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Potential role of probiotics for sustainability in rural India
Kislay Roy, Tomaž Langerholc, Avrelija Cencič, 2010, review article

Abstract: Probiotics (greek "for life") have been recognized and explored for over a century, Metchnikoff's pioneering work was converted into commercial reality in the 1950s, and since then many probiotics' benefits have been described. Nowadays they have already found place as a food supplement and as a preventive or curative drug. The term probiotics describes a variety of microorganisms which can colonize the host and have health improving effects on it. Since it is a natural and comparably affordable product even for people with low incomes, it could be introduced into the diet of people living in the Indian rural areas. The biggest obstacles for this are education about their use and technology to prepare them in a convenient form for domestic use. Regular use could improve the quality of live and reduce the dependence on drugs and medical expenses.
Keywords: probiotics, sustainability, India
Published in DKUM: 29.03.2018; Views: 865; Downloads: 86
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Impact of salt reduction on the number of microorganisms and a sensory analysis for Kranjska sausages during their shelf-life
Livija Tušar, Irena Leonida Kropf, Avrelija Cencič, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Salt is an important ingredient in the production of meat product. Any reduction of salt requires a special treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of salt reduction on the growth of microorganisms in Kranjska sausages during their shell-life and to carry out a sensory assessment. The 18 lots of sausages were prepared under salt-reduced (1.6%) and control (2.3%) salt concentrations, directly on the production line. A total of 85 sausages were analysed and the data were used for the comparisons of groups (ANOVA) and to detect the significant variables (polynomial models) influenced on the total number of microorganisms (TNMs). The significant differences were determined between the lots (representing the microbiological status of the stuffing), between the salt-reduced samples and control samples, and between the different humidity levels. The correlations and significant relationships were determined between the TNMs and the lots, the salt concentrations, and the relative humidity. The polynomial models were to general to be used for the prediction. For sensory analysis implemented on 40th day 18 sausages were assessed. The reduction of salt resulted in lower scores in the sensory evaluation. The less-salted sausages contained more microorganisms.
Keywords: Kranjska sausage, reduction of salt, sensory evaluation, models, relative humidity
Published in DKUM: 14.11.2017; Views: 1490; Downloads: 385
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Sanitarno-mikrobiološke preiskave bolnišničnih tekstilij, negovanih v pralnicah
Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Avrelija Cencič, 2004, original scientific article

Abstract: V pralnicah se ne moremo izogniti obstoju mikroorganizmov v nečistem delu, saj zaradi izvora tekstilij vstopi v postopek pranja veliko število mikroorganizmov zelo različnega izvora, od fekalnih mikroorganizmov iz posteljnine do okuženih tekstilij iz različnih oddelkov bolnišnic, ki lahko vsebujejo različne vrste patogenih bakterij, gliv in virusov. Ker so uporabniki bolnišničnih tekstilij običajno bolniki s šibkim imunskim sistemom, jih moramo zaščititi pred okužbami iz slabo opranih tekstilij, zato oprane bolnišnične tekstilij ne smejo vsebovati povzročiteljev bolezni. Čeprav je v prvi vrsti pomembno, da ima postopek pranja razkuževalni učinek, je zelo pomembno tudi, da pri nadaljnji obdelavi opranih tekstilij (sortiranje, likanje, zlaganje, pakiranje) ne pride do rekontaminacije opranih tekstilij zaradi neustrezne higiene v čistem delu pralnice. V raziskavi smo v petih pralnicah bolnišničnih tekstilij izvedli sanitarno-mikrobiološko preiskavo opranih tekstilij na različnih kritičnih kontrolnih točkah v čistem delu pralnice in rezultate primerjali s tolerančnimi vrednostmi za bolnišnične tekstilije, ki jih je izdal RAL, nemški inštitut za zagotavljanje kakovosti in izdajanje certifikatov, in temeljijo na predpisih Robert-Koch inštituta. Iz rezultatov je razvidno, da je doseganje primerne stopnje higiene tekstilij v prvi vrsti odvisno od razkuževalnega učinka postopka pranja, kakor tudi od rednih ukrepov čiščenja in razkuževanja vseh površin, prostorov, tehnične opreme itd., ki pridejo v stik z opranimi tekstilijami in rednega izobraževanja osebja o pravilni higieni rok pri vzdrževanju higiene v pralnici.
Keywords: tekstilije, zagotavljanje higiene, pralnice, razkuževanje
Published in DKUM: 31.08.2017; Views: 994; Downloads: 122
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Antibacterial and anticandidal activity of Tylosema esculentum (marama) extracts
Walter Chingwaru, Gyebi Duodu, Yolandi Van Zyl, Schoeman, Runner Majinda, Sam Yeboah, Jose Jackson, Petrina Kapewangolo, Kandawa-Shulz, Minnaar, Avrelija Cencič, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Bean and tuber extracts of Tylosema esculentum (marama) – an African creeping plant – were obtained using ethanol, methanol and water. Based on information that T. esculentum is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of tuber and bean extracts were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 6538), Mycobacterium terrae (ATCC 15755), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (clinical) and Candida albicans (ATCC 2091). We performed the broth microdilution test for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a method to determine survival of microorganisms after in vitro co-incubation with the highest concentrations of T. esculentum extracts, followed by assessment of colony counts. Ethanol and methanol (phenolic) bean extracts exhibited higher potency against bacteria and yeast than aqueous extracts. Marama bean seed coat crude ethanolic extract (MSCE) and seed coat polyphenolic fractions, especially soluble-bound fraction (MSCIB), were highly antimicrobial against M. terrae, C. diphtheriae and C. albicans. All marama bean polyphenolic fractions, namely cotyledon acidified methanol fraction (MCAM), seed coat acidified methanol fraction (MSCAM), cotyledon insoluble-bound fraction (MCIB), seed coat insoluble-bound fraction (MSCIB), cotyledon-free polyphenolic fraction (MCFP) and seed coat free polyphenolic fraction (MSCFP) had high antimicrobial effects as shown by low respective MIC values between 0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. These MIC values were comparable to those of control antimicrobials used: amphotericin B (0.5 mg/mL) and cesfulodin (0.1 mg/mL) against C. diphtheriae, streptomycin (1.0 mg/mL) and gentamicin (0.4 mg/mL) against M. terrae, and amphotericin B (0.05 mg/mL) against C. albicans. Marama seed coat soluble-esterified fraction (MSCS) had closer activity to that of cefsulodin against M. terrae. High amounts of phenolic substances, such as gallic acid, especially in the seed coats, as well as high amounts of phytosterols, lignans, certain fatty acids and peptides (specifically protease inhibitors) in the cotyledons contributed to the observed antibacterial and anticandidal activities. Marama extracts, especially phenolic and crude seed coat extracts, had high multi-species antibacterial and anticandidal activities at concentrations comparable to that of some conventional drugs; these extracts have potential use as microbicides.
Keywords: marama, Tylosema esculentum, antibacterial activity, anticandidal activity
Published in DKUM: 07.08.2017; Views: 1153; Downloads: 330
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The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health
Avrelija Cencič, Walter Chingwaru, 2010, review article

Abstract: New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a healyh, environmental and social impact. The EU is fighting diseases characteristics of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relatingto aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discused. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvment in nutritional, immunologic and physiologic functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health arealso highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional call models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.
Keywords: nutraceutical, functional food, food supplement, intestinal health, probiotic, intestinal cell models, gut research
Published in DKUM: 22.06.2017; Views: 1815; Downloads: 401
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In vitro selection and characterization of new probiotic candidates from table olive microbiota
Cristian Botta, Tomaž Langerholc, Avrelija Cencič, Luca Cocolin, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: To date, only a few studies have investigated the complex microbiota of table olives in order to identify new probiotic microorganisms, even though this food matrix has been shown to be a suitable source of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Two hundred and thirty eight LAB, belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides species, and isolated from Nocellara Etnea table olives, have been screened in this survey through an in vitro approach. A simulation of transit tolerance in the upper human gastrointestinal tract, together with autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, have been decisive in reducing the number of LAB to 17 promising probiotics. None of the selected strains showed intrinsic resistances towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics and were therefore accurately characterized on an undifferentiated and 3D functional model of the human intestinal tract made up of H4-1 epithelial cells. As far as the potential colonization of the intestinal tract is concerned, a high adhesion ratio was observed for Lb. plantarum O2T60C (over 9%) when tested in the 3D functional model, which closely mimics real intestinal conditions. The stimulation properties towards the epithelial barrier integrity and the in vitro inhibition of L. monocytogenes adhesion and invasion have also been assessed. Lb. plantarum S1T10A and S11T3E enhanced trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and therefore the integrity of the polarized epithelium in the 3D model. Moreover, S11T3E showed the ability to inhibit L. monocytogenes invasion in the undifferentiated epithelial model. The reduction in L. monocytogenes infection, together with the potential enhancement of barrier integrity and an adhesion ratio that was above the average in the 3D functional model (6.9%) would seem to suggest the Lb. plantarum S11T3E strain as the most interesting candidate for possible in vivo animal and human trials.
Keywords: antibiotics, bacteria pathogen, cell metabolism, olives, probiotics, digestion
Published in DKUM: 19.06.2017; Views: 1451; Downloads: 347
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L-arginine intake effect on adenin nucleotide metabolism in rat parenchymal and reproductive tissues
Gordana Kocić, J. Nikolić, Tatjana Jevtović, Dušan Sokolović, H. Kocić, T. Cvetković, Miloš Pavlović, Avrelija Cencič, D. Stojanovic, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: L-arginine is conditionally essential amino acid, required for normal cell growth, protein synthesis, ammonia detoxification, tissue growth and general performance, proposed in the treatment of men sterility and prevention of male impotence. The aim of the present paper was to estimate the activity of the enzymes of adenine nucleotide metabolismČ 5' -nucleotidase ( 5'-NU), adenosine deaminase (ADA), AMP deaminase, and xanthine oxidase (XO), during dietary intake of L-arginine for a period of four weeks of male Wistar rats. Adenosine concentration in tissues is maintained by the relative activities of the adenosine-producing enzyme, 5' -NU and the adenosine-degrading enzyme-ADA adenosine deaminase. Dietary L-arginine intake directed adenine nucleotide metabolism in liver, kidney, and testis tissue toward the activation of adenosine production, by increased 5' -NU activity and decreased ADA activity. Stimulation of adenosine accumulation could be of importance in mediating arginine antiatherosclerotic, vasoactive, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects. Assuming that the XO activity reflects the rate of purine catabolism in the cell, while the activity of AMP deaminase is of importance in ATP regeneration, reduced activity of XO, together with the increased AMP-deaminase activity, may suggest that adenine nucleotides are presumably directed to the ATP regenerating process during dietary L-arginine intake.
Keywords: biochemistry
Published in DKUM: 15.06.2017; Views: 966; Downloads: 134
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Tylosema esculentum (Marama) tuber and bean extracts are strong antiviral agents against rotavirus infection
Walter Chingwaru, Runner Majinda, Sam Yeboah, Jose Jackson, Petrina Kapewangolo, Kandawa-Shulz, Avrelija Cencič, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm2) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.
Keywords: tylusema esculentum, marama, antiviral agents, rotavirus
Published in DKUM: 14.06.2017; Views: 1206; Downloads: 343
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Organizacija in funkcija črevesne flore
Martina Klemenak, Avrelija Cencič, 2013, review article

Abstract: Črevesna mikrobiota je sestavljena iz 10-100 trilijonov mikrobov s presnovno dejavnostjo, enako nekakemu organu v organu in igra ključno vlogo v vzdrževanju črevesne homeostaze. Sestava črevesne flore se spreminja vzdolž prebavne cevi. Dejavniki, ki vplivajo na kolonizacijo črevesne flore novorojenčkov, so način poroda, vrsta hranjenja dojenčkov, bolezen in nedonošenost. Prehrana igra prevladujočo vlogo glede na ostale okoljske dejavnike. Namen članka je predstaviti dosedanje znanje s področja organiziranosti in vloge črevesne flore.
Keywords: mikrobiota, gastrointestinalni trakt, enterotipi, prehrana
Published in DKUM: 30.12.2015; Views: 1935; Downloads: 144
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Microbial food safety standards in organic farming : a review
Avrelija Cencič, Andreja Borec, 2007, review article

Abstract: Microbial food safety standards in organic farming
Keywords: organic farming, microbial risk, food safety
Published in DKUM: 10.07.2015; Views: 1634; Downloads: 17
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