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Regional coordinators
Davorina Petek, Polona Vidič Hudobivnik, Viktorija Jančar, Bojana Petek, Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: A new project on education in family medicine training was implemented last year in Slovenia by establishing regional coordinators in the specialist training programme. They are responsible for conducting regular small-group meetings with family medicine trainees. This study wanted to explore the attitudes and opinions of regional coordinators and family medicine trainees concerning this new method. Methods: This was a qualitative study based on focus groups. The participants were regional coordinators and family medicine specialist trainees. The data were analysed based on the principles of thematic content analysis with inductive technique. Results: The study revealed five themes which were the same for the analysis of transcripts of both regional coordinators and family medicine trainees: 1) Meetings with trainees; 2) Coordination; 3) Characteristics of regional coordinators; 4) Position of regional coordinators, and 5) Evaluation of regional coordinators. Conclusion: Participants of the study have many expectations for this new programme. They expect progress in trainees' clinical knowledge through experience-based group learning and with the help of the tutorship role of regional coordinators. The role of regional coordinators represents a new possibility for solving problems in the training programme in their coordinating role. In future, they have the potential to develop into an expert body that supervises the quality of training. A close follow-up is necessary to see if the position of regional coordinators is adequate and if they meet the expectations of the trainees as well as their own goals. Administrative and financial support for the programme is necessary. The project is important also in enabling the adaptation of the training programme's needs and the regional characteristics of medical care.
Ključne besede: family practice, education, mentors
Objavljeno: 28.06.2017; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (467,20 KB)

Viral respiratory infections in a nursing home
Tina Uršič, Nina Gorišek Miksić, Lara Lusa, Franc Strle, Miroslav Petrovec, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: The knowledge on viral respiratory infections in nursing home (NH) residents and their caregivers is limited. The purpose of the present study was to assess and compare the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in nursing home (NH) residents and staff, to identify viruses involved in ARI and to correlate viral etiology with clinical manifestations of ARI. Methods: The prospective surveillance study was accomplished in a medium-sized NH in Slovenia (central Europe). Ninety NH residents and 42 NH staff were included. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from all participants at enrollment (December 5th, 2011) and at the end of the study (May 31st, 2012), and from each participant that developed ARI within this timeframe. Molecular detection of 15 respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal swab samples was performed. Results: The weekly incidence rate of ARI in NH residents and NH staff correlated; however, it was higher in staff members than in residents (5.9 versus 3.8/1,000 person-days, P=0.03), and was 2.5 (95 % CI: 1.36-4.72) times greater in residents without dementia than in residents with dementia. Staff members typically presented with upper respiratory tract involvement, whereas in residents lower respiratory tract infections predominated. Respiratory viruses were detected in 55/100 ARI episodes. In residents, influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and human metapneumovirus were detected most commonly, whereas in NH staff rhinovirus and influenza A virus prevailed. 38/100 ARI episodes (30/56 in residents, 8/44 in staff) belonged to one of three outbreaks (caused by human metapneumovirus, influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively). NH residents had higher chances for virus positivity within outbreak than HN staff (OR=7.4, 95 % CI: 1.73-31.48, P<0.01). Conclusions: ARI are common among NH residents and staff, and viruses were detected in a majority of the episodes of ARI. Many ARI episodes among NH residents were outbreak cases and could be considered preventable. Trial registration The study was registered on the 1th of December 2011 at ClinicalTrials (NCT01486160).
Ključne besede: respiratory infections, nursing home, residents nursing home
Objavljeno: 28.06.2017; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (688,60 KB)

The safety attitudes questionnaire - ambulatory version
Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, Matjaž Maletič, Vesna Stropnik, Ellen Tveter Deilkås, Dag Hofoss, Gunnar Tschudi Bondevik, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: Several tools have been developed to measure safety attitudes of health care providers, out of which the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is regarded as one of the most appropriate ones. In 2007, it was adapted to outpatient (primary health care) settings and in 2014 it was tested in out-of-hours health care settings in Norway. The purpose of this study was to translate the English version of the SAQ-Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV) to Slovenian language; to test its reliability; and to explore its factor structure. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that took place in Slovenian out-of-hours primary care clinics in March- May 2015 as a part of an international study entitled Patient Safety Culture in European Out-of-hours services. The questionnaire consisted of the Slovenian version of the SAQ-AV. The link to the questionnaire was emailed to health care workers in the out-of-hours clinics. A total of 438 participants were invited. We performed exploratory factor analysis. Results: Out of 438 invited participants, 250 answered the questionnaire (response rate 57.1%). Exploratory factor analysis put forward five factors: 1) Perceptions of management, 2) Job satisfaction, 3) Safety climate, 4) Teamwork climate, and 5) Communication. Cronbach's alpha of the whole SAQ-AV was 0.922. Cronbach's alpha of the five factors ranged from 0.587 to 0.791. Mean total score of the SAQ-AV was 56.6 +- 16.0 points. The factor with the highest average score was Teamwork climate and the factor with the lowest average was Job satisfaction. Conclusions: Based on the results in our study, we cannot state that the SAQ-AV is a reliable tool for measuring safety culture in the Slovenian out-of-hours care setting. Our study also showed that there might be other safety culture factors in out-of-hours care not recognised before. We therefore recommend larger studies aiming to identify an alternative factor structure.
Ključne besede: patient safety, quality assurance, health care
Objavljeno: 28.06.2017; Ogledov: 55; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (515,91 KB)

Relationship between genome and epigenome - challenges and requirements for future research
Geneviève Almouzni, Neža Grgurevič, Gregor Majdič, Uroš Potočnik, Janez Ilaš, 2014, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: Understanding the links between genetic, epigenetic and non-genetic factors throughout the lifespan and across generations and their role in disease susceptibility and disease progression offer entirely new avenues and solutions to major problems in our society. To overcome the numerous challenges, we have come up with nine major conclusions to set the vision for future policies and research agendas at the European level.
Ključne besede: genome, epigenome, microbiome, environment
Objavljeno: 28.06.2017; Ogledov: 34; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (482,56 KB)

Which positive factors determine the GP satisfaction in clinical practice?
Bernard Le Floch, Hilde Bastiaens, Jean-Yves Le Reste, H. Lingner, Robert Hoffman, Sĺawomir Czachowski, Radost Spiridonova Assenova, Tuomas Koskela, Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, P. Nabbe, A. Sowinska, T. Montier, Lieve Peremans, 2016, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: Looking at what makes General Practitioners (GPs) happy in their profession, may be important in increasing the GP workforce in the future. The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) created a research team (eight national groups) in order to clarify the factors involved in GP job satisfaction throughout Europe. The first step of this study was a literature review to explore how the satisfaction of GPs had been studied before. The research question was "Which factors are related to GP satisfaction in Clinical Practice?" Methods: Systematic literature review according to the PRISMA statement. The databases searched were Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane. All articles were identified, screened and included by two separate research teams, according to inclusion or exclusion criteria. Then, a qualitative appraisal was undertaken. Next, a thematic analysis process was undertaken to capture any issue relevant to the research question. Results: The number of records screened was 458. One hundred four were eligible. Finally, 17 articles were included. The data revealed 13 subthemes, which were grouped into three major themes for GP satisfaction. First there were general profession-related themes, applicable to many professions. A second group of issues related specifically to a GP setting. Finally, a third group was related to professional life and personal issues. Conclusions: A number of factors leading to GP job satisfaction, exist in literature They should be used by policy makers within Europe to increase the GP workforce. The research team needs to undertake qualitative studies to confirm or enhance those results.
Ključne besede: family medicine, primary health care, career
Objavljeno: 28.06.2017; Ogledov: 31; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (429,53 KB)

Process quality indicators in family medicine
Danica Rotar-Pavlič, Maja Sever, Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, Igor Švab, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: The aim of our study was to describe variability in process quality in family medicine among 31 European countries plus Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. The quality of family medicine was measured in terms of continuity, coordination, community orientation, and comprehensiveness of care. Methods: The QUALICOPC study (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) was carried out among family physicians in 31 European countries (the EU 27 except for France, plus Macedonia, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey) and three non-European countries (Australia, Canada, and New Zealand). We used random sampling when national registers of practitioners were available. Regional registers or lists of facilities were used for some countries. A standardized questionnaire was distributed to the physicians, resulting in a sample of 6734 participants. Data collection took place between October 2011 and December 2013. Based on completed questionnaires, a three-dimensional framework was established to measure continuity, coordination, community orientation, and comprehensiveness of care. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the variation of quality attributable to the family physician level and the country level. Results: None of the 34 countries in this study consistently scored the best or worst in all categories. Continuity of care was perceived by family physicians as the most important dimension of quality. Some components of comprehensiveness of care, including medical technical procedures, preventive care and health care promotion, varied substantially between countries. Coordination of care was identified as the weakest part of quality. We found that physician-level characteristics contributed to the majority of variation. Conclusions: A comparison of process quality indicators in family medicine revealed similarities and differences within and between countries. The researchers found that the major proportion of variation can be explained by physicians' characteristics.
Ključne besede: family physician, process quality, comparison
Objavljeno: 28.06.2017; Ogledov: 23; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (697,85 KB)

Biomedical question answering using semantic relations
Dimitar Hristovski, Dejan Dinevski, Andrej Kastrin, Thomas Rindflesch, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: The proliferation of the scientific literature in the field of biomedicine makes it difficult to keep abreast of current knowledge, even for domain experts. While general Web search engines and specialized information retrieval (IR) systems have made important strides in recent decades, the problem of accurate knowledge extraction from the biomedical literature is far from solved. Classical IR systems usually return a list of documents that have to be read by the user to extract relevant information. This tedious and time-consuming work can be lessened with automatic Question Answering (QA) systems, which aim to provide users with direct and precise answers to their questions. In this work we propose a novel methodology for QA based on semantic relations extracted from the biomedical literature. Results: We extracted semantic relations with the SemRep natural language processing system from 122,421,765 sentences, which came from 21,014,382 MEDLINE citations (i.e., the complete MEDLINE distribution up to the end of 2012). A total of 58,879,300 semantic relation instances were extracted and organized in a relational database. The QA process is implemented as a search in this database, which is accessed through a Web-based application, called SemBT (available at We conducted an extensive evaluation of the proposed methodology in order to estimate the accuracy of extracting a particular semantic relation from a particular sentence. Evaluation was performed by 80 domain experts. In total 7,510 semantic relation instances belonging to 2,675 distinct relations were evaluated 12,083 times. The instances were evaluated as correct 8,228 times (68%). Conclusions: In this work we propose an innovative methodology for biomedical QA. The system is implemented as a Web-based application that is able to provide precise answers to a wide range of questions. A typical question is answered within a few seconds. The tool has some extensions that make it especially useful for interpretation of DNA microarray results.
Ključne besede: semantic relations, biomedical question
Objavljeno: 28.06.2017; Ogledov: 37; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,76 MB)

Survival of node-negative breast cancer patients treated at the University Medical Centre Maribor in the period 2000-2009
Nina Fokter Dovnik, Darja Arko, Nina Čas-Sikošek, Iztok Takač, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: Breast cancer is increasingly diagnosed in the early stages without regional nodal involvement. The aim of the present study was to determine the 5-year overall (OS) and breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) for patients with node-negative breast cancer treated at the University Medical Centre Maribor, and compare it with survival at the national level. Methods: Medical records were searched for information on patients with lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer who received primary treatment at the University Medical Centre Maribor in the period 2000–2009. Information on all Slovenian node-negative breast cancer patients diagnosed in the same period was obtained from the Cancer Registry of Republic of Slovenia. Time trends in survival were assessed by comparing the periods 2000–2004 and 2005–2009. Results: The 5-year OS and BCSS of patients treated in Maribor in the period 2000–2009 were 92.3% (95% CI, 90.5%– 94.1%) and 96.4% (95% CI, 95.2%–97.6%), respectively, and did not differ from the corresponding OS and BCSS for Slovenian patients. Although the improvement in OS for patients from Maribor diagnosed in the period 2005–2009 compared to 2000–2004 did not reach statistical significance (HR 0.73; 95% CI, 0.51–1.05; p=0.086), BCSS significantly improved over the same time periods (HR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30–0.94; p=0.028). Conclusions: Survival of node-negative breast cancer patients treated at the University Medical Centre Maribor is comparable to survival of corresponding patients at the national level. The rising number of long-term breast cancer survivors places additional importance on survivorship care.
Ključne besede: breast cancer, survival, time trends, regional differences, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 26.06.2017; Ogledov: 26; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (854,97 KB)

Single-cell analysis reveals IGF-1 potentiation of inhibition of the TGF-ß/Smad pathway of fibrosis in human keratocytes in vitro
Tomislav Šarenac, Martin Trapečar, Lidija Gradišnik, Marjan Rupnik, Dušica Pahor, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Corneal wound healing is often affected by TGF-β–mediated fibrosis and scar formation. Guided fibrosis with IGF-1 and antifibrotic substances might maintain corneal transparency. Primary human corneal keratocytes under serum-free conditions were used as a model of corneal stromal wounding, with markers of corneal fibrosis and opacity studied under TGF-β2 stimulation. Single-cell imaging flow cytometry was used to determine nuclearization of Smad3, and intracellular fluorescence intensity of Smad7 and the corneal crystallin aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1. Extracellular matrix proteoglycans keratocan and biglycan were quantified using ELISAs. On the TGF-β2 background, the keratocytes were treated with IGF-1, and suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA) or halofuginone ± IGF-1. IGF-1 alone decreased Smad3 nuclearization and increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 expression, with favorable extracellular matrix proteoglycan composition. SAHA induced higher Smad7 levels and inhibited translocation of Smad3 to the nucleus, also when combined with IGF-1. Immunofluorescence showed that myofibroblast transdifferentiation is attenuated and appearance of fibroblasts is favored by IGF-1 alone and in combination with the antifibrotic substances. The TGF-β/Smad pathway of fibrosis and opacity was inhibited by IGF-1, and further with SAHA in particular, and with halofuginone. IGF-1 is thus a valid aid to antifibrotic treatment, with potential for effective and transparent corneal wound healing.
Ključne besede: cornea, wounds, treatment, antifibrotic treatment, keratocytes
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,89 MB)

Membrane potential and calcium dynamics in beta cells from mouse pancreas tissue slices
Marjan Rupnik, Andraž Stožer, Jurij Dolenšek, Borut Žalik, Maša Skelin, Marko Gosak, Denis Špelič, 2015, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are precise biological sensors for glucose and play a central role in balancing the organism between catabolic and anabolic needs. A hallmark of the beta cell response to glucose are oscillatory changes of membrane potential that are tightly coupled with oscillatory changes in intracellular calcium concentration which, in turn, elicit oscillations of insulin secretion. Both membrane potential and calcium changes spread from one beta cell to the other in a wave-like manner. In order to assess the properties of the abovementioned responses to physiological and pathological stimuli, the main challenge remains how to effectively measure membrane potential and calcium changes at the same time with high spatial and temporal resolution, and also in as many cells as possible. To date, the most wide-spread approach has employed the electrophysiological patch-clamp method to monitor membrane potential changes. Inherently, this technique has many advantages, such as a direct contact with the cell and a high temporal resolution. However, it allows one to assess information from a single cell only. In some instances, this technique has been used in conjunction with CCD camera-based imaging, offering the opportunity to simultaneously monitor membrane potential and calcium changes, but not in the same cells and not with a reliable cellular or subcellular spatial resolution. Recently, a novel family of highly-sensitive membrane potential reporter dyes in combination with high temporal and spatial confocal calcium imaging allows for simultaneously detecting membrane potential and calcium changes in many cells at a time. Since the signals yielded from both types of reporter dyes are inherently noisy, we have developed complex methods of data denoising that permit for visualization and pixel-wise analysis of signals. Combining the experimental approach of high-resolution imaging with the advanced analysis of noisy data enables novel physiological insights and reassessment of current concepts in unprecedented detail.
Ključne besede: calcium sensors, membrane potential sensors, calcium imaging, membrane potential imaging, beta cell, pancreas, denoising, patch-clamp
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 57; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,17 MB)

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