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1.
Phosphonate-modified cellulose nanocrystals potentiate the Th1 polarising capacity of monocyte-derived dendritic cells via GABA-B receptor
Marina Bekić, Miloš Vasiljević, Dušica Stojanović, Vanja Kokol, Dušan Mihajlović, Dragana Vučević, Petar S. Uskoković, Miodrag Čolić, Sergej Tomić, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: Phosphonates, like 3-AminoPropylphosphonic Acid (ApA), possess a great potential for the therapy of bone tumours, and their delivery via cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) seems a promising approach for their increased efficacy in target tissues. However, the immunological effects of CNC-phosphonates have not been investigated thoroughly. The main aim was to examine how the modification of CNCs with phosphonate affects their immunomodulatory properties in human cells. Methods: Wood-based native (n) CNCs were modified via oxidation (ox-CNCs) and subsequent conjugation with ApA (ApA-CNCs). CNCs were characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. Cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory potential of CNCs were investigated in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs)/T cells co-cultures by monitoring phenotype, cytokines production, allostimulatory and Th/Treg polarisation capacity. Results: AFM showed an increase in CNCs’ thickens, elasticity modulus and hardness during the modification with ApA. When applied at non-toxic doses, nCNCs showed a tolerogenic potential upon internalisation by MoDCs, as judged by their increased capacity to up-regulate tolerogenic markers and induce regulatory T cells (Treg), especially when present during the differentiation of MoDCs. In contrast, ox- and ApA-CNCs induced oxidative stress and autophagy in MoDCs, which correlated with their stimulatory effect on the maturation of MoDCs, but also inhibition of MoDCs differentiation. ApA-CNC-treated MoDCs displayed the highest allostimulatory and Th1/CTL polarising activity in co-cultures with T cells. These effects of ApA-CNCs were mediated via GABA-B receptor-induced lowering of cAMP levels in MoDCs, and they could be blocked by GABA-B receptor inhibitor. Moreover, the Th1 polarising and allostimulatory capacity of MoDCs differentiated with ApA-CNC were largely preserved upon the maturation of MoDCs, whereas nCNC- and ox-CNC-differentiated MoDCs displayed an increased tolerogenic potential. Conclusion: The delivery of ApA via CNCs induces potent DC-mediated Th1 polarisation, which could be beneficial in their potential application in tumour therapy.
Ključne besede: cellulose nanocrystals, phosphonates, dendritic cells, regulatory T-cell subsets, immunomodulation, GABA-B receptor
Objavljeno v DKUM: 17.08.2023; Ogledov: 192; Prenosov: 14
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,54 MB)
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2.
Synergistic effect of screen-printed Al(OH)[sub]3 nanoparticles and phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils on the thermophysiological comfort and high-intensive heat protection properties of flame-retardant fabric
Tjaša Kolar, Jelka Geršak, Nataša Knez, Vanja Kokol, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Al(OH)3 nanoparticles (ATH NPs) and phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils (PCNFs) were used as user-friendly and comfortable coating components on flame-retardant fabric to improve its thermophysiological comfort and high-intensive heat protection properties. The effect of the PCNF imprinting and its attachment after the post-printing of a hydrophobic polyacrylate (AP) on the same (back side) or the other (front) side of the fabric, with and without the addition of ATH NPs, was considered, to maintain the front side (facing the wearer) as hydrophilic while keeping the back side (facing the outside) hydrophobic. The amount of coatings applied and their patterning were studied, varied with the ATH NPs’ concentration (1.7, 3.3 and 6.7 wt%) and screen mesh size used (60 and 135), based on the coating’ mass, fabric’s air permeability, thickness and microstructure. The reduced moisture build-up (55%), increased the water vapour (13%) and heat (12%) transfer from the skin, were assessed by applying PCNF under the AP, being more pronounced in the case of using a 135 mesh-sized screen, given the smaller, more densely distributed, thinner and imprinted pattern coatings. These effects were further improved by the addition of nanoporous ATH NPs, which allowed more homogeneous spreading of the moisture and its faster transport. Such a treatment also shifted the fabric’s degradation temperature towards higher values (up to 15°C), retained up to 30% of high-heat flux (21 kW/m2), prolonged the time to ignition by 11 s and reduced the total heat released by up to 60%, thereby providing better protection when exposed to the heat, due to the presence of the phosphorous (PCNF) promoted generation of an Al2O3 char acting as a barrier layer, while also reducing the production of heat and generation of smoke by 75%.
Ključne besede: tekstilna tehnologija, ognjevaren tekstil, Al(OH)3 nanodelci, celulozni nanofibrili, tiskanje tekstilij, optične lastnosti, termofiziološko udobje, toplotna zaščita, flame-retardant textile, Al(OH)3 nanoparticles, phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils, screen-printing, thermophysiological comfort, heat protection
Objavljeno v DKUM: 12.07.2023; Ogledov: 262; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,91 MB)
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3.
Using different surface energy models to assess the interactions between antiviral coating films and phi6 model virus
Zdenka Peršin Fratnik, Olivija Plohl, Vanja Kokol, Lidija Fras Zemljič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: High molecular weight chitosan (HMWCh), quaternised cellulose nanofibrils (qCNF), and their mixture showed antiviral potential in liquid phase, while this effect decreased when applied to facial masks, as studied in our recent work. To gain more insight into material antiviral activity, spin-coated thin films were prepared from each suspension (HMWCh, qCNF) and their mixture with a 1:1 ratio. To understand their mechanism of action, the interactions between these model films with various polar and nonpolar liquids and bacteriophage phi6 (in liquid phase) as a viral surrogate were studied. Surface free energy (SFE) estimates were used as a tool to evaluate the potential adhesion of different polar liquid phases to these films by contact angle measurements (CA) using the sessile drop method. The Fowkes, Owens–Wendt–Rabel–Kealble (OWRK), Wu, and van Oss–Chaudhury–Good (vOGC) mathematical models were used to estimate surface free energy and its polar and dispersive contributions, as well as the Lewis acid and Lewis base contributions. In addition, the surface tension SFT of liquids was also determined. The adhesion and cohesion forces in wetting processes were also observed. The estimated SFE of spin-coated films varied between mathematical models (26–31 mJ/m2) depending on the polarity of the solvents tested, but the correlation between models clearly indicated a significant dominance of the dispersion components that hinder wettability. The poor wettability was also supported by the fact that the cohesive forces in the liquid phase were stronger than the adhesion to the contact surface. In addition, the dispersive (hydrophobic) component dominated in the phi6 dispersion, and since this was also the case in the spin-coated films, it can be assumed that weak physical van der Waals forces (dispersion forces) and hydrophobic interactions occurred between phi6 and the polysaccharide films, resulting in the virus not being in sufficient contact with the tested material during antiviral testing of the material to be inactivated by the active coatings of the polysaccharides used. Regarding the contact killing mechanism, this is a disadvantage that can be overcome by changing the previous material surface (activation). In this way, HMWCh, qCNF, and their mixture can attach to the material surface with better adhesion, thickness, and different shape and orientation, resulting in a more dominant polar fraction of SFE and thus enabling the interactions within the polar part of phi6 dispersion.
Ključne besede: films, surface free energy, SFE mathematical models, phi6, wettability, spreading, interactions
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.04.2023; Ogledov: 371; Prenosov: 22
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,21 MB)

4.
VPLIV TISKANJA NANOMATERIALOV NA TOPLOTNO-OGNJEVARNE IN TERMOFIZIOLOŠKE LASTNOSTI TKANINE : doktorska disertacija
Tjaša Kolar, 2022, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Namen doktorske disertacije je bil preučiti učinek uporabe ekonomsko in ekološko sprejemljivejših nanodelcev Al-hidroksida (v primerjavi s SWCNT) kot zaviralcev gorenja in načina njihovega nanosa (v kombinaciji s hidrofilno PCNF ali hidrofobno AP) na izboljšanje termofizioloških, toplotnih in mehanskih lastnosti ognjevarno-zaščitne tkanine. Analizirana sta bila vpliva finosti šablone (60 in 135 mesh) in postopka tiskanja (enoslojno ali dvoslojno na hrbtni strani ali enoslojno na obeh straneh). V prvem delu disertacije je bil preučen vpliv različno velikih (20–50 nm) ATH/AMH ND na toplotno stabilnost filmov MFC. Toplotno najstabilnejši film z 0,15 ut% dodatkom 20 nm AMH ND in začetkom večstopenjske razgradnje pri 305 °C je v primerjavi s filmom iz čiste MFC imel 20 % višji ostanek pri 600 °C ter 42 % nižjo specifično toplotno kapaciteto. Prav tako je bil film prilagodljiv, optično transparenten (95 %), hidrofoben (68°), z natezno trdnostjo 69 MPa in elastičnim modulom 5,7 GPa ter nizko prepustnostjo kisika (2.192 cm3/m2/dan). V drugem delu disertacije je tkanina zaradi sinergističnih učinkov 1,5 ut% PCNF in 6,7 ut% ATH ND enostranskega dvoslojnega nanosa na hrbtni strani zadržala do 30 % visoko intenzivnega toplotnega toka (21 kW/m2), izkazala 15 °C boljšo temperaturno stabilnost, 11 s daljši čas do vžiga, zmanjšano količino sproščene toplote (za 60 %) in dima (za 75 %) ter izrazito asimetrično omočljivost (lice CA – 36°, hrbet CA – 121°) ob povečanem prenosu vodne pare (17 %) in toplote (22 %). Tkanina, tiskana z 0,4 ut% SWCNT v AP na hrbtni strani in 1,5 ut% PCNF na lični, je imela poleg izboljšane toplotne zaščite (18 °C boljša temperaturna stabilnost), termofiziološkega udobja (25 % povišan prenos toplote, 17 % vodne pare) in asimetrične omočljivosti (lice CA – 48°, hrbet CA – 129°) tudi visoko UV-zaščito (UPF 109), brez spremembe barve. Na strani z nanesenimi SWCNT je tkanina z električno prevodnostjo (4,9 · 10–4 S/cm) izkazala tudi potencial za antistatično zaščito ter zaščito pred elektromagnetnim sevanjem.
Ključne besede: toplotno-ognjevarna tkanina, termofiziološke lastnosti, fibrilirana nanoceluloza, nanodelci aluminijevega hidroksida, enoplastne ogljikove nanocevke, šablonsko tiskanje
Objavljeno v DKUM: 30.11.2022; Ogledov: 630; Prenosov: 70
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,37 MB)

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Odvzem premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, kot zakonodajni, teoretični in praktični problem : doktorska disertacija
Vanja Verdel Kokol, 2020, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Znaten delež kaznivih dejanj je izvršenih prav zaradi pridobivanja protipravne premoženjske koristi. Zato zahteva racionalna kriminalitetna politika v trajnostnem zoperstavljanju takšnim kaznivim dejanjem učinkovit, predvsem pa domišljen in ustrezno zasnovan sistem odvzema premoženjske koristi. Ob tem na račun učinkovitega odvzema koristi ne sme priti do posega v temeljne ustavne pravice. Problematika kazenskopravnega odvzema premoženjske koristi se tako osredotoča na tri ključne vidike, in sicer na interes države, da storilci ne obdržijo premoženjske koristi, ki jo pridobijo z izvrševanjem kaznivih dejanj, po drugi strani mora biti zadoščeno načelom zakonitosti, nujnosti in sorazmernosti, da se prekomerno ne posega v pravice obdolžencev, vse večji pomen pa pridobiva tudi ustrezno varstvo premoženjskih interesov oškodovancev.
Ključne besede: kazenskopravni odvzem premoženjske koristi, začasno zavarovanje, mednarodno sodelovanje, varstvo oškodovancev, primarni obligatorni odvzem koristi, metoda izračuna premoženjske koristi, institucionalna pristojnost
Objavljeno v DKUM: 17.06.2021; Ogledov: 1325; Prenosov: 345
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,84 MB)

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Vpliv izdelovalnih parametrov na lastnosti izdelkov iz Ti-6Al-4V, narejenih s selektivnim laserskim taljenjem in plastenje površine z bioaktivnim polimerom
Snehashis Pal, 2019, doktorska disertacija

Opis: Technological parameters included in energy density (ED) are the more powerful tools in selective laser melting (SLM) technology which can be used in the time of fabrication to regulate chemical, metallurgical, and mechanical properties of a product. The volumetric Energy Density (ED) depends on the energy input employed by the laser power, scanning speed, hatch spacing, and the layer thickness. Density, microstructure, surface morphology, dimension accuracy, strength and porosity including the number of pores, place of the pore, size of a pore shape of a pore, inclusions of pores of an SLM product depends on the processing parameters. As the powder material fusion process is done by track by track and layer by layer, the architecture of the microstructure in a product is oriented as the direction of building up too. The research has emphasized on metallurgical properties, tensile properties, and producing the non-porous products from Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder and surface modification using bioactive polymer for orthopedic application. The research has followed four steps to study the metallurgical properties and finding out the combinations of technological parameters in producing non-porous products. The purpose of the first step of the study was to examine the effects of ED on the product properties and to obtain an optimum ED as well as the optimal range of scanning speed. The second step of the study has focused on the influences of laser power. The third step of the study has investigated the effect of amounts of track overlapping and hatch spacing. Almost a zero-porosity product has been able to produce by following these three steps of the ongoing research. The fourth step has studied the metallurgical properties emphasizing on re-melting of every layer. High-density products have been found in the fourth step where a small amount of very small sized pores are present as a result of keyhole effect and gaseous bubble entrapment mainly. Four buildup orientations have been selected for each ED in the first step of the study to examine the tensile properties of the products. The best buildup orientation has been seen in longitudinally vertical tensile specimens considering tensile properties. The tensile properties have also been studied in the second and third step of the study with best build up orientation of the tensile specimens. The alterations of metallurgical and tensile properties have also been investigated after heat-treatment of the specific samples. Dimensional accuracies were also invigilated on the cubic, and tensile specimens over the studies and consequently, inaccuracies have been noticed. The fifth step of the study has observed the pore properties, adhesion properties, the compressive strength of gelatin coating manufactured using unidirectional freezing and the freeze-drying process of three different gelatin concentrations on four different surfaced Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates. The results indicate that the coating properties depend on the substrate’s surface texture as well as the concentration of gelatin. Above 80% of porosity, interconnected and well-aligned pores of 75-200 μm have been obtained which is required to stimulate bone ingrowth histologically.
Ključne besede: selective laser melting, unidirectional freezing, fabricating parameters, porosity, microstructure, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DKUM: 01.04.2019; Ogledov: 1649; Prenosov: 136
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,52 MB)

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