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Second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment restores the effectiveness of prosocial punishment
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Economic experiments have shown that punishment can increase public goods game contributions over time. However, the effectiveness of punishment is challenged by second-order free-riding and antisocial punishment. The latter implies that noncooperators punish cooperators, while the former implies unwillingness to shoulder the cost of punishment. Here, we extend the theory of cooperation in the spatial public goods game by considering four competing strategies, which are traditional cooperators and defectors, as well as cooperators who punish defectors and defectors who punish cooperators. We show that if the synergistic effects are high enough to sustain cooperation based on network reciprocity alone, antisocial punishment does not deter public cooperation. Conversely, if synergistic effects are low and punishment is actively needed to sustain cooperation, antisocial punishment does is viable, but only if the cost-to-fine ratio is low. If the costs are relatively high, cooperation again dominates as a result of spatial pattern formation. Counterintuitively, defectors who do not punish cooperators, and are thus effectively second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment, form an active layer around punishing cooperators, which protects them against defectors that punish cooperators. A stable three-strategy phase that is sustained by the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance is also possible via the same route. The microscopic mechanism behind the reported evolutionary outcomes can be explained by the comparison of invasion rates that determine the stability of subsystem solutions. Our results reveal an unlikely evolutionary escape from adverse effects of antisocial punishment, and they provide a rationale for why second-order free-riding is not always an impediment to the evolutionary stability of punishment.
Ključne besede: complex systems, interdisciplinary physics, punishment, cooperation
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 13; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,15 MB)

Efficacy of a bundle approach in preventing the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)
Sandra Burja, Tina Belec, Nika Bizjak, Jernej Mori, Andrej Markota, Andreja Sinkovič, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a potentially preventable iatrogenic illness that may develop following mechanical ventilation. A bundle for the prevention of VAP consists of different measures which may vary between institutions, and may include: elevation of the head of the bed, oral care with chlorhexidine, subglottic suctioning, daily assessment for extubation and the need for proton-pump inhibitors, use of closed suction systems, and maintaining endotracheal cuff pressure at 25 cmH2O. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a VAP prevention bundle, consisting of the above-mentioned measures, by evaluating the incidence of VAP before (no-VAP-B group) and after (VAP-B group) the introduction of the bundle. We retrospectively evaluated the data for patients who were mechanically ventilated with an endotracheal tube, in the period between 1 September and 31 December 2014 (no-VAP-B group, n = 55, 54.5% males, mean age 67.8 ± 14.5 years) and between 1 January to 30 April 2015 (VAP-B group, n = 74, 62.1% males, mean age 64.8 ± 13.7 years). There were no statistically significant differences between no-VAP-B and VAP-B groups in demographic data, intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, hospital mortality, duration of ICU treatment, and duration of mechanical ventilation. No significant differences in the rates of VAP and early VAP (onset ≤7 days after intubation) were found between no-VAP-B and VAP-B groups (41.8% versus 25.7%, p = 0.06 and 10.9% versus 12.2%, p > 0.99, respectively). However, a significant decrease in the late VAP (onset >8 days after intubation) was found in VAP-B group compared to no-VAP-B group (13.5% versus 30.9%, p = 0.027). Overall, our results support the use of VAP prevention bundle in clinical practice.
Ključne besede: ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAP, primary prevention, epidemiology, medical devices, intratracheal intubation, bundle
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (694,98 KB)

Benchmarking firm-level resources, capabilities, and postures driving export performance of SMEs
Robert Celec, Dietfried Globocnik, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper aimed to identify success factors of export performance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Drawing on the resource-based view, the dynamic capability view, and international entrepreneurship theory, we extracted relevant assets, capabilities, and postures at the firm level. An extended benchmarking method was applied to empirically test the proposed success factors with a cross-sectional sample of 99 Slovenian SMEs. The results highlight the crucial role of management competence, financial and human resources, market orientation, negotiation flexibility, and a proactive and risk-taking posture to achieve superior export performance.
Ključne besede: Export performance, resource-based view, dynamic capabilities, entrepreneurial orientation, SME, benchmark
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 60; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (490,88 KB)

Assessment of the state of competition in the banking market in the Russian Federation
Anna Rabdanova, Vera Bulatova, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Competition is one of the factors directly influencing the development of the banking market, the stability of the banking system, and the monetary system as a whole. This article describes the features of banking competition, methods of analysis of banking competition, and an analysis of the current state of competition in the banking market in the Russian Federation. The analysis of banking competition in the Russian Federation was performed using the concentration ratio for the top three companies and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The research concludes with an assessment of the state of competition in the banking market and identification of the barriers to entering the financial services market.
Ključne besede: Commercial bank, bank competition, banking market, market concentration
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 58; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (340,42 KB)

Analyzing hotel innovation behavior in the Balaton region of Hungary to identify best practices
Petra Gyurácz-Németh, Nikolett Horn, Nóra Friedrich, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The goal of the research is to investigate the hotel innovation behavior in one of the most important tourism regions of Hungary. The Lake Balaton Region is a very popular area of the country with quite a short season (from the middle of June to August 20). The region is the second most visited area based on the number of guests and guest nights in Hungary. The topic of innovation plays a growing role in the Hungarian hotel sector as well, because competition is very high and keeping guests and employees can be a great challenge. The study involved both qualitative and quantitative research. The qualitative research aimed to identify the best practices of the Hotel Európa Fit****superior which introduced an “innovation by inspiring” strategy and applies several types of innovation in a highly recommended way. The respondents of the questionnaire included 28 hotel general managers (52% of the 54-person sample). The results showed a strong relationship between the type of the hotel and the number of innovations as well as the type of the hotel and the frequency of innovation.
Ključne besede: innovation behavior, hotel type, best practice, Hungary
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 55; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (276,52 KB)

An empirical study regarding radical innovation, research and development management, and leadership
Fumihiko Isada, Yuriko Isada, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The objective of this research is to empirically compare the management that is most suitable for radical innovation with that needed for incremental innovation. The relationship between the results of research and development and management styles was surveyed using a questionnaire. Respondents included research and development leaders in Japanese manufacturing, with special attention given to the differences between radical innovation and incremental innovation. Results verified, in an integrated way, the management and leadership factors, taking into consideration the differences arising from the object under analysis and the environmental factors.
Ključne besede: radical innovation, incremental innovation, research and development management, leadership, size of the firm, technology life cycle, kinds of goods
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 18; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (245,59 KB)

Advantages and disadvantages of the single European patent
Klara Glazer, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In February 2013, the European Union successfully completed more than 30 years of negotiations and formally signed an agreement establishing a single European patent. The agreement brought about a more competitive patent law compared with that in the United States and Japan. The agreement resulted in a number of advantages, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises, such as the reduction of costs by as much as 80%, simplification of procedures, and the adoption of the Unified Patent Court. With the new unitary patent, intellectual property will grow in importance. Yet experts warn that the new patent results in new forms of unwanted behavior, such as forum shopping and the emergence of patent trolls. This study presents both sides-the pros and cons-to predict the effects on business and cover the widest possible range of experts, providing their views on the topic.
Ključne besede: Single European patent, single patent court, reduce costs, patent trolls, simplified procedures, forum shopping, European Union
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 18; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (312,36 KB)

Search engine optimization
Marko Urh, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The paper deals with the importance of web page optimization. Internet and its characteristics are shown in the beginning of this paper, as the main source of obtaining information. Web pages should have all the necessary information that people are seeking and should also be ranged as high as possible in the search engines. The fact is that almost every search begins through a search engine. The basic tool that is used here are words that describe your search area and are called keywords. Examples are showing us the differences between optimized and not-optimized pages. Article deals with the basic examples of a page optimization (on-page optimization) and also web page optimization outside the page (off-page optimization). Further on we can know about the recommended techniques and possibility how to use them in online optimization to increase your competitiveness in search marketing which leads to more web page visitors. It also shows the advantages of optimized web pages and its trends that are shown in the area of search marketing.
Ključne besede: optimization, search engine optimization, internet marketing, page ranking
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 19; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (160,45 KB)

Ecological footprint as indicator of students environmental awareness level at Faculties of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade and University of Maribor
Nataša Petrović, Sonja Išljamović, Veljko Jeremić, Drago Vuk, Marjan Senegačnik, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The Ecological Footprint is a complex sustainability indicator that answers a simple question: How much of the Earth’s resources is demanded to support humankind lifestyle and activities? Ecological Footprint translates consumption and waste flow data into a measurement of the biologically productive area required to sustain that flow. We used Ecological Footprint as input feature that provides an effective heuristic and pedagogic tool for capturing current human resource use. The key aspect of this paper will be focused on the measuring of environmental awareness level among the students of the Faculty of Organizational Science, University of Belgrade and University of Maribor. For the determining student’s environmental awareness level and their Ecological Footprint, we used a closed form questionnaire with 15 questions. Statistical analysis has been performed in SPSS software package.
Ključne besede: ecological footprint, environmental education, sustainability indicator, natural resources
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 24; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (184,14 KB)

Ecodesign in the context of customer's and producer's point of view
Matjaž Maletič, Damjan Maletič, Boštjan Gomišček, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The present study reviews the attitudes and behaviours of the customers toward products which are “respectful” for the environment. To address the issue in a wider perspective, this paper also encompasses various aspects of ecodesign from producer’s point of view. Two surveys were conducted. The purpose of the first survey was to investigate the awareness and intention of the Slovenian customers to purchase green products, their perceptions and attitudes towards green products. The second survey was directed to organizations to examine their attitudes toward green products and environmental issues. The study revealed that the green products have substantial awareness among Slovenian customers. The results received from the study were illuminating, and encourage the possibility for integration of environmental aspects into products, since 94 percent of respondents expressed a desire for more “green” products available on the market. For the customers the most important quality characteristics of the product are: quality, usability and practicality followed by environmental ones. Survey results indicate that environmental concern plays a fundamental role in organizations. According to the results, concern for the environment is the most important criteria that encourage organizations to introduce environmental management system (EMS) standard (mean=4,2 on a scale of 5).
Ključne besede: ecodesign, green customer, eco-efficiency, environmentally friendly product
Objavljeno: 03.11.2017; Ogledov: 22; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (250,96 KB)

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