Is education for using humour in nursing needed?Jana Bezenšek
, Jadranka Stričević
, Vida Sruk
, 2017, original scientific article
Abstract: Introduction: Although there has been considerable discussion regarding the presence of therapeutic aspects of humour in the nurse educational programme and syllabus, little is known about the use of humour in the nurse - patient relationship and the needed topics in the Slovene educational system for nurses. From educational and medical perspectives, humour is anything that evokes laughter and it has been proven that laughter contributes to physical health. A sense of humour in nursing has a conformist, quantitative and productive importance which is manifested through the essential elements of humour: meta-communication sensitivity, personal affection for humour and emotional admissibility. As nurses spend a lot of time with patients, humour adds to the quality of their work as well as to the nurses’ satisfaction with their work with patients. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of humour in nursing both for the employees and for the patients and to discuss humour within the framework of nursing profession in Slovenia. The specific objective of our study is to explore the attitudes of Slovenian nurses towards humour and their actual use of humour during their interaction with patients.
Methods: For the purpose of this study, a quantitative research methodology was adopted. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the topic and a set of statistical analyses (frequency distribution method, the χ2 and Spearman rank correlation test) was performed on the data obtained.
Results: Our study shows that Slovenian nurses are prone to the use of humour in their work and they welcome it as an integral part of their work with patients. We found that humour also enhances their sense of belonging to the nursing profession and serves as a tool for socialization.
Discussion: Humour, employed in nursing can help overcome certain difficulties which nurses face in the workplace as they also try to fulfil some social objectives and get socialized via humour. These psychological-sociological features of humour stand out as cognitive and social benefits of the positive emotions of joy, the use of humour for social communication and their influence on the release of stress and coping, which draws from the ergonomics of humour as social interaction. Therefore, topics of humour in nurse education are required.
Limitations: 279 Slovenian nurses with different levels of education participated in the study.
Conclusions: Humour should be used by nurses since it is important in their professional interaction with patients. It can be used as a bridge between individuals and can serve as a means of individual's integration into groups, cultures and, consequently, into the society as a whole.
Keywords: education, humour, nurses, nursing, patients
Published: 23.01.2018; Views: 462; Downloads: 30
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Physical activity among nursing studentsLeona Cilar
, Nina Preložnik
, Gregor Štiglic
, Dominika Jakl
, Majda Pajnkihar
, 2017, original scientific article
Abstract: Introduction: Nurses need to encourage patients to lead a healthy lifestyle, hence it is important that as nursing students they are already aware of the importance of physical activity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the physical activities of nursing students.
Aim: The aim of the study was to find out in what state physical activity of nursing students is and to find out what are their main reasons for lack of physical activity.
Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a mixed methods design. The quantitative data was collected using the survey method with a convenience sample of 123 students and used descriptive and inferential statistics for the analysis. For the qualitative data we used a Grounded Theory Method with semi-structured interviews on purposive samples of four students.
Results and conclusions: In the quantitative part of this study we found a significantly higher proportion of outdoor physical activity in comparison to indoor physical activity (p < 0.001). The qualitative part contains the main categories of physical activity implementation, as well as three sub-categories: attitude to physical activity, barriers and incentives. Nursing students do not do physical activities regularly due to lack of time, obligations at the university, time of the year and finances.
Keywords: physical activity, nursing students, mental well-being, physical well-being
Published: 09.08.2017; Views: 408; Downloads: 85
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The concept of Watson's carative factors in nursing and their (dis)harmony with patient satisfactionMajda Pajnkihar
, Gregor Štiglic
, Dominika Jakl
, 2017, original scientific article
Abstract: Background: Constant reviews of the caring behavior of nurses and patient satisfaction help to improve the quality of nursing. The aim of our research was to explore relationships between the level of nursing education, the perception of nurses and nursing assistants of Watson's carative factors, and patient satisfaction.
Methods: A questionnaire survey using a convenience sample of 1,098 members of nursing teams and a purposive sample of 1,123 patients in four health care institutions in Slovenia was conducted in August 2012. A demographic questionnaire and the Caring Nurse-Patient Interactions Scale (nurse version) were delivered to the nurses. A Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey was delivered to discharged patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: Carative factor sensibility was related to the level of nursing education. Patients were satisfied with the care received from nurses, nursing assistants and hospitals, although we found differences between the perceptions of nurses and nursing assistants of carative factors and patient satisfaction. By comparing only the perceptions of nurses and nursing assistants of carative factors in health care institutions, differences were found for seven out of ten carative factors.
Discussion: We did not find major significant differences between carative factors and level of nurse education, except in one carative factor. Differences in perceptions of carative factors between health care institutions are probably the result of different institutional factors. The results can be of great benefit to nurse administrators and educators, indicating the factors that must be taken into account for enhancing patient satisfaction. Emphasis on caring theories should be placed in nursing education and their application in nursing practice.
Keywords: caring, patient satisfaction, cross-sectional studies
Published: 02.08.2017; Views: 549; Downloads: 46
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Contribution of temporal data to predictive performance in 30-day readmission of morbidly obese patientsPetra Povalej
, Zoran Obradović
, Gregor Štiglic
, 2017, original scientific article
Abstract: Background: Reduction of readmissions after discharge represents an important challenge for many hospitals and has attracted the interest of many researchers in the past few years. Most of the studies in this field focus on building cross-sectional predictive models that aim to predict the occurrence of readmission within 30-days based on information from the current hospitalization. The aim of this study is demonstration of predictive performance gain obtained by inclusion of information from historical hospitalization records among morbidly obese patients.
Methods: The California Statewide inpatient database was used to build regularized logistic regression models for prediction of readmission in morbidly obese patients (n = 18,881). Temporal features were extracted from historical patient hospitalization records in a one-year timeframe. Five different datasets of patients were prepared based on the number of available hospitalizations per patient. Sample size of the five datasets ranged from 4,787 patients with more than five hospitalizations to 20,521 patients with at least two hospitalization records in one year. A 10-fold cross validation was repeted 100 times to assess the variability of the results. Additionally, random forest and extreme gradient boosting were used to confirm the results.
Results: Area under the ROC curve increased significantly when including information from up to three historical records on all datasets. The inclusion of more than three historical records was not efficient. Similar results can be observed for Brier score and PPV value. The number of selected predictors corresponded to the complexity of the dataset ranging from an average of 29.50 selected features on the smallest dataset to 184.96 on the largest dataset based on 100 repetitions of 10-fold cross-validation.
Discussion: The results show positive influence of adding information from historical hospitalization records on predictive performance using all predictive modeling techniques used in this study. We can conclude that it is advantageous to build separate readmission prediction models in subgroups of patients with more hospital admissions by aggregating information from up to three previous hospitalizations.
Keywords: readmission prediction, predictive modelling, temporal data
Published: 02.08.2017; Views: 356; Downloads: 41
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Analyzing information seeking and drug-safety alert response by health care professionals as ew methods for surveillanceAlison Callahan
, Igor Pernek
, Gregor Štiglic
, Jurij Leskovec
, Howard Strasberg
, Nigam Haresh Shah
, 2015, original scientific article
Abstract: Background: Patterns in general consumer online search logs have been used to monitor health conditions and to predict health-related activities, but the multiple contexts within which consumers perform online searches make significant associations difficult to interpret. Physician information-seeking behavior has typically been analyzed through survey-based approaches and literature reviews. Activity logs from health care professionals using online medical information resources are thus a valuable yet relatively untapped resource for large-scale medical surveillance.
Objective: To analyze health care professionals% information-seeking behavior and assess the feasibility of measuring drug-safety alert response from the usage logs of an online medical information resource.
Methods: Using two years (2011-2012) of usage logs from UpToDate, we measured the volume of searches related to medical conditions with significant burden in the United States, as well as the seasonal distribution of those searches. We quantified the relationship between searches and resulting page views. Using a large collection of online mainstream media articles and Web log posts we also characterized the uptake of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) alert via changes in UpToDate search activity compared with general online media activity related to the subject of the alert.
Results: Diseases and symptoms dominate UpToDate searches. Some searches result in page views of only short duration, while others consistently result in longer-than-average page views. The response to an FDA alert for Celexa, characterized by a change in UpToDate search activity, differed considerably from general online media activity. Changes in search activity appeared later and persisted longer in UpToDate logs. The volume of searches and page view durations related to Celexa before the alert also differed from those after the alert.
Conclusions: Understanding the information-seeking behavior associated with online evidence sources can offer insight into the information needs of health professionals and enable large-scale medical surveillance. Our Web log mining approach has the potential to monitor responses to FDA alerts at a national level. Our findings can also inform the design and content of evidence-based medical information resources such as UpToDate
Keywords: internet log analysis, data mining, physicians, information-seeking behavior, drug safety surveillance
Published: 02.08.2017; Views: 336; Downloads: 45
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From virtual library over dictum and intel until refineVladimir Šimunović
, Hans-Günther Sonntag
, Richard Marz
, Maja Ostojić
, Axel Horsch
, Bojana Filej
, Danica Železnik
, Ana Marušić
, 2008, review article
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to recall how we, medical teachers in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BH), coped with the challenge of reform in higher education and to analyze what in our doing was fashion, which trends we have chosen to follow, and what were the real, substantial and tangible results of our work. Financial support for reform across the board came through the Trans-European Program for Co-operation in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe (Tempus), and, since 1997, the five schools of medicine in Bosnia and Herzegovina partnered with academic institutions from nine EU countries in seven granted Tempus projects. The results were tangible: a network of medical libraries was established; medical schools were assessed internally and externally; several important documents were drafted and agreed on; a core group of faculty from Bosnia and Herzegovina was trained in new teaching methods; and research was done and published. Not less important,there were also some less tangible, but perhaps even more important fruits of this cooperation. A sense of trust was established, which is essential for any future collaborative action. Representatives from all sides, previously divided by the war, had a chance to communicate with each other, dispelling some prejudices and regaining belief that it is possible to work together. This example of the schools of medicine of Bosnia and Herzegovina shows that higher education can be a favorable arena for reconciliation. Financial incentive can serve as a catalyst in the process and the presence of impartial partners (in our case, schools of medicine from the EU) proved beneficial for establishing and maintaining trust and good-will.The conclusion is that society rebuilding can be promoted indirectly,through formal education and professional engagement,not necessarily by pressing the “opposing” sides to talk about reconciliation and sign peace declarations.
Keywords: medical education, Tempus, ECTS, Quality assurance, curriculum reform, catalogue, knowledge and skills
Published: 24.07.2017; Views: 378; Downloads: 27
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Lower correlation between biceps femoris contraction time and maximal running speed in children than in adultsJernej Završnik
, Rado Pišot
, Tadeja Volmut
, Katja Koren
, Helena Blažun
, Peter Kokol
, Janez Vošner
, Boštjan Šimunič
, 2016, original scientific article
Abstract: Biceps femoris is a major propulsor muscle in sprinting and its contraction time negatively correlates to the running speeds of adults. Our aim was to compare age and gender-related correlations between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds during a longitudinal study of 9- to 14-year old children. On a yearly basis we conducted vastus lateralis and biceps femoris tensiomyographic measurements of muscle contraction time and maximal running speeds measured during 7 meter sprints with flying starts using photocells in 107 children (53 boys). Vastus lateralis contraction time was not correlated with the running speed. However, biceps femoris contraction time was negatively correlated with the running speed only in boys after the age of 12.9 years (Pearson r ranges from -0.391 to -0.426; p < 0.002). It was concluded that biceps femoris contraction time is far less correlated with running speed than in adult athletes (Pearson r = -0.60); however, the correlation is gender and age-specific. It seems that the knee flexor and hip extensor, biceps femoris, is not as yet the major determinant of running speed in 9- to 14-year old children at that age.
Keywords: skeletal muscles, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, tensiomyography, pediatrics
Published: 21.07.2017; Views: 384; Downloads: 23
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International scientific conference Research and education in nursing
2017, other monographs and other completed works
Abstract: University of Maribor Faculty of Health Sciences is organizing an International Scientific Conference »Research and Education in Nursing«. It will be held on June 15th 2017 at the faculty and will include most recent findings of domestic and foreign researchers and students in nursing and health sciences. All abstracts are included in the International Scientific Conference Proceedings. The conference aims to explore advances in nursing research and education and it is intended for knowledge and experience exchange of participants about the impact of research on health care in Slovenian and international arena. It will provide an opportunity to promote the development, dissemination and use of knowledge in the field of nursing and health sciences for nursing practitioners and educators, furthermore they can exchange research evidence, models of best practice and innovative ideas.
Keywords: health care, research, education, teaching methods, health professionals, study programs, students
Published: 19.07.2017; Views: 272; Downloads: 33
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Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide successful predicts cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the field - a prospective observational studyMiran Kolar
, Miljenko Križmarić
, Petra Klemen
, Štefek Grmec
, 2008, original scientific article
Abstract: Introduction: The prognosis among patients who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is poor. Higher survival rates have been observed only in patients with ventricular fibrillation who were fortunate enough to have basic and advanced life support initiated early after cardiac arrest. The ability to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest would be useful for resuscitation. Changes in expired end-tidal carbon dioxide levels during cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be a useful non-invasive predictor of successful resuscitation and survival from cardiac arrest, and help in the termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the field.
Methods: This is a prospective observational study of 737 cases of victims who suffered sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The patients were intubated and the measurements of end-tidal carbon dioxide were performed. Data according to the Utstein criteria, demographic information, medical data and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (petCO2) values were collected for each patient in cardiac arrest, by the emergency physician. We presumed that an end-tidal carbon dioxide level of 1.9 kPa (14.3 mmHg) or more after 20 minutes of standard advanced cardiac life support would predict restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).
Results: Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide after 20 minutes of advanced life support averaged 0.92+/- 0.29 kPa (6.9mmHg +/- 2.2 mmHg) in patients who did not have ROSC and 4.36 +/-1.11 kPa (32.8 mmHg +/- 9.1 mmHg) in those who did (p<0,001). End-tidal carbon dioxide values of 1.9 kPa (14.3 mmHg) or less discriminated between the 402 patients with ROSC and 335 patients without ROSC. When a 20-minute end-tidal carbon dioxide value of 1.9 kPa (14.3 mmHg) or less was used as a screening test to predict ROSC, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were all 100 percent.
Conclusions: Measurements of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels of more than 1.9 kPa (14.3 mmHg) after 20 minutes should be used to accurately predict ROSC. End-tidal carbon dioxide levels should be monitored during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and considered a useful prognostic value for determining the outcome of resuscitative efforts and termination of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation in the field.
Keywords: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR, partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide, PetCO2
Published: 29.06.2017; Views: 360; Downloads: 33
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Capnometry in suspected pulmonary embolism with positive D-dimer on the fieldTadeja Hernja Rumpf
, Miljenko Križmarić
, Štefek Grmec
, 2009, original scientific article
Abstract: Introduction: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the greatest diagnostic challenges in prehospital emergency setting. Most patients with suspected PE have a positive D-dimer and undergo diagnostic testing. Excluding PE with additional non-invasive tests would reduce the need for further imaging tests. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of combination of clinical probability and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) for evaluation of suspected PE with abnormal concentrations of D-dimer in prehospital emergency setting.
Methods: We assessed clinical probability of PE and PetCO2 measurement in 100 consecutive patients with suspected PE and positive D-dimer in the field. PetCO2 > 28 mmHg was considered as the best cut-off point. PE was excluded or confirmed by hospital physicians in the University Clinical Center Maribor by computer tomography (CT), ventilation/ perfusion scan echocardiography and pulmonary angiography.
Results: PE was confirmed in 41 patients. PetCO2 had a sensitivity of 92.6% (95% CI, 79 to 98%), a negative predictive value of 94.2 % (95% CI, 83 to 99%), a specificity of 83 % (95% CI, 71 to 91%) and a positive predictive value of 79.2% (95% CI, 65 to 89%). Thirty-five patients (35%) had both a low (PE unlikely) clinical probability and a normal PetCO2 (sensitivity: 100%, 95% CI: 89 to 100%) and twenty-eight patients (28%) had both a high clinical probability (PE likely) and abnormal PetCO2 (specificity: 93.2%, 95% CI: 83 to 98%).
Conclusions: The combination of clinical probability and PetCO2 may safely rule out PE in patients with suspected PE and positive D-dimer in the prehospital setting.
Keywords: capnometry, pulmonary embolism, D-dimer
Published: 29.06.2017; Views: 279; Downloads: 42
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