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Supporting learning skills in visual art classes
Helen Arov, Anna-Liisa Jõgi, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study focused on middle school art teachers supporting the development of students' learning skills, specifically their awareness of the framework of learning skills. It also looked at the relations between the teaching practices teachers use for supporting learning skills and students' learning motivation in art classes. The study combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. The class observations and interviews were conducted with ten Estonian middle school art teachers. One hundred and forty-eight students from the observed classes filled out the learning motivation questionnaire about their interest and achievement goals in visual arts. The study draws attention to the importance of teachers being aware of and valuing learning skills alongside subject specific knowledge, as it could enhance students' autonomous motivation and support adaptive goal setting.
Ključne besede: learning skills, learning motivation, teaching practices, middle school, art education
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (550,91 KB)

Locating leadership of art in UK primary schools
Peter Gregory, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Using some of the evidence collected as part of a doctoral study of school-based leaders of art in the UK, this paper presents the most recent and emergent models of the leadership in art. The data suggests likely attributes of those in leadership positions and the effects upon the activities in which those individuals engage. As a case study of over two hundred art leaders, the challenges are clearly presented. They are more deeply explored through interviews and discussions about attitudes to artworks and their use with learners in the classroom as well as by analysing the paper records kept by the leaders. The study raises important issues for those who might want to learn from the situation in the UK.
Ključne besede: primary school, art leader, visual art, emancipation, United Kingdom
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (609,94 KB)

Was wir von den Schülern lernen könnten
Franziska Pirstinger, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: 300 persönliche Interviews mit Schüler/innen aller Schultypen geben Aufschluss über die Beliebtheit des Faches Kunsterziehung. Die Studie zeigt, dass künstlerische Fächer einen enormen, lebenslang anhaltenden Impact haben. Kaum jemand gibt sich emotionslos, wenn er auf die künstlerischen Fächer angesprochen wird. Mehr als 95% der Volksschulkinder zeigen sich begeistert von Kunsterziehung. Der kompensatorische Aspekt des Faches spielt eine zentrale Rolle für die Schüler/innen. Schlüsselfaktor bleibt jedoch die Persönlichkeit der Kunsterzieher/in. Schüler/innen finden sofort heraus, ob Lehrende für das Fach brennen. Mangelnde Auseinandersetzung mit Interessen und Bildäußerungen der Schüler/innen blockieren die Motivation. Sehr früh glauben Schüler/innen nicht begabt zu sein und beenden bildnerische Aktivitäten.
Ključne besede: Schüler/innenperspektive auf Kunsterziehung, Persönlichkeitsstruktur des Lehrenden, Kreativitätshemmende Faktoren, Kunstkreativität, Kreativität
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 12; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (710,79 KB)

»Potrebujemo več prakse!«
Andreja Retelj, Brigita Kosevski Puljić, 2016, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: V prispevku obravnavamo mikropoučevanje kot možnost povezovanja teorije in prakse v času študija bodočih učiteljev in učiteljic nemščine. Eden izmed ključnih elementov povezovanja teorije in prakse je pedagoška praksa na osnovnih in srednjih šolah. Iz študentskih refleksij o praksi ugotavljamo, da je študentom pridobljeno teoretično znanje zelo težko ustrezno uporabiti v praksi. Da bi omilili začetne težave in osebne stiske bodočih učiteljev, smo na Oddelku za germanistiko z nederlandistiko in skandinavistiko uvedli poseben model mikropoučevanja, v katerem so sodelovali študenti 2. letnika magistrskega pedagoškega programa. Samoevalvacija študentov o učinkih mikropoučevanja je pokazala, da je model pridobivanja prvih pedagoških izkušenj s pomočjo mikropoučevanja ustrezen, ker študentom omogoča, da preko refleksije in povratne informacije učiteljev didaktikov in študijskih kolegov ozavestijo didaktične in metodične principe sodobnega poučevanja tujega jezika in se tako bolje pripravijo na prakso v šolah.
Ključne besede: mikropoučevanje, refleksija, povratna informacija, poučevanje
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (190,03 KB)

Robust sex differences in jigsaw puzzle solving
Vid Kocijan, Marina Horvat, Gregor Majdič, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Sex differences are consistently reported in different visuospatial tasks with men usually performing better in mental rotation tests while women are better on tests for memory of object locations. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in solving jigsaw puzzles in children. In total 22 boys and 24 girls were tested using custom build tablet application representing a jigsaw puzzle consisting of 25 pieces and featuring three different pictures. Girls outperformed boys in solving jigsaw puzzles regardless of the picture. Girls were faster than boys in solving the puzzle, made less incorrect moves with the pieces of the puzzle, and spent less time moving the pieces around the tablet. It appears that the strategy of solving the jigsaw puzzle was the main factor affecting differences in success, as girls tend to solve the puzzle more systematically while boys performed more trial and error attempts, thus having more incorrect moves with the puzzle pieces. Results of this study suggest a very robust sex difference in solving the jigsaw puzzle with girls outperforming boys by a large margin.
Ključne besede: children, sex difference, visuo-spatial tasks, jigsaw puzzle
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,57 MB)

Intergenerational cooperation at the workplace from the management perspective
Živa Veingerl Čič, Simona Šarotar Žižek, 2017, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: The labor market is currently experiencing employees of four generations. Each generation has different behavior patterns, attitudes, expectations, habits, and motivational mechanisms. As generational gaps play an important role in the business process, organizations have to find ways to balance the needs and views of different age groups. To overcome the negative outcomes arising from generational differences and to use the strengths of each generation, the implementation of comprehensive and proactive model of intergenerational cooperation, presented in the paper, is becoming the necessity for each organization because of the benefits.
Ključne besede: employees, generation, intergenerational cooperation, intergenerational learning
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (413,71 KB)

From subprime and Eurozone crisis with full speed into the next financial crisis
Sebastjan Strašek, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This paper offers an analysis of the road from subprime and eurozone crisis to the elements of a new systemic crisis. Our aim is to research common issues that accompany each of these crises and to explore elements that hint that the financial systems are moving toward a new crisis. By holding short-term interest rates near zero, the central banks have encouraged malinvestment and speculation. Fuelling the bubble is the fear of missing out on trade. We find that actual events and movements on security markets follow a typical pattern, which indicates a serious threat for the next financial crisis. We also find enough signs that old crises lessons haven’t been learned.
Ključne besede: finance. financial crisis, bubble, P/E ratio
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 5; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (665,31 KB)

Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth
Kristina Ban, Matjaž Perc, Zoran Levnajić, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy.
Ključne besede: Wikipedia, language, growth dynamics, data analysis, clustering
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1004,06 KB)

Second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment restores the effectiveness of prosocial punishment
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Economic experiments have shown that punishment can increase public goods game contributions over time. However, the effectiveness of punishment is challenged by second-order free-riding and antisocial punishment. The latter implies that noncooperators punish cooperators, while the former implies unwillingness to shoulder the cost of punishment. Here, we extend the theory of cooperation in the spatial public goods game by considering four competing strategies, which are traditional cooperators and defectors, as well as cooperators who punish defectors and defectors who punish cooperators. We show that if the synergistic effects are high enough to sustain cooperation based on network reciprocity alone, antisocial punishment does not deter public cooperation. Conversely, if synergistic effects are low and punishment is actively needed to sustain cooperation, antisocial punishment does is viable, but only if the cost-to-fine ratio is low. If the costs are relatively high, cooperation again dominates as a result of spatial pattern formation. Counterintuitively, defectors who do not punish cooperators, and are thus effectively second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment, form an active layer around punishing cooperators, which protects them against defectors that punish cooperators. A stable three-strategy phase that is sustained by the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance is also possible via the same route. The microscopic mechanism behind the reported evolutionary outcomes can be explained by the comparison of invasion rates that determine the stability of subsystem solutions. Our results reveal an unlikely evolutionary escape from adverse effects of antisocial punishment, and they provide a rationale for why second-order free-riding is not always an impediment to the evolutionary stability of punishment.
Ključne besede: complex systems, interdisciplinary physics, punishment, cooperation
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,15 MB)

Efficacy of a bundle approach in preventing the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)
Sandra Burja, Tina Belec, Nika Bizjak, Jernej Mori, Andrej Markota, Andreja Sinkovič, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a potentially preventable iatrogenic illness that may develop following mechanical ventilation. A bundle for the prevention of VAP consists of different measures which may vary between institutions, and may include: elevation of the head of the bed, oral care with chlorhexidine, subglottic suctioning, daily assessment for extubation and the need for proton-pump inhibitors, use of closed suction systems, and maintaining endotracheal cuff pressure at 25 cmH2O. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a VAP prevention bundle, consisting of the above-mentioned measures, by evaluating the incidence of VAP before (no-VAP-B group) and after (VAP-B group) the introduction of the bundle. We retrospectively evaluated the data for patients who were mechanically ventilated with an endotracheal tube, in the period between 1 September and 31 December 2014 (no-VAP-B group, n = 55, 54.5% males, mean age 67.8 ± 14.5 years) and between 1 January to 30 April 2015 (VAP-B group, n = 74, 62.1% males, mean age 64.8 ± 13.7 years). There were no statistically significant differences between no-VAP-B and VAP-B groups in demographic data, intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, hospital mortality, duration of ICU treatment, and duration of mechanical ventilation. No significant differences in the rates of VAP and early VAP (onset ≤7 days after intubation) were found between no-VAP-B and VAP-B groups (41.8% versus 25.7%, p = 0.06 and 10.9% versus 12.2%, p > 0.99, respectively). However, a significant decrease in the late VAP (onset >8 days after intubation) was found in VAP-B group compared to no-VAP-B group (13.5% versus 30.9%, p = 0.027). Overall, our results support the use of VAP prevention bundle in clinical practice.
Ključne besede: ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAP, primary prevention, epidemiology, medical devices, intratracheal intubation, bundle
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (694,98 KB)

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