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Hospital textiles, are they a possible vehicle for healthcare-associated infections?
Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, 2012, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Textiles are a common material in healthcare facilities; therefore it is important that they do not pose as a vehicle for the transfer of pathogens to patients or hospital workers. During the course of use hospital textiles become contaminated and laundering is necessary. Laundering of healthcare textiles is most commonly adequate, but in some instances, due to inappropriate disinfection or subsequent recontamination, the textiles may become a contaminated inanimate surface with the possibility to transfer pathogens. In this review we searched the published literature in order to answer four review questions: (1) Are there any reports on the survival of microorganisms on hospital textiles after laundering? (2) Are there any reports that indicate the presence of microorganisms on hospital textiles during use? (3) Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection of patients? (4) Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection for healthcare workers?
Ključne besede: textile hygiene, disinfection, hospital-acquired infections, inanimate surfaces, infection transmission vehicles
Objavljeno: 21.06.2017; Ogledov: 57; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (137,40 KB)

Evaluation of major online diabetes risk calculators and computerized predictive models
Majda Pajnkihar, Gregor Štiglic, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Classical paper-and-pencil based risk assessment questionnaires are often accompanied by the online versions of the questionnaire to reach a wider population. This study focuses on the loss, especially in risk estimation performance, that can be inflicted by direct transformation from the paper to online versions of risk estimation calculators by ignoring the possibilities of more complex and accurate calculations that can be performed using the online calculators. We empirically compare the risk estimation performance between four major diabetes risk calculators and two, more advanced, predictive models. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999%2012 was used to evaluate the performance of detecting diabetes and pre-diabetes. American Diabetes Association risk test achieved the best predictive performance in category of classical paper-and-pencil based tests with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.699 for undiagnosed diabetes (0.662 for pre-diabetes) and 47% (47% for pre-diabetes) persons selected for screening. Our results demonstrate a significant difference in performance with additional benefits for a lower number of persons selected for screening when statistical methods are used. The best AUC overall was obtained in diabetes risk prediction using logistic regression with AUC of 0.775 (0.734) and an average 34% (48%) persons selected for screening. However, generalized boosted regression models might be a better option from the economical point of view as the number of selected persons for screening of 30% (47%) lies significantly lower for diabetes risk assessment in comparison to logistic regression (p < 0.001), with a significantly higher AUC (p < 0.001) of 0.774 (0.740) for the pre-diabetes group. Our results demonstrate a serious lack of predictive performance in four major online diabetes risk calculators. Therefore, one should take great care and consider optimizing the online versions of questionnaires that were primarily developed as classical paper questionnaires
Ključne besede: risk calculators, predictive models, diabetes
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 40; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (797,74 KB)

Comprehensible predictive modeling using regularized logistic regression and comorbidity based features
Gregor Štiglic, Nino Fijačko, Petra Povalej, Fei Wang, Alexandros Kalousis, Boris Delibašić, Zoran Obradović, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Different studies have demonstrated the importance of comorbidities to better understand the origin and evolution of medical complications. This study focuses on improvement of the predictive model interpretability based on simple logical features representing comorbidities. We use group lasso based feature interaction discovery followed by a post-processing step, where simple logic terms are added. In the final step, we reduce the feature set by applying lasso logistic regression to obtain a compact set of non-zero coefficients that represent a more comprehensible predictive model. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was demonstrated on a pediatric hospital discharge dataset that was used to build a readmission risk estimation model. The evaluation of the proposed method demonstrates a reduction of the initial set of features in a regression model by 72%, with a slight improvement in the Area Under the ROC Curve metric from 0.763 (95% CI: 0.755%0.771) to 0.769 (95% CI: 0.761%0.777). Additionally, our results show improvement in comprehensibility of the final predictive model using simple comorbidity based terms for logistic regression.
Ključne besede: predictive models, logistic regression, readmission classification, comorbidities
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 55; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,13 MB)

Comparison of methods for detection of four common nosocomial pathogens on hospital textiles
Sabina Fijan, Sonja Šostar-Turk, Urška Rozman, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: Although the most common vehicle for transmission of health-care acquired infections is the personto- person transmission route, the role of environment should not be ignored and hospital linen may contribute to the spreading of nosocomial infections. The contact plate method and swabbing are common methods for sampling microorganisms on textiles; however, results are available after two days as they are based on incubation followed by phenotypeidentification. An important alternative is using quick wash-off methods followed by PCR detection, which shortens the identification process from two days to a few hours. Methods: The following test microorganisms at different concentrations were inoculated onto textile swatches and dried overnight: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium difficile. RODAC plate sampling as well as a non-destructive wash-off method for capturing microorganisms from the textilesusing a Morapex device were used. The elution suspension from the Morapex device was used for two methods. In the first method, classical incubation on selective media followed by phenotypic identification was used and in the second method DNA was extracted from the elution suspension followed by amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis to visualize amplified products. Conclusions: All chosen bacteria were found using all methods. However, the most sensitive proved to be detection using PCR amplification as we detected the sample with initial concentration of 102 cfu/mL inoculated onto the textile surface before drying. The final detectablerecovered bacterial concentration on textiles was up to 10 cfu/mL.
Ključne besede: health care associated infections, hospital textiles, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium difficile, Morapex
Objavljeno: 05.04.2017; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (811,70 KB)

Employability of nursing care graduates
Barbara Donik, Majda Pajnkihar, Mojca Bernik, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Starting points: In Slovenia, the higher education institution for nursing started exploring employability opportunities in nursing care in connection with the achievement of competencies from students and employers point of view. This article highlights the importance of monitoring nursing graduates employability. Its aim is to examine the employability of nursing care graduates based on the self-evaluation of competences obtained during the last study year and to establish a link between the self-evaluation of competences and students academic performance. Methodology: A questionnaire was distributed to full and part time nursing care students attending the last study year at five different healthcare/health sciences faculties in Slovenia and to employers (healthcare institutions) where the majority of nursing care graduates finds employment. We examined the level of competence achieved by nursing students and the level of competences required by employers. The sample included a total of 485 students. 194 surveys were returned, which represent a 40 percent response. We used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for each individual joined competence. Further, we compared employability skills of students and employers with Mann-Whitney and Wilcox rank-sum test. For correlation between two variables we used Spearman correlation analysis. Results: The Mann-Whitney and Wilkson Rank test show that employers generally assess competences with a higher average grade in comparison to students and these differences are statistically significant. By applying the Spearman correlation analysis, we established that a statistically significant weak correlation may be observed between the "average grade" and "competences" variables. Discussion and conclusion: Our findings show that a continuous monitoring of general and subject-specific competences gained by students, along with a periodic verification of competences demanded by employers, is necessary. It is very important to monitor the requirements of the labour market in terms of ongoing communication with employers who can best estimate special knowledge needs.
Ključne besede: employability, nursing care graduates, competences, labour market
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 77; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Polno besedilo (661,81 KB)

The examination of factors relating to the leadership style of nursing leaders in hospitals
Mateja Lorber, Sonja Treven, Damijan Mumel, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Theories often describe leadership with different classifications, based on personality and behaviour, and have been used to establish the traits and behaviours that determine an effective leadership style. We used the quantitative methodology to investigate the determinants of the leadership style among nursing leaders in Slovene hospitals. Based on the results, we determined that demographic characteristics such as gender, age, length of employment, and level of education do not affect the choice of the leadership style. Internal organizational characteristics such as job position, emotional intelligence, communication, personal characteristics, and the decision-making process are positively associated with the leadership style. Personal characteristics are considered important when it comes to using specific leadership styles, regardless of the choice of the leadership style, which also depends on the situation and external influences.
Ključne besede: decision-making process, personal characteristics, communication, emotional intelligence, leadership style
Objavljeno: 03.04.2017; Ogledov: 79; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (476,79 KB)

Some sociological, medical and legislative views on video game addiction
Jana Bezenšek, Aleksander Arnuš, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Millions of people worldwide play video games; also in Slovenian post-modern society. Most of them do it for enjoyment, yet a small number of individuals show traits associated with addictive behaviour when interacting with their games. The authors in the article point out that, compared to drug abuse, there exist some more approachable life-related activities that can lead to addiction. They stimulate the excretion of endorphins and lead to the transformation of consciousness. Addiction to video games is an ostensible attempt to satisfy the immanent human need for meaning. The economy of the Slovenian young consumer society inspires it and is based on "learning" of these alienated needs. The modern hyperpragmatic society makes it possible for young people to have a fragmented identity and places them under the pressure of constant choice of (formally open opportunities). The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the reader with possible causes, clinical signs and methods of treatment of this disorder in Slovenian post-modern society, and explain the reasons why currently no medical textbook in the world contains any information regarding video game addiction. We intend, further, to demonstrate that gaming has become a type of "sport" in certain countries and demonstrate how potentially devastating even this type of addiction can be. The authors present the results of a research, which was undertaken on a sample of 350 individuals, to determine the appearance of indicators of behavioural addiction to video games and their connection with some family factors. They determine that through addiction to video games, post-modern societies have developed an addictive identity.
Ključne besede: addiction, video games, risk-reward, parenting, peers, death, leagues, help centers, twelve-step programs
Objavljeno: 30.03.2017; Ogledov: 141; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (525,48 KB)

Some aspects of burnout in nursing homes
Ljiljana Leskovic, Goran Vukovič, Robert T. Leskovar, Jana Bezenšek, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Nursing personnel in nursing homes for elderly citizens are exposed to a number of factors that contribute to possible burnout syndrome. For this reason, the set objective of the research was to measure the degree of burnout, check the correlation between the burnout syndrome and satisfaction at work, and psychosomatic symptoms, as well as to figure out the main characteristics of burnout syndrome among the nursing personnel in nursing homes for the elderly in Slovenia.
Ključne besede: burnout, elder people, work, satisfaction, psychosomatic symptoms, nursing homes, nurses
Objavljeno: 30.03.2017; Ogledov: 103; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (410,46 KB)

Medical education in the field of communication as a value and a means of health quality improvement
Jana Bezenšek, Kleopatra Kodrič, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The article discusses the issues of communication between a doctor and a patient as one of the main approaches within the patients' medical treatment. This approach, which includes the field of communication in medicine as a value, more and more appears as obligatory not only in the field of profession itself, but also in the field of the patients' needs. Communication covers a huge part of our social as well as intimate lives . Our social functioning is based on communication. The transfer and preserving of values is based on communication. Especially in the field of medicine, the function of communication appears to be one of the key elements to allow a better and complete treatment of the patient. The article discusses studies which have shown that communication skills have to be developed, it is advisable to introduce them into the educational programmes for med students and medical staff. Researches have shown that students, who were taught the field of communication skills, later as doctors or medical staff obtained a lot more information about patients than those who were not given such education.
Ključne besede: communication, doctors, patients, education, values
Objavljeno: 30.03.2017; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (390,96 KB)

Kardiocerebralno oživljanje
Dejan Kupnik, Miljenko Križmarić, 2009, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Na področju kardiopulmonalnega oživljanja v zunajbolnišničnem okolju se še vedno ubadamo s slabim znanjem laikov o postopkih oživljanja, dostopnost avtomatskih defibrilatorjev je slaba, med oživljanjem je preveč motenj, ki skrajšujejo čas kakovostnega izvajanja zunanje masaže srca in poreanimacijska oskrba še vedno ni optimalna. Zaradi vsega tega ostaja preživetje bolnikov po za- stoju srca slabo. Poudarki zadnjih smernic kardiopulmonalnega oživljanja iz leta 2005 so zato usmerjeni v izboljšanje kakovosti oživljanja, in sicer na doseganje zadostne- ga števila stisov zunanje masaže na minuto, doseganje ustrezne globine stisov, na minimalno prekinjanje zunanje masaže srca in izogibanje hiperventilaciji. A zunanja masaža srca in umetno dihanje sta še vedno osnova začetnih postopkov oživljanja tako pri primarnem kot sekundarnem zastoju srca kljub različnim patofiziološkim vzrokom. To je v zadnjih dveh desetletjih privedlo do razvoja koncepta kardiocerebralnega oživljanja, ki se je v raziskavah pokazal kot enakovreden ali celo boljši pri preživetju bolnikov po primarnem zastoju srca v primerjavi s standardnim kardiopulmonalnim oživljanjem. Kardiocerebralno oživljanje bolnikov s primarnim zastojem srca, ki se je zgodil pred očividci, obsega neprekinjeno zunanjo masažo srca brez umetnega dihanja s strani očividcev v prvih minutah oživljanja, dodatne postopke oživljanja, ki ne prekinjajo zunanje masaže srca in tako ne motijo njenega pozitivnega hemodinamskega učinka, dveminutni ciklus oživljanja pred defibrilacijo, če strokovna pomoč pride po štirih do petih minutah od nastopa zastoja srca, oziroma takojšnja defibrilacija pred postopki oživljanja, če strokovna pomoč pride znotraj štirih do petih minut od nastopa zastoja srca. Poreanimacijska oskrba bolnikov po primarnem srčnem zastoju obsega še blago inducirano hipotermijo, koronarografijo in morebitno perkutano koronarno intervencijo.
Ključne besede: kardiocerebralno oživljanje, kardiopulmonalno oživljanje, prekatna fibrilacija, neprekinjena zunanja masaža srca, predbolnišnično okolje
Objavljeno: 27.03.2017; Ogledov: 164; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Polno besedilo (115,24 KB)

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