more significant than the effect of Mand (W-a)/H.
Keywords: welded structures, welded joints, fracture mechanics, cracks, SE(B) specimens, yielding load, yielding constraint parameters
Published: 06.04.2017; Views: 863; Downloads: 73
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5.
Energija prihodnosti - jedrska fuzija
Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, Matija Tuma, Nenad Gubeljak, Dražan Kozak, Gorazd Kosec, 2005, professional article

Abstract: Ocenjeno je naraščanje prebivalstva na Zemlji v naslednjih desetletjih, sočasno naraščanje potreb po primarni energiji in napisani so možni nosilci primarne energije. Razložen je princip jedrske fuzije, navedeni so robni pogoji, pri katerih je zlitje jeder sploh mogoče, in opisana je razlika med jedrsko fisijo in fuzijo. V obeh primerih se skupna masa po končani jedrski reakciji zmanjša, del mase se namreč spremeni v energijo. Prikazani so doslej vloženi napori znanstvenikov, skupaj z najnovejšim projektom ITER. Projekt naj bi končno realiziral težko pričakovano samodejno reakcijo zlitja jeder vodika v jedro helija in s tem rešil problem preskrbe človeštva s primarno energijo.
Keywords: fisija, fuzija, ITER, naraščanje prebivalstva, oskrba s primarno energijo
Published: 15.03.2017; Views: 753; Downloads: 94
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7.
Modificirano numerično modeliranje lomnega vedenja zvarnega spoja v prehodnem področju iz duktilnega h krhkemu lomu
Dražan Kozak, Nenad Gubeljak, Inoslav Rak, 1998, original scientific article

Abstract: Varno obratovanje varjene konstrukcije je odvisno od lomno mehanskih lastnosti zvarnih spojev. Največje spremembe teh lastnosti nastopajo v prehodnem področju iz duktilnega v krhki lom. Namen tega raziskovalnega dela je z metodo končnih elementov definirati primeren numerični postopek za izračun napetostno-deformacijskega stanja v trenutku nestabilnega loma. Uporabljen modificirani postopek numeričnega modeliranja mora omogočiti vedenje materiala zvara na konici razpoke v sksladu s teorijo nastanka in širjenja duktilne oziroma cepilne razpoke ter zagotoviti verifikacijo z eksperimentalnimi rezultati. Uporaba ravninskega deformacijskega stanja na konici razpoke ob ravninsko napetostnem stanju preostalega preizkušanca med sukcesivnim obremenjevanjem omogoča dobro korelacijo med eksperimentalnimi in numeričnimi rezultati. Na osnovi tega je možno definirati pogoje sprožanja nestabilnega loma v poljubno oblikovanem modelu, kakor tudi določiti prag za varno obratovanje dejanske varjene konstrukcije v prehodnem področju iz duktilnega v krhki lom.
Keywords: zvarni spoj, metoda končnih elementov, lomna žilavost CTOD, krhki cepilni lom, omejitev
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 701; Downloads: 47
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8.
The effect of a material's heterogeneity on the stress and strain distribution in the vicinity of a crack front
Dražan Kozak, Nenad Gubeljak, Jelena Vojvodič-Tuma, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: In this investigation a high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel of the 700-MPa strength class was used as a base material. A butt-welded joint with X grooves was produced with an overmatched weld metal that had a yield strength 23 % greater than that of the base material. Three-point bending B x 2B test specimens (thickness B = 36 mm) were extracted from the welded joints. The straight crack front (a0 = 35,571 mm) crosses different microstructures through the thickness of the specimen. Both fracture-mechanics tests and a 3D finite-element analysis were performed. The CTOD parameter of the fracture toughness was measured and calculated numerically. The loading level at which stable crack growth occurred was also determined. The comparison of the experimental and numerical values of the CTOD (bs) displacements showed good agreement. The principal stress, ▫$/delta_{y}$▫, the Mises equivalent stress, ▫$/delta_{eq}$▫. and the plastic equivalent strain, ▫$/epsilon_{pl, eq}$▫, at the moment of crack initiation were studied for six equidistant layers from the surface to the mid-thickness of the specimen. The dependence of the crack-opening stress (denoted as ax in this paper) on the local fracture-toughness value was considered as the parameter which determines the direction of the crack-front propagation. The results show that the lower strength of the base metal contributes to the crack-path deviation in the mid-thickness of the specimen. Both the crack-path deviation and the higher toughness of the base metal increase the critical fracture toughness value of the welded joint.
Keywords: trdnost spoja z večjo trdnostjo vara, razpoka, porazdelitev napetosti, porazdelitev deformacij, analiza končnih elementov
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 828; Downloads: 66
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9.
Leak-before-break analysis of a pressurizer - estimation of the elastic-plastic semi-elliptical through-wall crack opening displacement
Nenad Gubeljak, Jožef Predan, Dražan Kozak, 2012, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: The work presents methods to estimate elastic-plastic semi-elliptical through-wall Crack Opening Displacement (COD) for the Leak-Before-Break analysis of a pressurizer. Usually proposed methods are based on GE/EPRI approach or on the reference stress and J-integral as stress intensity factor (SIF) along the crack tip. J-integral calculation provides the value of SIF ateach node of mesh along the crack tip, where values vary from the surface to middle section of material in respect to material properties. COD value is calculated through thickness along the centre of crack. The COD values are less sensitive to distance from crack tip and material properties. The engineering approach for the calculation of J-integral by using COD values and material full stress-strain data is given. COD values are proportional to surface length of semi-elliptical through wall crack of the pressurizer
Keywords: mehanika loma, semi-elliptical through-wall crack, crack opening displacement, GE/EPRI approach, leak-before-break analysis, reference stress approach
Published: 10.07.2015; Views: 932; Downloads: 31
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10.
Strength mismatch effect on yield load in X-shaped weldment with centre crack
Dražan Kozak, Nenad Gubeljak, Jožef Predan, Franjo Matejiček, 2004, published scientific conference contribution

Abstract: This paper provides yield load solutions for single edged fracture toughness specimen subjected to bending SE (B) with present X-shaped weld joint. The weld centre crack is located in the overmatch weld part. The corresponding fully plastic yield loads were obtained directly by plain strain FEM analysis for five characteristic a/W ratios: 0,1;0,2;0,3;0,4 and 0,5. Also, the influence of the sistematically varied weld root width 2H on the fracture behaviour has been evaluated. It was found that yield load decreases with the increasing weld root, because the undermatched region ahead the crack tip plays the dominant role.
Keywords: fracture mechanics, X-shaped welded joints, centre crack, strength mismatching, plastic yield load, constraint effects
Published: 01.06.2012; Views: 1235; Downloads: 30
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