Validation of agent-based approach for simulating the conversion to organic farmingČrtomir Rozman
, Andrej Škraba
, Karmen Pažek
, Davorin Kofjač
, 2017, original scientific article
Abstract: Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the principles of the development of parallel system-dynamics and agent-based models of organic farming for the case of Slovenia. The advantage of agent-based modeling is demonstrated by including geospatial information as an agent attribute. The models were compared by the validation, confirming the appropriate level of similarity.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Both system-dynamics and agent-based modeling approaches were applied. Statistical methods were used in the validation.
Results: The results of the validation confirm the appropriateness of the proposed agent-based model. Introducing additional attributes into the agent-based model provides an important advantage over the system-dynamics model, which serves as the paradigmatic example.
Conclusion: A thorough validation and comparison of the results of the system-dynamics and agent-based models indicates the proper approach to combining the methodologies. This approach is promising, because it enables the modeling of the entire agricultural sector, taking each particular farm into account.
Keywords: agent-based models, organic farming, system dynamics, validation, multimethod simulation
Published: 01.09.2017; Views: 56; Downloads: 2
Full text (798,59 KB)
Effect of immunocastration on performance of Slovenian pig fattenersMartin Škrlep
, Nina Batorek
, Blaž Šegula
, Marta Zajec
, Stane Košorok
, Marija Glavač-Vnuk
, Valentina Kubale
, Gregor Fazarinc
, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar
, 2011, original scientific article
Abstract: The influence of the immunocastration (immunisation against GnRH) on pig performance (growth, carcass and meat quality traits) was investigated in two parallel experiments (on two farms) with two crossbreeds – G1 (50% Duroc) and G2 (50% Pietrain). Within the crossbreed, the pigs were assigned to three experimental groups; entire males (EM, n=49), immunocastrates (IC, n=45) and surgical castrates (SC, n=45). Those assigned to IC group were vaccinated at the age of 12 and 19 weeks. Pigs were individually housed, their feed intake (ad libitum) and weight (at 12, 19 and 24 weeks) were recorded. At the age of 24 weeks, the pigs were slaughtered and their carcass and meat quality traits were assessed. We hypothesized that treatment response could have been different in two crossbreeds. However the interaction was insignificant, thus the treatment effect is presented on pooled results for both crossbreeds. Until the revaccination, IC were similar to EM pigs, thereafter they exhibited an increase in feed intake and growth rate. Overall, they presented an advantage in growth rate and feed efficiency as compared to SC. They also exhibited better carcass properties as SC without any major effect on meat quality. The present study provides the initial information on the immunocastration effect in Slovenian herds that should further be supported by testing it in usual rearing conditions and group housing.
Keywords: pig, immunocastration, growth performance, carcass properties, meat quality
Published: 24.08.2017; Views: 34; Downloads: 0
Full text (122,14 KB)
Distribution of zinc in vineyard areas treated with zinc containing phytopharmaceuticalsVesna Bukovac
, Danimir Kerin
, 2000, original scientific article
Abstract: Zinc concentration in vineyard soil is, in general, increased markedly by the long term application of zinc containing fungicides. The most significant source of Zn are nowadays dithiocarbamate based fungicides, e.g. Antracol. The concentration of total zinc and EDTA and ammonium lactate (AL) extractable Zn in soils are evaluated together with the concentration of Zn in different inorganic fertilizers and in fungicides. the results of the study indicate in the observed vineyard areas a long term accumulation of zinc appears. The study was made in vineyards of Kalvarija and Meranovo (Maribor, Slovenia).
Keywords: zinc, dithiocarbamate, soil
Published: 18.08.2017; Views: 28; Downloads: 0
Full text (108,83 KB)
Comparison of methods for determination of polyphenols in wine by HPLC-UV/VIS, LC/MS/MS and spectrophotometryVesna Bukovac
, Matija Strlič
, Drago Kočar
, 2009, original scientific article
Abstract: Phenolic antioxidants are usually grouped into flavonoids and non-flavonoids, according to their structure. With regard to the tannic character, phenolic antioxidants are further subdivided to tannic phenols and non-tannic phenols. Collectively, these compounds contribute to the high antioxidant capacity of wine.
In this work, we compare determination of gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, resveratrol, quercetin, dihydrobenzoic acid, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferullic acid, ellagic acid, p-coumaric acid and caftaric acid in 141 wine samples using two liquid chromatographic methods and detection systems, i.e. with UV detection and mass-spectrometric detection. In addition, we applied the conventional Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method for determination of the total phenolic content in wine samples and compared the results with those obtained using the chromatographic methods.
Despite satisfactory correlations statistically significant differences between HPLC-UV/VIS and LC/MS/MS were established, which could be related to coelution not detectable with UV/VIS detectors. The correlations between results of the spectrophotometric method and sum of LC/MS/MS determinations are not satisfactory and are different for white, red, and rosé wines.
Keywords: food analysis, wine, antioxidants, chromatography
Published: 17.08.2017; Views: 41; Downloads: 0
Full text (185,67 KB)
Antibacterial and anticandidal activity of Tylosema esculentum (marama) extractsWalter Chingwaru
, Gyebi Duodu
, Yolandi Van Zyl
, Runner Majinda
, Sam Yeboah
, Jose Jackson
, Petrina Kapewangolo
, Avrelija Cencič
, 2011, original scientific article
Abstract: Bean and tuber extracts of Tylosema esculentum (marama) – an African creeping plant – were obtained using ethanol, methanol and water. Based on information that T. esculentum is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of tuber and bean extracts were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 6538), Mycobacterium terrae (ATCC 15755), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (clinical) and Candida albicans (ATCC 2091). We performed the broth microdilution test for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a method to determine survival of microorganisms after in vitro co-incubation with the highest concentrations of T. esculentum extracts, followed by assessment of colony counts. Ethanol and methanol (phenolic) bean extracts exhibited higher potency against bacteria and yeast than aqueous extracts. Marama bean seed coat crude ethanolic extract (MSCE) and seed coat polyphenolic fractions, especially soluble-bound fraction (MSCIB), were highly antimicrobial against M. terrae, C. diphtheriae and C. albicans. All marama bean polyphenolic fractions, namely cotyledon acidified methanol fraction (MCAM), seed coat acidified methanol fraction (MSCAM), cotyledon insoluble-bound fraction (MCIB), seed coat insoluble-bound fraction (MSCIB), cotyledon-free polyphenolic fraction (MCFP) and seed coat free polyphenolic fraction (MSCFP) had high antimicrobial effects as shown by low respective MIC values between 0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. These MIC values were comparable to those of control antimicrobials used: amphotericin B (0.5 mg/mL) and cesfulodin (0.1 mg/mL) against C. diphtheriae, streptomycin (1.0 mg/mL) and gentamicin (0.4 mg/mL) against M. terrae, and amphotericin B (0.05 mg/mL) against C. albicans. Marama seed coat soluble-esterified fraction (MSCS) had closer activity to that of cefsulodin against M. terrae. High amounts of phenolic substances, such as gallic acid, especially in the seed coats, as well as high amounts of phytosterols, lignans, certain fatty acids and peptides (specifically protease inhibitors) in the cotyledons contributed to the observed antibacterial and anticandidal activities. Marama extracts, especially phenolic and crude seed coat extracts, had high multi-species antibacterial and anticandidal activities at concentrations comparable to that of some conventional drugs; these extracts have potential use as microbicides.
Keywords: marama, Tylosema esculentum, antibacterial activity, anticandidal activity
Published: 07.08.2017; Views: 25; Downloads: 3
Full text (1,38 MB)
Viral infections in queen bees (Apis mellifera carnica) from rearing apiariesAleš Gregorc
, Tamás Bakonyi
, 2012, original scientific article
Abstract: Viral infection could have an impact on the success of queen rearing and a potential effect on reduced queen quality. Newly mated honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) queens were collected from mating nuclei in queen rearing operations in Slovenia. Altogether, 81 queens were sampled from 27 rearing apiaries in 2006 and 72 queens from 24 apiaries in 2008. Queens were analysed for the presence of four viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), sacbrood virus (SBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In 2006, 12%, 9% and 1% prevalence was found for ABPV, DWV and SBV, respectively; BQCV was not detected. Two years later, DWV, BQCV, SBV and ABPV were detected in 58%, 24%, 11% and 10% bee queens, respectively. In 2006, fourteen out of twenty-seven apaiaries were virus free, whereas in 2008 only three out of twenty-four apiaries were virus free. This is the first evidence of virus infection occurring in newly mated queens from mating nuclei in rearing apiaries. The possible impacts of queen rearing technology and epidemiological influences on virus infection are discussed in this study.
Keywords: queen bees, black queen cell virus, acute bee paralysis virus, sacbrook virus, deforming wing virus
Published: 04.08.2017; Views: 41; Downloads: 0
Full text (393,61 KB)
Combating Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies using flumethrin or fluvalinateAleš Gregorc
, Maja Ivana Smodiš Škerl
, 2007, original scientific article
Abstract: Mite mortality in two apiaries, one with 32 and the other with 15 honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) colonies, was recorded prior to and after flumethrin or fluvalinate treatments and after a control, oxalic-acid application. During the 42- and 51-day pre-treatment periods, the average daily natural mite drop was 0.04 (± 0.04) and 2.82 (± 2.19), respectively, which represents 1.09% (± 1.06) and 3.84% (± 3.04) of the total number of mites found during the experiment. The flumethrin or fluvalinate applications resulted in an average mite mortality at the two apiaries of 214.46 (± 260.02) and 4,098.64 (± 2,508.31). The treatments resulted in a 19.11% (± 14.62) and a 39.28% (± 10.47) reduction in the number of mites in slightly infested colonies and 94.30% (± 4.26) and 96.24% (± 3.14) in highly infested colonies. The difference in treatment efficacy between both apiaries was significant (P < 0.001) and indicates that fluvalinate and flumethrin are highly efficacious in dealing with highly infested honeybee colonies with sealed brood. The importance of effective mite control in colonies with a high level of natural mite mortality is discussed in this study.
Keywords: Acaricides, control methods, Apis mellifera, oxalic acid, mite infestation
Published: 04.08.2017; Views: 40; Downloads: 0
Full text (149,12 KB)
Regulation of metabolic changes in shredded cabbage by modified atmosphere packagingAndrej Plestenjak
, Tomaž Požrl
, Janez Hribar
, Tatjana Unuk
, Rajko Vidrih
, 2008, original scientific article
Abstract: The influence of different storage conditions on the storability of packaged shredded cabbage has been studied. The cabbage cultivar Fieldrocket was cut and packaged in glass jars and in polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) film. Several initial atmospheres were established within the packaged cut cabbage: 100 % N2, 5 % O2/95 % N2, 10 % O2/90 % N2, normal atmosphere (NA), 70 % O2/30 % N2 and 100 % O2. Samples were stored at two different temperatures of 0 and 10 °C for 7 days. Variation in CO2 and O2 concentrations was higher at 10 °C compared to 0 °C and the highest at the atmosphere consisting of 70 % O2/30 % N2. A decrease of O2 below 3–5 % and an increase of CO2 above 2–5 % in the packed product resulted in the appearance of anaerobic metabolism. An initial atmosphere consisting of 100 % O2, and a storage temperature of 0 °C resulted in delayed anaerobic metabolism compared to other atmospheric conditions and storage temperature of 10 °C. Rinsing of fresh cut cabbage also resulted in lower accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol. A higher variation in CO2 and O2 concentrations, and consequent accumulation of anaerobic metabolites had a negative influence on the sensorial properties of the cut cabbage. The higher permeability of PE film compared to PP and glass enabled faster exchange of CO2 and O2, which resulted in lower accumulation of anaerobic metabolites. However, a higher O2 concentration had a negative influence on the colour of fresh-cut cabbage. The best results were achieved by packing the fresh-cut cabbage in PE film with an initial atmosphere of 100 % O2 and stored at 0 °C.
Keywords: cabbage, modified atmosphere, packaging, polyethylene, polypropylene, respiration, anaerobic metabolism
Published: 24.07.2017; Views: 64; Downloads: 0
Full text (156,50 KB)
Prediction of standard lactation curves for primiparous Holstein cows by using corrected regression modelsJanez Jeretina
, Drago Babnik
, Dejan Škorjanc
, 2015, original scientific article
Abstract: Prediction of the expected milk yield is important for the management of the primiparous cows (PPC) with a few or no data on their own milk productivity. We developed a system of regression equations for predicting milk yields in standard lactation. The models include the systematic effects of the calving season, the five-year rolling herd average of milk yield of PPC, the breeding values of the parents for milk production, and daily milk recordings. A total of 21,901 lactations of Holstein PPC were collected during the regular monthly milk recordings of cows in the Republic of Slovenia. By including daily milk recordings in the model, the coefficients of determination of regression models for the prediction of milk yield increase: without known recordings (M0) R 2 =0.80; with one recording (M1) R 2 =0.82; with two first consecutive recordings (M2) R 2 =0.86; and with three recordings (M3) R 2 =0.89. Deviations of milk yield up to 500 kg in a standard lactation (<1.6 kg/day) were as follows: with the model M0, they occurred in 53.4% of PPC; with M1, they occurred in 56.3% of PPC; with M2, they occurred in 64.5% of PPC; and with M3, they occurred in 70.9% of PPC. We concluded that the developed system of regression models is an appropriate method for milk yield prediction of PPC.
Keywords: primiparous cows, milk yield, prediction, lactation curves, regression equations
Published: 24.07.2017; Views: 48; Downloads: 1
Full text (497,85 KB)
An attempt to predict conformation and fatness in bulls by means of artificial neural networks using weight, age and breed composition informationMaja Prevolnik
, Marjana Novič
, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar
, Martin Škrlep
, Maria Font-I-Furnols
, 2015, original scientific article
Abstract: The present study aimed to predict conformation and fatness grades in bulls based on data available at slaughter (carcass weight, age and breed proportions) by means of counter-propagation artificial neural networks (ANN). For chemometric analysis, 5893 bull carcasses (n=2948 and n=2945 for calibration and testing of models, respectively) were randomly selected from the initial data set (n≈27000; one abattoir, one classifier, three years period). Different ANN models were developed for conformation and fatness by varying the net size and the number of epochs. Tested net parameters did not have a notable effect on models’ quality. Respecting the tolerance of ±1 subclass between the actual and predicted value (as allowed by European Union legislation for on-spot checks), the matching between the classifier and ANN grading was 73.6 and 64.9% for conformation and fatness, respectively. Success rate of prediction was positively related to the frequency of carcasses in the class.
Keywords: govedo, goveje meso, mastnost mesa, struktura mesa, klavna teža, ANN modeli, modeli za napovedovanje
Published: 24.07.2017; Views: 41; Downloads: 0
Full text (1,12 MB)