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The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health
Avrelija Cencič, Walter Chingwaru, 2010, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a healyh, environmental and social impact. The EU is fighting diseases characteristics of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relatingto aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discused. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvment in nutritional, immunologic and physiologic functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health arealso highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional call models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.
Ključne besede: nutraceutical, functional food, food supplement, intestinal health, probiotic, intestinal cell models, gut research
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (276,92 KB)

Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the intestinal microbiota of coeliac children on gluten free diet
Andrea Quagliariello, Irene Aloisio, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Donata Luiselli, Giuseppe D'Auria, Llúcia Martinez-Priego, David Pérez-Villarroya, Tomaž Langerholc, Maša Primec, Dušanka Mičetić-Turk, Diana Di Gioia, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03) to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD). Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group). Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.
Ključne besede: coeliac disease, gluten free diet, probiotic, Bifidobacterium breve, intestinal microbiota, qPCR, next generation sequencing
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 44; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (5,19 MB)

The use of image-spectroscopy technology as a diagnostic method for seed health test and variety identification
Martina Vrešak, Halkjaer Olesen, René Gislum, Franc Bavec, Ravn Jørgensen, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405%970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties.
Ključne besede: Fusarium sp., SKNIR, multispectral imaging, varieties, wheat, organic farming
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 91; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,10 MB)

In vitro selection and characterization of new probiotic candidates from table olive microbiota
Cristian Botta, Tomaž Langerholc, Avrelija Cencič, Luca Cocolin, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: To date, only a few studies have investigated the complex microbiota of table olives in order to identify new probiotic microorganisms, even though this food matrix has been shown to be a suitable source of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Two hundred and thirty eight LAB, belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides species, and isolated from Nocellara Etnea table olives, have been screened in this survey through an in vitro approach. A simulation of transit tolerance in the upper human gastrointestinal tract, together with autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, have been decisive in reducing the number of LAB to 17 promising probiotics. None of the selected strains showed intrinsic resistances towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics and were therefore accurately characterized on an undifferentiated and 3D functional model of the human intestinal tract made up of H4-1 epithelial cells. As far as the potential colonization of the intestinal tract is concerned, a high adhesion ratio was observed for Lb. plantarum O2T60C (over 9%) when tested in the 3D functional model, which closely mimics real intestinal conditions. The stimulation properties towards the epithelial barrier integrity and the in vitro inhibition of L. monocytogenes adhesion and invasion have also been assessed. Lb. plantarum S1T10A and S11T3E enhanced trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and therefore the integrity of the polarized epithelium in the 3D model. Moreover, S11T3E showed the ability to inhibit L. monocytogenes invasion in the undifferentiated epithelial model. The reduction in L. monocytogenes infection, together with the potential enhancement of barrier integrity and an adhesion ratio that was above the average in the 3D functional model (6.9%) would seem to suggest the Lb. plantarum S11T3E strain as the most interesting candidate for possible in vivo animal and human trials.
Ključne besede: antibiotics, bacteria pathogen, cell metabolism, olives, probiotics, digestion
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 40; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,63 MB)

Tylosema esculentum (Marama) tuber and bean extracts are strong antiviral agents against rotavirus infection
Walter Chingwaru, Runner Majinda, Sam Yeboah, Jose Jackson, Petrina Kapewangolo, Kandawa-Shulz, Avrelija Cencič, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm2) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.
Ključne besede: tylusema esculentum, marama, antiviral agents, rotavirus
Objavljeno: 14.06.2017; Ogledov: 39; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,92 MB)

Creative thinking and decision-making processes in EFL creative writing
Katja Težak, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Creativity has been discussed, observed and researched for hundreds of years in the fields of psychology and philosophy - from the ancient notion of the inspired genius, all the way to modern psychologists trying to define creativity and prove its effects. Creativity has recently become a buzzword in EFL teaching practices. We try to stimulate creative thinking in the classroom, but possibly forget to observe the processes within it. The article discusses definitions of creativity and presents a qualitative study on the decision-making processes within EFL creative writing and its connections to students' language learning. The qualitative study was conducted with two 3rd-year bachelor English students who were asked to plan and write a short story in English while doing a think-aloud protocol. The data were transcribed and coded in order to observe emerging categories in the students' reasoning for plot and language use decisions.
Ključne besede: EFL, creative writing, creative thinking, decision making, language learning
Objavljeno: 16.05.2017; Ogledov: 93; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Polno besedilo (214,73 KB)

Ekološka pridelava oljk v Sloveniji
Dane Podmenik, Martina Bavec, Barbara Lampič, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: V prispevku predstavljamo razvoj in značilnosti ekološke pridelave oljk v Sloveniji. V letu 2012 je bilo zabeleženih 184,5 ha ekoloških oljčnikov, kar predstavlja 10 % vseh oljčnih nasadov. Glede na trende lahko v naslednjih letih pričakujemo, da bi se obseg ekoloških oljčnikov lahko povzpel na 350 ha. Pomembna je tudi ugotovitev, da pridelovalci namenjajo premalo pozornosti trajnostnim kmetijskim praksam, kar sproža kritičen premislek o izpolnjevanju temeljnih standardov ekološkega kmetijstva.
Ključne besede: agrarna geografija, ekološko kmetijstvo, oljkarstvo, Slovenija, Slovenska Istra
Objavljeno: 12.05.2017; Ogledov: 49; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (5,20 MB)

The development of sugar beet production and processing simulation model
Črtomir Rozman, Andrej Škraba, Karmen Pažek, Miroljub Kljajić, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background: The sugar beet is the main field crop used for sugar production in the temperate climatic zone. The abolishment of the quota system will open new investment opportunities in countries that were forced to abandon sugar industry as the result of the reform in 2006. Present paper describes the modeling of sugar beet production and its processing into sugar for purpose of decision support. Methods: A system dynamics methodology was chosen to model impacts of regional sugar factory investment. We present two basic concepts of system dynamics models at causal loop diagram level. The first holistic model deals with regional planning of new product development and the second one deals with factory model. Results: The holistic model presented main feedback loops and dynamics of main elements in the case of regional investment into sugar industry. The factory model considered the specifics of the beet processing which is a) limited period of beet processing and b) initial adjustment to the production capacity at the start of the production season Conclusions: The model seeks answers to strategic questions related to the whole sugar beet production and processing system and will be used for simulation of different scenarios for sugar production and their impact on economic and environmental parameters at an aggregate level.
Ključne besede: sugar beet, system dynamics, simulation, model
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 147; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (368,75 KB)

Sugar beet production
Črtomir Rozman, Miroljub Kljajić, Karmen Pažek, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and Purpose: The sugar beet is the main field crop used for sugar production in the temperate climatic zone. Since investment in sugar beet industry are long term and ireversible the decision support and economic analysis are required in order to maximise investment returns. Methodology: A system dynamics methodology was chosen to model the impacts of regional sugar factory investments. We present the basic concepts of system dynamics (SD) models and their development in the case of sugar beet production and processing systems. Sugar beet economics are also analyzed using the static technological economic simulation model. Results: The simulation provides answers to strategic questions related to the total sugar beet production and processing system and will be used for the simulation of different scenarios for sugar production and their impact on economic and environmental parameters at an aggregate level. Furthermore, the feasibility analysis of sugar beet production revealed that at the current price and intensity levels (yields), we can expect profitable sugar beet production for both white sugar and ethanol. Conclusion: Preliminary results show that under expected production parameters the sugar beet processing and production would be economically feasible.
Ključne besede: sugar beet, modeling, system dynamics, economic feasibility
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 153; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (533,79 KB)

Multi-criteria assessment of vegetable production business alternatives
Silvo Pozderec, Martina Bavec, Črtomir Rozman, Jožef Vinčec, Karmen Pažek, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: Organic and integrated production of vegetables are the two most common production systems in Slovenia. The study analyzed two production systems with different cultures as alternatives with purpose to find the most appropriate variants. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study based on the development and integration of developed specific technological- economic simulation models for the production of vegetables (salad, growing peppers, salad cucumbers, pickling cucumbers, round and cherry tomato) in greenhouse and multi-criteria decision analysis. The methodology of the study based on the DEX methodology and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) of organic (ECO) and integrated production (IP) in greenhouse. Results: The evaluation results show that both cultivation methods of commercially attractive vegetables in greenhouse are variable. In the case of integrated production, the assessment of multi-criteria decision analysis EC and DEXi showed that salad (Donertie F1) proved to be the best possible alternative. In the case of organic production, the multi-criteria analysis assessment of pickling cucumbers (Harmony F1) is the best possible business alternative. Conclusion: For the further production planning process by decision maker is the ranking with Expert Choice (EC) more useful and precise, while the DEX evaluations are more descriptive.
Ključne besede: simulation models, multi-criteria analysis, vegetable, greenhouses
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 130; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (709,15 KB)

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