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A reflection on selected fear of crime factors in Ljubljana, Slovenia
Gorazd Meško, 2016, original scientific article

Abstract: Objective: to analysis the fear of crime factors according to the research carried out in 2009 in Ljubljana (Slovenia). Methods: dialectic, systemic, comparison, observation. Results: the analysis shows that the level of fear of crime has not changed significantly over the last two decades. The latest survey from 2009 implies that the influence of perceived probability of victimization in an emotional reaction is strongest among those who believe that consequences of victimization can be severe, and their own ability to defend from an assailant is low. Analyses have shown that the fear of crime is strongest in women and the elderly. Personal experiences with crime do not result in an increase in perceived probability of victimization, or influence fear of crime, nor do they affect the anticipation of seriousness of the potential consequences of victimization. The article contributes to reflections on fear of crime based on a literature and research review as well as utilization of new models of testing fear of crime factors. Scientific novelty: the research shows that the used model of fear of crime explains more variance (R² = .54) than other models used prior to this study (Slovenia, 2001, R² = .43; Croatia, 2002, R² = .43; Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2002, R² = .45) and imply some new findings and confirm findings from the previous surveys. The findings imply that the respondents in Ljubljana relate fear of crime to the impacts of different crimes on their lives. However, research did not confirm that the level of fear of individual crimes is proportional to their severity. It was found out that respondents feel the most threatened by robbery followed by assault. Practical significance: the article provides insight for crime control and prevention and will be useful for scientific and educational staff, policy makers, graduate and post-graduate students and all those interested in crime control and prevention.
Keywords: criminal law, criminology, fear of crime, factors, Slovenia, Ljubljana
Published: 08.08.2017; Views: 176; Downloads: 15
.pdf Full text (415,35 KB)

Arms trafficking
Sabina Zgaga, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The provision of arms for the commission of crimes is one of the typical forms of aiding and abetting. This article discusses arms trafficking as a form of aiding and abetting the commission of core crimes. It opens with a discussion of aiding and abetting as a form of complicity in the Rome Statute and the case law of the International Criminal Court. Furthermore, the article also analyses the regulation of legal arms trafficking in international and European law. Accordingly, the international criminal law further regulates illegal arms trafficking as an international crime and as complicity to core crimes. Therefore, the article first presents arms trafficking as an international crime and subsequently discusses arms trafficking as complicity in core crimes. The article concludes with a discussion on the regulation of arms trafficking in Slovene law, beginning with legal arms trafficking according to the Firearms Act-1 and ending with illegal arms trafficking as a crime.
Keywords: aiding and abetting, complicity, core crime, intent, arms trafficking, merger of offences, international criminal court
Published: 04.08.2017; Views: 104; Downloads: 5
.pdf Full text (700,22 KB)

Inter-municipal cooperation
Iztok Rakar, Bojan Tičar, Maja Klun, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The financial crisis has once again brought up the question of the "perfect size" of local governments and revealed a new dimension of the eternal question of financing self-governing local communities. The paper presents a comparative overview of efforts to determine the "perfect size" of municipalities and recent reforms in different countries aimed at enabling municipalities to ensure both local-level democracy and identity, and economic efficiency in the delivery of public services. One of the most popular ways for achieving this goal is to promote various forms of inter-municipal cooperation. Some forms of inter-municipal cooperation already exist in Slovenia; a considerable breakthrough in this regard occurred in 2007, but such an approach would have been possible much earlier. Analyses show that this change is due to changes in the rules regarding co-financing. Despite the fact that neither literature nor politics in Slovenia sees inter-municipal cooperation as an alternative to merging municipalities, experiences show that practice will proceed in this direction.
Keywords: municipalities, inter-municipalk cooperation, Slovenia, European Union
Published: 14.07.2017; Views: 228; Downloads: 5
.pdf Full text (571,95 KB)

Znanstveni premislek o psihofiziološkem ugotavljanju zavajanja
Igor Areh, Kaja Vidmar, 2016, review article

Abstract: Zanimanje za psihofiziološko ugotavljanje zavajanja se je v zadnjem desetletju povečalo, kar je povezano s povečanimi varnostnimi tveganji, s katerimi se soočamo. Članek razpravlja o primernosti uporabe poligrafa pri preiskovanju kaznivih dejanj z vidika znanosti, predvsem psihologije. Predstavlja, oceni in primerja dve najbolj uporabljeni tehniki ugotavljanja zavajanja: Test primerjalnih vprašanj (CQT) in Test prikritih informacij (CIT). Pri obeh tehnikah preuči njuno teoretično ozadje, objektivnost in standardiziranost testnih postopkov, točnost (veljavnost) tehnik ter predstavi etične in druge praktične pomisleke. Test primerjalnih vprašanj po desetletjih raziskav in razvoja ni razrešil svojih temeljnih težav in omejitev. Ostaja neznanstven in nestandardiziran test, ki si ločen od znanosti niti ne prizadeva k izhodu iz slepe ulice. Članek predstavi vplivnejše teorije, na katerih skušajo zagovorniki utemeljiti poligrafsko testiranje. Kritična analiza kaže, da nobena od teorij ne predstavlja zadovoljivega teoretičnega temelja tehnike. Zaradi odsotnosti znanstveno-teoretične utemeljitve ostaja tehnika primerjalnih vprašanj sporna in ujeta v samozadostnost. Ta se napaja predvsem iz metodološko vprašljivih raziskovalnih ugotovitev zagovornikov tehnike. Nasprotno pa tehnika prikritih informacij doživlja raziskovalni razcvet, predvsem na področju nevrologije, in velja za etično manj sporno in delno znanstveno utemeljeno s teorijo orientacijskega odziva. Z njo se nekoliko naivno in sporno ugotavljanje laži nadomešča z iskanjem podatkov, ki so prikriti v spominu testirancev. A tudi ta tehnika ima resne pomanjkljivosti in omejitve, zaradi katerih se postavlja vprašanje o smiselnosti uporabe poligrafa pri ugotavljanju zavajanja.
Keywords: poligrafi, tehnika primerjalnih vprašanj, tehnika prikritih informacij, objektivnost, testiranje, forenzična psihologija, Test primerjalnih vprašanj CQT, Test prikritih informacij CIT
Published: 13.07.2017; Views: 133; Downloads: 10
.pdf Full text (349,96 KB)

Police interrogations through the prism of science
Igor Areh, 2016, review article

Abstract: Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects' incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as ef fective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborat ed common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher aware ness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.
Keywords: social psychology, interrogation, police, suspects, coercion, investigative interview
Published: 13.07.2017; Views: 193; Downloads: 7
.pdf Full text (335,17 KB)

To fear or not to fear on cybercrime
Igor Bernik, Bojan Dobovšek, Blaž Markelj, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: To understand cybercrime and its various forms, one must be familiar with criminality in general. How individuals perceive crime, and how much they fear it is further influenced by news media (Crawford, 2007). Van Duyne (2009), who monitored criminality, wrote about changes which started to be noticed twenty years ago and have shaped a new Europe, a territory without inner borders, and so with more mobility and opportunities for the Europeans. But these novelties and changes in the way we work have also caused certain new problems. It can be said that perpetrators of crimes, who are no longer hindered by state borders, now know no geographical limitations. Vander Baken and Van Daele (2009), for example, have researched mobility in connection to transnational criminality. Von Lampe (2007) has established that perpetrators no longer act individually, but frequently work in cooperation with one another. Crime and mobility are being “greased” by money, and have become a part of everyday life (Van Duyne, 2009). An individual’s perception and understanding of criminality is also biased on certain cultural myths in regard to crime (Meško and Eman, 2009).
Keywords: cybercrime, perception, fear, threats, opinion
Published: 06.07.2017; Views: 110; Downloads: 4
.pdf Full text (215,89 KB)

Social-economic aspects of cybercrime
Aleksandar Ilievski, Igor Bernik, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to highlight the main issues of developing countries regarding cybercrime and examine the possible link between weak economic development and escalating levels of cybercrime. The findings were established on the basis of literature review, comparative studies and the synthesis of findings. The existing sociological theories of crime are not limited to traditional crime and may be used for the interpretation of its cyber version. By analysing individual sociological theories and the results of empirical research, we found that social-economic factors, such as GDP per capita, unemployment and education, are closely related to the incidence of cybercrime in different countries. This enables us to conclude that the relatively poor economic development is one of the reasons contributing to a higher incidence of cybercrime in Eastern European countries. By taking into account factors of different nature, one could increase the understanding of cybercrime and the possibility of adopting and implementing reliable preventive measures. However, this paper strives not only to understand the factors related to cybercrime, but also to raise awareness, stimulate a proactive approach and develop preventive actions in the fight against cybercrime.
Keywords: social-economic aspects, cybercrime, economic development
Published: 06.07.2017; Views: 146; Downloads: 5
.pdf Full text (506,97 KB)

Mobile devices and effective information security
Blaž Markelj, Igor Bernik, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Rapidly increasing numbers of sophisticated mobile devices (smart phones, tab computers, etc.) all over the world mean that ensuring information security will only become a more pronounced problem for individuals and organizations. It’s important to effectively protect data stored on or accessed by mobile devices, and also during transmission of data between devices and between device and information system. Technological and other trends show, that the cyber threats are also rapidly developing and spreading. It's crucial to educate users about safe usage and to increase their awareness of security issues. Ideally, users should keep-up with technological trends and be well equipped with knowledge otherwise mobile technology will significantly increase security risks. Most important is that we start educating youth so that our next generations of employees will be part of a culture of data and information security awareness.
Keywords: information security, blended threats, mobile devices, awareness
Published: 06.07.2017; Views: 125; Downloads: 7
.pdf Full text (237,86 KB)

Criminal responsibility of students regarding using mobile devices and violating the principles of information security
Blaž Markelj, Sabina Zgaga, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The combination of information security and criminal law in the case of usage of smart mobile phones among the students is a very relevant and current topic. Namely, the number of smart mobile phones’ users is rising daily, including among the student population, due to the need for perpetual communication and constant access to information. However, the lack of knowledge about recommendations on information security and safe use of smart mobile phone together with their disregard could lead to criminal responsibility of the users of smart mobile phones, including students. The purpose of this paper is therefore to represent the potential consequences of criminal responsibility and how to avoid it. The knowledge on safe use of smart mobile phones, their software, but also threats and safety solutions is very low among students, as the survey shows. Due to the loss, conveyance or disclosure of protected data, criminal responsibility of a user could therefore be relevant. In certain cases the juvenile criminal justice system is partly still relevant due to the students’ age, whereas in every case the students' culpability should be assessed precisely. This assessment namely distinguishes the cases, when the student is a perpetrator of a criminal act from the cases, when the student is only a victim of a criminal act due to his improper use of smart mobile phones.
Keywords: mobile devices, information security, criminal responsibility, criminal act
Published: 06.07.2017; Views: 126; Downloads: 5
.pdf Full text (246,69 KB)

Borders of communication privacy in Slovenian criminal procedure
Sabina Zgaga, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Due to fast technological development and our constant communication protection of communication privacy in every aspect of our (legal) life has become more important than ever before. Regarding protection of privacy in criminal procedure special emphasis should be given to the regulation of privacy in Slovenian Constitution and its interpretation in the case law of the Constitutional Court. This paper presents the definition of privacy and communication privacy in Slovenian constitutional law and exposes the main issues of communication privacy that have been discussed in the case law of the Constitutional Court in the last twenty years. Thereby the paper tries to show the general trend in the case law of Constitutional Court regarding the protection of communication privacy and to expose certain unsolved issues and unanswered challenges. Slovenian constitutional regulation of communication privacy is very protective, considering the broad definition of privacy and the strict conditions for encroachment of communication privacy. The case law of Slovenian Constitutional Court has also shown such trend, with the possible exception of the recent decision on a dynamic IP address. The importance of this decision is however significant, since it could be applicable to all forms of communication via internet, the prevailing form of communication nowadays. Certain challenges still lay ahead, such as the current proposal for the amendment of Criminal Procedure Act-M, which includes the use of IMSI catchers and numerous unanswered issues regarding data retention after the decisive annulment of its partial legal basis by the Constitutional Court.
Keywords: privacy, communication privacy, Constitution, criminal procedure, modern technology, Slovenia
Published: 06.07.2017; Views: 127; Downloads: 7
.pdf Full text (337,97 KB)

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