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1.
Genetic diversity and structure of Slovenian native germplasm of plum species (P. domestica L., P. cerasifera Erhrh. and P. spinosa L.)
Tina Ternjak, T. Barreneche, Metka Šiško, Anton Ivančič, Andrej Šušek, Garcia José Quero, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Slovenia has particular climatic, soil, geographic and historical conditions that lead to long tradition of plum cultivation and use. In this work, a set of 11 SSR and three universal cpDNA markers, as well as flow cytometry, were used to (1) evaluate the genetic diversity of 124 accessions of the three Prunus species (P. domestica L., P. cerasifera Ehrh., and P. spinosa L.), (2) investigate the possible involvement of P. cerasifera and P. spinosa species in P. domestica origin, (3) study the genetic relationships and variability among the most typical P. domestica accessions present in Slovenia. Ten haplotypes of cpDNA were identified and clustered into three groups according to the Neighbor-Joining analysis (NJ). All 11 SSR primer pairs were polymorphic, revealing 116 unique genotypes. A total of 328 alleles were detected with an average value of 29.82 alleles per locus, showing relatively high diversity. Bayesian analysis of genetic structure was used to identify two ancestral populations in the analyses of all three species as well as in a separate set consisting of P. domestica material only. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions clustered largely in agreement with Bayesian analysis. Neighbor-Joining analysis grouped 71 P. domestica accessions into three clusters with many subgroups that exhibited complex arrangement. Most accessions clustered in agreement with traditional pomological groups, such as common prunes, mirabelle plums and greengages. In this study, the analyses revealed within P. domestica pool valuable local landraces, such as traditional prunes or bluish plums, which seem to be highly interesting from a genetic point of view. Moreover, complementary approaches allowed us to distinguish between the three species and to gain insights into the origin of plum. The results will be instrumental in understanding the diversity of Slovenian plum germplasm, improving the conservation process, recovering local genotypes and enriching existing collections of plant genetic resources.
Ključne besede: Prunus spp., plum, genetic resources, genetic diversity, genetic structure, spDNA, SSR
Objavljeno v DKUM: 27.05.2024; Ogledov: 26; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (966,75 KB)
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2.
Diversity and content of carotenoids and other pigments in the transition from the green to the red stage of Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae identified by HPLC-DAD and LC-QTOF-MS
Jaša Veno Grujić, Biljana Todorović, Roman Kranvogl, Terezija Ciringer, Jana Ambrožič-Dolinšek, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: H. pluvialis is a unicellular freshwater alga containing many bioactive compounds, especially carotenoids, which are the strongest antioxidants among the pigments. This study evaluates the composition and content of carotenoids and other pigments in both stages of algae life cycle, especially in the green vegetative stage, less studied in comparison to the red stage. To determine the composition and content of carotenoids, a combination of HPLC-DAD and LC-QTOF-MS was used. The content of carotenoids in the green vegetative stage was significantly lower than in the red vegetative stage. In the green vegetative stage, 16 different carotenoids and other pigments were identified. Among the total 8.86 mg g−1 DW of pigments, 5.24 mg g−1 DW or 59% of them were chlorophyll a with its derivatives, and 3.62 mg g−1 DW or 41% of them were free carotenoids. After the transition from the green to the red stage, the carotenoid composition was replaced by secondary carotenoids, astaxanthin and its esters, which predominated in the whole carotenoid composition. In addition to free astaxanthin, 12 astaxanthin monoesters, 6 diesters and 13 other carotenoids were determined. The majority of 37.86 mg g−1 DW pigments were monoesters. They represented 82% of all pigments, and their content was about 5 times higher than both, diesters (5.91 mg g−1 DW or 12% of all) and free carotenoids (2.4 mg g−1 DW or 6% of all). The results of the study contribute to the data on the overall pigment composition and content of H. pluvialis algae and provide the basis for further improvement of cultivation of the H. pluvialis algae.
Ključne besede: antioxidants, astaxanthin, chlorophylls, bioactive compounds, algae, Haematococcus, life cycle, pigment composition, secondary carotenoids
Objavljeno v DKUM: 21.05.2024; Ogledov: 38; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,92 MB)
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3.
Ocena stopnje škodljivosti in razširjenosti tujerodnih rastlinskih vrst v kmetijski pridelavi Slovenije za obdobje 2000-2022
Mario Lešnik, Andrej Paušič, 2024

Opis: V obdobju 2000-2022 smo izvajali spremljanje kmetijskih površin in nekaterih ob agrarnih habitatov po vsem ozemlju Slovenije glede pojavnosti tujerodnih invazivnih rastlin. Tujerodne rastline smo evidentirali in podali ocene o velikosti populacij. Hkrati smo izvedli oceno škodljivosti invazivnih rastlin za kmetijsko pridelavo. Obravnavali smo invazivne rastlinske vrste, ki jih pogosto omenjajo v mednarodno priznanih bazah invazivnih v geografskih območjih, ki so nam primerljiva po klimatskih in pedoloških značilnostih in po značilnostih kmetijskih pridelovalnih sistemov. V uvodu je predstavljena metodologija ocenjevanja škodljivosti vrst. Za večino vrst je škodljivost možno precej realno oceniti. Velika neznanka so klimatske spremembe, predvsem minimalne zimske temperature, ki odločajo o dolgoročnem ohranjanju tujerodnih večletnih rastlin. Med njimi je veliko takšnih, ki preraščajo vegetacijo, če uspejo preživeti zimo predstavljajo nevarne invazivke z ekosistemsko škodljivostjo. Pomembno vlogo bo imela tudi dostopnost herbicidov. Če se bo zmanjšala, bodo nekatere nove vrste pridobile na pomenu, ker jih ne bomo mogli učinkovito kemično zatirati. Vse več vrst je ekološko problematičnih tudi zato, ker so vmesni gostitelji novih tujerodnih povzročiteljev bolezni in škodljivcev, ki ogrožajo gojene rastline.
Ključne besede: alohtone vrste, škodljivost, kmetijstvo, Slovenija, invazivne rastlinske vrste
Objavljeno v DKUM: 06.05.2024; Ogledov: 194; Prenosov: 235
.pdf Celotno besedilo (15,82 MB)
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4.
Vloga industrijske konoplje pri prilagajanju podnebnim spremembam in varovanju virov v kmetijstvu
2024, priročnik

Opis: V strokovni monografiji je predstavljena pridelave industrijske konoplje v Sloveniji, njen sortiment, njena vloga pri prilagajanju podnebnim spremembam in tudi pri njihovi blažitvi ter pri varovanju virov v kmetijstvu. Podrobneje so opisana preizkušanja industrijske konoplje na petih slovenskih kmetijah med letoma 2021 in 2023. V prispevkih smo predstavili izzive, s katerimi smo se srečali v vsakem letu, in rezultate pridelave različnih sort v petih različnih regijah. Skozi poglavja te monografije boste spoznali številne vidike pridelave konoplje, od njenih koristi za kmetijska tla in njenega potenciala pri zmanjševanju ogljičnega odtisa do zakonitosti ekonomike pridelave.
Ključne besede: industrijska konoplja, podnebne spremembe, sekvestracija ogljika, tla, trajnostno kmetijstvo
Objavljeno v DKUM: 26.04.2024; Ogledov: 80; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (11,26 MB)
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5.
Preharvest treatments with low-risk plant protection products can help apple growers fulfill the demands of supermarket chains regarding pesticide residues and marketing apples under 0-residue brands
Andrej Paušič, Mihaela Roškarič, Mario Lešnik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: As a result of worried consumer pressure, European supermarket chains (ESC) have developed very strict rules about the number and concentration of pesticide active substance residues (AS) accepted in fruits. So-called fruit quality toxicological burden indicators were developed. If fruit suppliers do not comply with ESC requirements, their fruit is often rejected. It is becoming increasingly difficult for apple producers to meet all the requirements of the ESC, so they need new residue reduction tools. One of the options to lower the concentrations of residue on apples is a preharvest application of low-risk preparations (LRP) based on potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) = PBC, coconut di-ethanol amide ((CH3(CH2)nC(=O)N(CH2CH2OH)2) = DEA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) = HP, and a mixture of microbes (EM) that have the ability to dissolve or disintegrate the AS residue. Trials were carried out to test the concept mentioned above. The application of LRP during the last four weeks of preharvest significantly reduced the residue concentration of pesticide AS in apples. Reduction rates among 25 active substances ranged from 0 to 100%, depending on the combination of LRP and AS. HP had the highest capacity to accelerate AS degradation, PB was the second most efficient, and DEA and EM displayed a low residue disintegration ability. The application of the tested LRP can enable apple growers to produce fruits with significantly lower residue concentrations and allows them to comply more successfully with strict ESC rules based on the calculations of toxicological burden indicators.
Ključne besede: hydrogen peroxide, potassium bicarbonate, effective microbes, detergent, pesticide residues, fruit marketing rules
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.04.2024; Ogledov: 105; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (330,68 KB)
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6.
A critical analysis on multifaceted benefits of mixture of cover crops over pure stand
Marko Zupanič, Branko Kramberger, 2023, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Winter cover crops (WCCs) are fast-growing and high biomass producing crops that are included in the of crop rota- tion between two main cash crops. WCCs are used for greening the soil and can increase the yield of the main crop by increasing soil organic matter (SOM), soil water infiltrability and reducing water runoff and erosion, decreasing the weeds population and other soil-borne harmful biotic agents, improving soil microbial community, and enhancing agroecosystem services; however, yield can be adversely affected if they fix excessive nitrogen and do not release it in a timely manner. The carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio achieved in soil greening is a major factor in the availability of soil nitrogen, regardless of the location of soil residues; therefore, one option is to increase the nitrogen content of WCCs by sowing a mixture of legume and non-legume crops, since non-legumes such as grasses typically have a low nitrogen content and little to no positive effect on soil nitrogen availability on subsequent crops. The combination of legumes and non-legumes as WCCs exhibit multifaceted benefits such as quality biomass production, crop diversification, efficient plant protection, enrich- ment of soil microbes, biological nitrogen fixation, and so on. The integration of WCCs grasses and legumes into the crop rotation increases rational nitrogen management and can also increase SOM content and, consequently, soil fertility. The effective release of mineral nitrogen into the soil along the time should be taken into account in order to minimize leaching and optimize the symbiotic N fixed for the subsequent cash crop. Finally, with WCCs, it is possible to produce high-quality animal feed in pure stands and in mixtures in order to obtain on sustainable farm forage resources.
Ključne besede: cover crops, pure stand, mixed stand, agroecosystem services, advantages
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.04.2024; Ogledov: 102; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,45 MB)
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7.
Transformation of the education system in agricultural advisory towards sustainability - A Case study in Slovenia
Marina Nikšić, Lazar Pavić, Črtomir Rozman, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The new role that agricultural advisory plays in innovation processes and the development of agriculture towards sustainability requires the improvement of its performance. The basic prerequisite for realizing the potential of agricultural advisory in the areas mentioned is a strongly developed education system that will enable the development of strong advisory capacities. This survey is based on three areas of the education system: organization of education, satisfaction with educators, and evaluation of education and the potential of individuals in the organization. The basic principles on which the education system is based are outdated and, therefore, inadequate for developing the performance that the new role of agricultural advisors in innovation processes requires. Multiple regression analysis results indicate that a greater evaluation of education and the potential of individuals in the organization implies greater involvement of agricultural advisors in the selection of topics that will be provided to them through education and more advanced performances of educators responsible for educating. One-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined that there are no statistically significant differences, at the p < 0.05 level, in the level of perceived competence of advisors for sustainable agricultural practices depending on the frequency of attending education.
Ključne besede: agricultural advisory, advisoral advisor, education system, advisory capacities, sustainable education, sustanable agriculture
Objavljeno v DKUM: 18.04.2024; Ogledov: 60; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Celotno besedilo (318,10 KB)
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8.
Resveratrol food supplement products and the challenges of accurate label information to ensure food safety for consumers
Maja Bensa, Irena Vovk, Vesna Glavnik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The food supplement market is growing as many consumers wish to complement their nutrient intake. Despite all the regulations in place to ensure food supplements safety, there are still many cases of irregularities reported especially connected to internet sales. Twenty resveratrol food supplement products sold on the Slovenian market were evaluated on their compliance of declared vs. determined resveratrol content, as well as the compliance of labels with the European Union (EU) and Slovenian regulatory requirements. Both the ingredient contents and food information are important parts of food safety. Analyses of 20 food supplements performed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with densitometry showed that 95% of products had contents different from what was declared and 55% of products contained higher contents than declared. In 25% of the products the determined content per unit exceeded the maximum level (150 mg/day) specified in EU novel food conditions for food supplement with trans-resveratrol. Evaluation of the 20 food supplement labels included mandatory and voluntary food information, food supplement information, novel food information, health claims and nutrition claims. Most labels contained the necessary information, but multiple errors were observed ranging from typos to misleading practices. From a food safety perspective there is still a lot of improvement needed in the field of food supplements.
Ključne besede: trans-resveratrol, dietary supplements, food safety, regulation, labels, health claims, nutrition claims, novel foods, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC
Objavljeno v DKUM: 15.04.2024; Ogledov: 108; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,06 MB)
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9.
Male reproductive organ weight : criteria for detection of androstenone-positive carcasses in immunocastrated and antire male pigs
Gregor Fazarinc, Nina Batorek Lukač, Martin Škrlep, Klavdija Poklukar Žnidaršič, Alice Broeke, Kevin Kress, Etienne Labussière, Volker Stefanski, Milka Vrecl, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Immunocastration and rearing of entire males (EMs) are sustainable alternatives to surgical castration. However, these animal carcasses have variable risk of boar taint and should be identified at the slaughter line. We aimed to identify a simple and reliable indicator of androstenone-related boar taint by evaluating pelvic urogenital tract weight as a marker of boar-taint animals at the slaughter line. The pelvic urogenital tract, testes, and accessory sex glands of EMs and immunocastrates (ICs) were collected, dissected, and weighed, before colorimetric measurements of testicular tissue. Additionally, GnRH antibody titers and testosterone, androstenone, and skatole levels were determined. Our results showed that 81.8% of EMs had androstenone levels above the risk threshold (>0.5 µg/g fat; EM/Ahigh subgroup), whereas in ICs, the C/Ahigh subgroup with androstenone >0.5 µg/g fat accounted for only 4.3%. Androstenone levels correlated negatively with GnRH antibody titers and positively with testosterone levels and reproductive organ weights. Identification of ICs with androstenone levels above the threshold (IC/Ahigh subgroup) may be achieved via testes or pelvic urogenital tract weight measurements. However, in EMs, the latter is a more reliable parameter. A principal component analysis based on these variables and hierarchical clustering also distinguished the Ahigh from the Alow subgroup, irrespective of IC/EM. The findings highlight the possible use of pelvic urogenital tract weight along with testes weight as a simple, reliable, and efficient morphometric indicator for identifying androstenone-positive carcasses of different sex categories.
Ključne besede: boar taint, morphometric indicators, immunocastration, entire males
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.04.2024; Ogledov: 123; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (663,86 KB)
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10.
Applying integrated data envelopment analysis and analytic hierarchy process to measuring the efficiency of tourist farms : The Case of Slovenia
Boris Prevolšek, Maja Borlinič Gačnik, Črtomir Rozman, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper examines the efficiency of tourist farms in Slovenia by adopting an approach using a framework of non-parametric programming—Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), combining the two because the DEA analysis by itself does not take into account all attributes, especially qualitative ones. The beforementioned two methods rank the farm tourism units with respect to their efficiency. By using the DEA method, an input- and output-oriented BCC and CCR model were introduced to upgrade the criteria by including the additional non-numerical criteria of the AHP. The results of the models showed that there are possible improvements on all levels of efficiency, as well as on the criteria of the additional offer of tourist farms, which were analyzed in the AHP model with additional criteria. According to the estimated efficiency, the ranking of tourist farms differed according to the two methods. Within the group of farms assessed as efficient by DEA, the AHP model allowed a more accurate ranking.
Ključne besede: farm tourism, tourist farms, efficiency, data envelopment analysis (DEA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), Slovenia
Objavljeno v DKUM: 09.04.2024; Ogledov: 105; Prenosov: 7
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,06 MB)
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