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1.
Povezanost dimenzij velikih pet faktorjev osebnosti in socialne opore z razvojem poporodne depresije : magistrsko delo
Katja Frumen Roj, 2024, magistrsko delo

Opis: Poporodna depresija je ena največjih težav, s katero se matere srečujejo po rojstvu otroka. Na njen nastanek vplivajo številni dejavniki. V tem magistrskem delu smo želeli ugotoviti, kako so osebnostne lastnosti in socialna opora povezani z nastankom simptomov poporodne depresije. Predvidevali smo, da se bosta nevroticizem in ekstravertnost statistično pomembno povezovala s poporodno depresijo, med tem ko se ostale osebnostne lastnosti ne bodo. Hkrati smo predvidevali, da bosta tako socialna opora kot opora partnerja negativno povezani s poporodno depresijo. Zanimalo nas je tudi, katere osebnostne lastnosti so napovedniki poporodne depresije. Raziskava je potekala na vzorcu 119 novih mater v Sloveniji. Naši rezultati so pokazali, da obstaja močna pozitivna povezava med nevroticizmom in poporodno depresijo. Socialna opora in opora partnerja pa negativno korelirata s poporodno depresijo. Hkrati je naša analiza pokazala, da so osebnostne lastnosti v splošnem pojasnile 64,5% variance poporodne depresije, največji prispevek pri tem je imela lastnost nevroticizma. Delež pojasnjene variance se je še dodatno izboljšal, ko smo dodali spremenljivki socialne opore (splošna socialna opora in opora partnerja), in sicer na 66,2%. Ugotovitve te raziskave potrjujejo naša predvidevanja, da določene osebnostne lastnosti (predvsem nevroticizem) in pomanjkanje socialne opore pomembno prispevajo k razvoju simptomov poporodne depresije. Naše ugotovitve tako prispevajo k boljšemu razumevanju razvoja simptomov poporodne depresije in lahko služijo kot osnova za razvoj psihosocialnih in izobraževalnih intervencij. 
Ključne besede: poporodna depresija, socialna opora, velikih pet faktorjev osebnosti
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.03.2024; Ogledov: 65; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (629,97 KB)

2.
Povezanost med samoregulacijo in psihosocialnimi težavami v obdobju zgodnjega otroštva : magistrsko delo
Nastasja Urankar, 2022, magistrsko delo

Opis: Zgodnje učenje samoregulacijskih veščin vodi v optimalen razvoj otroka. Otrok s pomočjo samoregulacije uravnava svoja čustva, misli in vedenja. Slabše samoregulacijske veščine in negativne izkušnje v zgodnjem otroštvu pa lahko prispevajo k pojavu psihosocialnih težav. Samoregulacija in psihosocialne težave sta pomembna konstrukta, ki se razvijata v obdobju zgodnjega otroštva. Namen magistrske naloge je preučiti povezanost med samoregulacijo in psihosocialnimi težavami predšolskih otrok glede na njihov spol in starost. V raziskavi je sodelovalo 129 predšolskih otrok in enako število njihovih staršev. Uporabljena merska pripomočka sta bila Vprašalnik o prednostih in težavah − SDQ, s katerim preverjamo izraženost psihosocialnih težav in Vprašalnik o izvršilnih funkcijah − BRIEF-P, ki ga uporabljamo za oceno posameznikove samoregulacije. Rezultati so pokazali, da se samoregulacija in psihosocialne težave v obdobju zgodnjega otroštva medsebojno povezujejo. Statistično pomembne razlike so se pokazale v izraženosti samoregulacije glede na spol; deklice so imele v primerjavi z dečki višje izraženo samoregulacijo. V raziskavi nismo ugotovili statistično pomembne razlike v izraženosti samoregulacije med mlajšimi in starejšimi otroki. Statistično pomembno so se s starostjo povezovale le nekatere dimenzije samoregulacije. Raziskava ni pokazala statistično pomembne razlike med spoloma v izraženosti psihosocialnih težav. Ugotovljena pa je bila statistično pomembna razlika med mlajšimi in starejšimi otroki v izraženosti psihosocialnih težav. Z raziskavo smo poglobili vpogled v pomembnost optimalnega razvoja samoregulacijskih veščin, ki otroku pomagajo, da lažje premagajo psihosocialne težave in izražajo več prosocialnega vedenja.
Ključne besede: zgodnje otroštvo, samoregulacija, izvršilne funkcije, psihosocialne težave, prosocialno vedenje.
Objavljeno v DKUM: 05.08.2022; Ogledov: 673; Prenosov: 146
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,55 MB)

3.
Izvajanje sprostitvenih dejavnosti na osnovni šoli ter njihov učinek na razredno klimo : magistrsko delo
Maša Rus, 2020, magistrsko delo

Opis: Raziskave kažejo, da se pri učencih in mladostnikih lahko pojavljajo težave s stresom, psihosomatski simptomi, tvegana vedenja in nezadovoljstvo s šolo. Po drugi strani pa raziskave s področja sprostitvenih dejavnosti poročajo o pozitivnih učinkih na duševno zdravje ter zmanjševanje stresa in psihosomatskih simptomov učencev. Razred predstavlja celoto odnosov med posameznikom in okoljem, razredna klima je dogajanje v razredu, ki je določeno z medosebnimi odnosi, osebnostnim razvojem učencev ter sistemskimi značilnostmi. Odločili smo se, da bomo raziskali področje razredne klime in sprostitvenih tehnik. Raziskava je v šolskem letu 2017/2018 potekala na dveh mariborskih osnovnih šolah, in sicer v 4., 5., 6., 7., 8. in 9. razredu na vzorcu 464 učencev, od tega jih polovica pripada kontrolni šoli. Pred začetkom šolskega leta smo na eksperimentalni šoli izvedli izobraževanje za razrednike, kjer smo jim predstavili sprostitvene aktivnosti in jim podali primere vaj (vizualizacija, enostavne telesne vaje joge, vaje čuječnosti ...). Nato so razredniki omenjenih razredov enkrat dnevno izvajali enostavne jogijske telesne vaje v času petminutnih rekreativnih odmorov in enkrat tedensko enostavne meditativne ter sprostitvene vaje pri razrednih urah. Pri tem smo zasledovali razlike med učenci eksperimentalne OŠ (z intervencijo sprostitvenih vaj) in kontrolne OŠ (brez intervencije sprostitvenih vaj), ki je primerljiva po številu učencev, razredih in kraju. Za pridobitev in analizo podatkov smo uporabili Vprašalnik za učence »Razredna klima« (Moj razred; Zabukovec, 1998) s 25 trditvami, ki se nanašajo na medosebne odnose (zadovoljstvo, povezanost) in osebnostni razvoj (tekmovalnost, težavnost, napetost). Na obeh šolah smo oktobra 2017 izvedli predtest, maja 2018 pa potest z istim vprašalnikom. Rezultati so pokazali, da se razredna klima kljub intervenciji z izvajanjem sprostitvenih tehnik v omenjenem obdobju ni izboljšala. Smo pa ugotovili tudi, kakšna je bila razredna klima na eksperimentalni šoli in na kontrolni šoli na začetku in kako se je spremenila do drugega merjenja. Ugotovili smo, da je bila razredna klima na obeh šolah slabša ob koncu šolskega leta kot na začetku. Evalvacije so pokazale, da sta na rezultate vplivala dva nepričakovana dejavnika. Učenci so bili namreč v času 2. meritve zaradi zaključevanja ocen bolj obremenjeni in pod stresom, kar je negativno vplivalo na razredno klimo. Drugi dejavnik je nedoslednost pri izvedbi, saj se sprostitvene tehnike zaradi različnih dejavnikov niso izvajale redno. Razlogi za to so bili različni, npr. spremenljivo šolsko okolje, zmanjšanje interesa razrednikov, pomanjkanje motivacije učencev ipd. Natančnega vpliva navedenih dejavnikov ni bilo možno oceniti.
Ključne besede: sprostitvene tehnike, čuječnost, joga in meditacija v šoli, razredna klima, stres
Objavljeno v DKUM: 28.01.2022; Ogledov: 1039; Prenosov: 204
.pdf Celotno besedilo (605,60 KB)

4.
Spatial ability, 3D modelling and styles of thinking in relation to brain hemisphere dominance
Andrej Šafhalter, Srečko Glodež, Karin Bakračevič, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The progress of neuroscience and the understanding of children's styles of thinking are opening up new teaching styles that take into account differences in individual cognitive perception. Students can be classified into three distinctive perceptive types, according to the pronounced activity of one cerebral hemisphere in their thinking and information processing: left-hemisphere, right-hemisphere, and integrative type that does not exhibit a considerable dominance of one particular hemisphere. The purpose of the research was to establish differences in the 3D modeling encouraged progression of spatial ability between the left-hemisphere, right-hemisphere and integrative types of students. Computerized 3D modeling employed during technical extra-curricular activity in lower secondary school (grades 6 to 9) may affect the spatial ability of students, which according to other studies, appears to be predominantly connected with the right brain hemisphere. Research was conducted among a variety of lower secondary school students across Slovenia aged 11 15 years. Data on spatial ability and its development was collected using a hybrid spatial intelligence test conducted on two separate occasions, while assessment of the learning perception type of students depending on hemispheric dominance was obtained using a self-evaluation questionnaire. The 3D modeling of technical objects and objects drawn in orthographic or isometric projection was done with the software Trimble SketchUp.
Ključne besede: cognitive development, spatial ability, 3D modeling
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.12.2017; Ogledov: 1030; Prenosov: 113
.pdf Celotno besedilo (669,06 KB)
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5.
Metacognitive accuracy and learning to learn : a developmental perspective
Karin Bakračevič, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Metacognition belongs to higher-order mental processes and enables us to control, plan and accordingly regulate our own learning and problem solving process. In the present study we researched developmental changes in different reasoning domains and in metacognitive accuracy, which is considered as part of successful metacognitive monitoring/regulation, and as an essential element of self-regulated learning and learning to learn competence. The study involved 282 participants from four different age groups: 13-15-, 23-25-, 33-35- and 43-45- year olds. These participants solved tasks addressed to spatial, verbal-propositional and social reasoning, and evaluated their own performance on these tasks. To specify possible differences in metacognitive accuracy, the metacognitive accuracy index was computed. Results showed that metacognitive evaluations were accurate in spatial domain, less accurate in verbal-propositional and quite inaccurate in the social domain. The accuracy of self-evaluation increased with age and males were more accurate in their self-evaluations than females. Improvement of metacognitive accuracy with age is in tune with findings that metacognition becomes more effective with development and that people with age become more reflective and self-aware.
Ključne besede: reasoning, metacognition, metacognitive accuracy, self-regulated learning
Objavljeno v DKUM: 15.12.2017; Ogledov: 1446; Prenosov: 113
.pdf Celotno besedilo (488,20 KB)
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6.
Developing spatial visualization with 3D modeling
Andrej Šafhalter, Srečko Glodež, Karin Bakračevič, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The research was carried out in 20 11 among 22 pupils from 14-15 years old. The purpose of the pilot study was to determine the influence of 3D modeling on the spatial visualization of pupils, as well as the gender difference in the spatial visualization of the tested pupils and the progress of this visualization in individual genders. ln addition, it tried to determine whether the sensory style of the pupils, visual. auditory or kinesthetic, influences spatial perception and the development of spatial visualization. Pupils were divided into two groups, the test group and the control group. Pupils in the test group attended a 3D modeling extra-curricular activity for twelve teaching hours in the second evaluation period of the 2010/2011 school year. Spatial visualization was determined with a modified spatial visualization test. namely before the extra-curricular activity and afterwards. The modified test consisted of different spatial visualization tests: PSVT: R, MeT, MRT, DAT: SR. and tests of rotation within a plane. For 3D modeling exercises pupils used the open-source software Google SketchUp. None of the tested pupils have encountered the mentioned software before. After a second testing, the test group showed greater progress in solving spatial visualization tasks in comparison with the control group, while gender differences were minimal. The results of the spatial visualization test were also compared with the sensory style of pupils, which was filled out by all the pupils included in the study. ln the 2011/2012 school year a broader study is underway, involvlng almost two hundred pupils of various elementary schools in Slovenia.
Ključne besede: spatial visualization, 3D modeling, perception styles
Objavljeno v DKUM: 15.12.2017; Ogledov: 1382; Prenosov: 129
.pdf Celotno besedilo (656,47 KB)
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7.
Developing spatial ability using 3D modeling in lower secondary school
Andrej Šafhalter, Srečko Glodež, Boris Aberšek, Karin Bakračevič, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In recent years 3D modeling has been increasingly utilized during product design in lower secondary schools as well. Its greatest advantage over classical technical drawing and 2D drawing software lies in the fact students are able to observe the object they are designing from all the viewpoints of a virtual three-dimensional space. Since thinking and visualization in the process of object design also appear in three dimensions, the mental manipulation and guesswork required from students in order to add another dimension to an object pictured on a level plane are no longer necessary. Additionally, 3D modeling has a range of contributions to the cognitive development of children, which was also the subject of this research. The central question raised was whether students are able to improve their spatial ability by using modeling tools. The research included 196 students aged between 11-15 years, of which 95 were placed in the experimental group and 101 in the control group. Spatial ability was measured using pre-test and post-test.
Ključne besede: 3D modeling, cognitive development, spatial abilities, visualization
Objavljeno v DKUM: 15.12.2017; Ogledov: 1197; Prenosov: 143
.pdf Celotno besedilo (681,51 KB)
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8.
The social acceptance of secondary school students with learning disabilities (LD)
Teja Majcen, Majda Schmidt, Karin Bakračevič, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper aims to shed light on the level of social acceptance among students with learning disabilities (LD4 ) in various secondary school vocational programs in comparison with their peers without disabilities. Our findings are based on an empirical study that comprised 417 students, 5 of whom 85 were students with LD. Based on sociometric analyses of all participating classes, we determined that students with LD were less integrated into the classroom in comparison to their peers without LD. The results of the sociometric analysis show statistically significant differences in the sociometric position between students with LD and students without LD. While students with LD were most frequently perceived as rejected, students without LD were seen as popular or average. In addition, students with LD see themselves as less socially self-efficient compared to their peers. The results of our study mostly refer to boys, because the sample comprised 359 boys and 58 girls. We believe that pro-inclusion teachers with appropriately developed strategies for strengthening students' social skills, as well as positive attitudes and sufficient knowledge about the special needs of students can have a significant impact on the social acceptance of students with special needs in the classroom community.
Ključne besede: students with learning disabilities, social integration, social self-efficacy, social acceptance, sociometric status, secondary school vocational education
Objavljeno v DKUM: 13.07.2017; Ogledov: 1937; Prenosov: 137
.pdf Celotno besedilo (180,27 KB)
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9.
Developmental differentiation and binding of mental processes with g through the life-span
Andreas Demetriou, George Spanoudis, Smaragda Kazi, Antigoni Mougi, Mislav Stjepan Žebec, Elena Kazali, Hudson Golino, Karin Bakračevič, Michael Shayer, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Integration/differentiation of mental processes is major mechanism of development. Developmental theories ascribe intellectual development to it. In psychometric theory, Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates that increasing g allows increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities, because increased mental power allows variable investment in domain-specific learning. Empirical evidence has been inconsistent so far, with some studies supporting and others contradicting this mechanism. This state of affairs is due to a developmental phenomenon: Both differentiation and strengthening of relations between specific processes and g may happen but these changes are phase-specific and ability-specific, depending upon the developmental priorities in the formation of g in each phase. We present eight studies covering the age span from 4 to 85 years in support of this phenomenon. Using new powerful modeling methods we showed that differentiation and binding of mental processes in g occurs in cycles. Specific processes intertwine with g at the beginning of cycles when they are integrated into it; when well established, these processes may vary with increasing g, reflecting its higher flexibility. Representational knowledge, inductive inference and awareness of it, and grasp of logical constraints framing inference are the major markers of g, first intertwining with in their respective cycles and differentiating later during the periods of 2–6, 7–11, and 11–20 years, respectively. The implications of these findings for an overarching cognitive developmental/differential theory of human mind are discussed.
Ključne besede: intelligence, cognitive development, individual differences, integration, differentiation, awareness
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.06.2017; Ogledov: 976; Prenosov: 377
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,28 MB)
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10.
SAMOREGULACIJSKI VIDIKI ŠOLSKE USPEŠNOSTI GIMNAZIJCEV OB SPREMLJANJU NJIHOVE IDENTIFICIRANE NADARJENOSTI
Tamara Malešević, 2016, magistrsko delo

Opis: Namen magistrskega dela je pojasniti vpliv elementov izvršilnih spretnosti ter samoregulacije učenja na uveljavljanje potencialov identificiranih nadarjenih dijakov, ki ga spremljamo preko učnih rezultatov. V teoretičnem delu smo ugotavljali, da je samoregulacija najbolj pomembna kompleksna izvršilna funkcija, v empiričnem delu pa smo povezave med njimi tudi potrdili. Uporabili smo vprašalnik za samooceno izvršilnih spretnosti (IS) P. Dawson in R. Guareja ter vprašalnik Motivacijskih strategij za učenje (MSLQ), avtorjev P. Pintrich, D. Smith, T. Garcia in W. McKeachie na vzorcu 322 gimnazijcev. Razloge za učno neuspešnost nekaterih nadarjenih mladostnikov avtorji vidijo prav v elementih izvršilnih funkcij in samoregulacije učenja. V empiričnem delu smo z diskriminantno analizo razlik med identificiranimi (nadarjenimi) in ostalimi dijaki dobili (eno) diskriminantno funkcijo, ki nam pove, da imajo identificirani boljši učni uspeh, izvršilne funkcije in samoregulacijo učenja. Diskriminanto funkcijo pojasnjuje tudi višji ekonomsko-socialno-kulturni status družin identificiranih nadarjenih. Z modelom hierarhične multiple regresijske analize smo pojasnili slabo tretjino variabilnosti učnega uspeha. Ugotovili smo, da višji učni uspeh dosegajo identificirani kot nadarjeni, dijaki, ki so izbrali srednjo šolo zaradi storilnostno-ciljnih razlogov, dijaki, ki v manjši meri pripisujejo vzroke za učni uspeh sreči, in dijaki, ki imajo višje rezultate na lestvicah IS in MSLQ. Sklenemo lahko, da izvršilne funkcije in samoregulacija učenja delujejo kot mediacijske variable med nekaterimi dejavniki učnega uspeha in samim uspehom.
Ključne besede: samoregulacija učenja, izvršilne spretnosti, učna uspešnost gimnazijcev, nadarjenost
Objavljeno v DKUM: 29.11.2016; Ogledov: 1396; Prenosov: 175
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,31 MB)

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