Changing educational theory and practiceBoris Aberšek
, 2015, kratki znanstveni prispevek
Opis: How do we think, how do we learn, memorize and dream, how does pleasure come to be, where are the emotions hidden and how do we reach decisions? Cognitive science and neuroscience tries to answer such questions. It tackles the fields of the human mind in an interdisciplinary, even transdisciplinary way – by connecting discoveries from all the disciplines that could shed light on cognitive occurrences. Cognitive science brings together psychology, philosophy, linguistics, artificial intelligence, social sciences and many others. It tries to deal with mental processes in a holistic way and to create a deeper understanding of the field that is empirically closest to us.
Ključne besede: education, new paradigm, transdisciplinar model, cognitive neuroeducation
Objavljeno: 13.12.2017; Ogledov: 20; Prenosov: 3
Celotno besedilo (286,39 KB)
Artificial intelligence versus human talents in learning processJanez Bregant
, Boris Aberšek
, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: To highlight the differences between conventional educational systems and CBLS - computer based learning systems. It is useful to consider CBLS, as the class of a system most closely related to artificial intelligence - AI. In such a system, the ultimate goal is to create a virtual duplicate of reality for learning, analysis, training, experimentation, or other purposes. Simulating reality is an approach that may or may not be useful at creating experience. This distinction yield several consequences. In CBLS, behaviour should be as realistic as possible, the representation of environment tends to be uniform and consistent and allowing users to act freely within that environment.
To teach users through realistic experience CBLS design techniques can make the experience much more memorable. In such an environment the context and control afforded by design techniques allow the integration of technologies and evaluation of the overall experience. Perhaps it is time to take lessons of CBLS and AI in a learning design and teaching tools seriously.
At the beginning we will point out one simple question: could the ideas, methodology and techniques of AI also be applied to a development of relatively serious mind applications and can they substitute human teachers? And the answer will be continued in our paper.
Ključne besede: education, intelligent tutors, artificial intelligence, CBLS
Objavljeno: 12.12.2017; Ogledov: 51; Prenosov: 2
Celotno besedilo (465,85 KB)
Apacer: a six-step model for the introduction of computer-supported laboratory exercises in biology teachingAndrej Šorgo
, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: This article describes a six-step approach used for the introduction of computer-supported laboratory exercises in Biology teaching. Following the model students will be guided from recognizing a problem question to the end report in a series of active tasks. The model was named APACER as an acronym of the six steps: Ask, Predict, Act, Comment, Evaluate and Report. The model was tested with 15-18-year-old secondary school students as group and individual work over a time span of ten years and several hundred students performing laboratory exercises in Biology. Work on development of the model can be described as reflective classroom practice. By observation of students' work, grading of their reports and evaluation of results from exams, it was recognized that students achieved much higher grades because of better knowledge and improved reports. Transfer of the model to other Science subjects is suggested.
Ključne besede: education, biology teaching, computer-supported laboratory, laboratory work, ICT, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 12.12.2017; Ogledov: 41; Prenosov: 2
Celotno besedilo (948,80 KB)
Evaluating the effect of Clostridium difficile conditioned medium on fecal microbiota community structureSabina Horvat
, Aleksander Mahnič
, Martin Breskvar
, Sašo Džeroski
, Maja Rupnik
, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is typically associated with disturbed gut microbiota and changes related to decreased colonization resistance against C. difficile are well described. However, nothing is known about possible effects of C. difficile on gut microbiota restoration during or after CDI. In this study, we have mimicked such a situation by using C. difficile conditioned medium of six different C. difficile strains belonging to PCR ribotypes 027 and 014/020 for cultivation of fecal microbiota. A marked decrease of microbial diversity was observed in conditioned medium of both tested ribotypes. The majority of differences occurred within the phylum Firmicutes, with a general decrease of gut commensals with putative protective functions (i.e. Lactobacillus, Clostridium_XIVa) and an increase in opportunistic pathogens (i.e. Enterococcus). Bacterial populations in conditioned medium differed between the two C. difficile ribotypes, 027 and 014/020 and are likely associated with nutrient availability. Fecal microbiota cultivated in medium conditioned by E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis or Staphylococcus epidermidis grouped together and was clearly different from microbiota cultivated in C. difficile conditioned medium suggesting that C. difficile effects are specific. Our results show that the changes observed in microbiota of CDI patients are partially directly influenced by C. difficile.
Ključne besede: Clostridium difficile, infection, gut microbiota
Objavljeno: 12.12.2017; Ogledov: 27; Prenosov: 2
Celotno besedilo (1,82 MB)
Synthesis of PMMA/ZnO nanoparticles composite used for resin teethDanica Popović
, Rajko Bobovnik
, Silvester Bolka
, Miroslav Vukadinovič
, Vojkan Lazić
, Rebeka Rudolf
, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: Wear resistance is one of the most important physical properties of the artificial teeth used in acrylic dentures. The goal of this research was to synthesize a new composite material made of matrix Poly-(methyl methacrylate)-PMMA with different percentages (2 % and 3 % of volume fractions) of zinc-oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as reinforcing elements, to improve its mechanical properties. The dynamic mechanical behaviour of this composite was studied through the DMA method in comparison to the pure PMMA supported by the characterization of their microstructures. Then the wear resistance was analysed on the samples, which were prepared in the form of teeth. In this context their vertical height loss was measured after 100,000 chewing cycles on a chewing simulator, before and after the artificial thermal ageing. Investigations showed that the PMMA/ZnO NP composites dampened the vibrations better than the pure PMMA, which could be assigned to the homogenous distribution of ZnO NPs in the PMMA matrix. It was found that the mean vertical height loss for the pure PMMA teeth was significantly higher (more than 4 times) compared to composite teeth made with ZnO NPs. Introducing the thermal artificial ageing led to the finding that there was no effect on the height loss by the composite material with 3 % of volume fractions of ZnO NPs. Based on this it was concluded that PMMA/ZnO NPs composites showed improved in-vitro wear resistance compared to acrylic-resin denture teeth, so this new composite material should be preferred when occlusal stability is considered to be of high priority.
Ključne besede: poly-methyl methacrylate, PMMA, zinc-oxide nanoparticles, composite, resin teeth
Objavljeno: 12.12.2017; Ogledov: 22; Prenosov: 1
Celotno besedilo (1,55 MB)
Low overlap between carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa genotypes isolated from hospitalized patients and wastewater treatment plantsAndrej Golle
, Sandra Janežič
, Maja Rupnik
, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: The variability of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (CRPA) isolated from urine and respiratory samples in a large microbiological laboratory, serving several health care settings, and from effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) from the same region was assessed by PFGE typing and by resistance to 10 antibiotics. During the 12-month period altogether 213 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were cultured and distributed into 65 pulsotypes and ten resistance profiles. For representatives of all 65 pulsotypes 49 different MLSTs were determined. Variability of clinical and environmental strains was comparable, 130 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa obtained from 109 patients were distributed into 38 pulsotypes, while 83 isolates from WWTPs were classified into 31 pulsotypes. Only 9 pulsotypes were shared between two or more settings (hospital or WWTP). Ten MLST were determined for those prevalent pulsotypes, two of them (ST111 and ST235) are among most successful CRPA types worldwide. Clinical and environmental carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains differed in antibiotic resistance. The highest proportion of clinical isolates was resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam (52.3%) and ceftazidime (42.3%). The highest proportion of environmental isolates was resistant to ceftazidime (37.1%) and ciprofloxacin (35.5%). The majority of isolates was resistant only to imipenem and/or meropenem. Strains with additional resistances were distributed into nine different patterns. All of them included clinically relevant strains, while environmental strains showed only four additional different patterns.
Ključne besede: carpabenem resistance, antibiotic resistance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolates
Objavljeno: 12.12.2017; Ogledov: 30; Prenosov: 2
Celotno besedilo (2,44 MB)
Container throughput forecasting using dynamic factor analysis and ARIMAX modelMarko Intihar
, Tomaž Kramberger
, Dejan Dragan
, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: The paper examines the impact of integration of macroeconomic indicators on the accuracy of container throughput time series forecasting model. For this purpose, a Dynamic factor analysis and AutoRegressive Integrated Moving-Average model with eXogenous inputs (ARIMAX) are used. Both methodologies are integrated into a novel four-stage heuristic procedure. Firstly, dynamic factors are extracted from external macroeconomic indicators influencing the observed throughput. Secondly, the family of ARIMAX models of different orders is generated based on the derived factors. In the third stage, the diagnostic and goodness-of-fit testing is applied, which includes statistical criteria such as fit performance, information criteria, and parsimony. Finally, the best model is heuristically selected and tested on the real data of the Port of Koper. The results show that by applying macroeconomic indicators into the forecasting model, more accurate future throughput forecasts can be achieved. The model is also used to produce future forecasts for the next four years indicating a more oscillatory behaviour in (2018-2020). Hence, care must be taken concerning any bigger investment decisions initiated from the management side. It is believed that the proposed model might be a useful reinforcement of the existing forecasting module in the observed port.
Ključne besede: container throughput forecasting, ARIMAX model, dynamic factor analysis, exogenous macroeconomic indicators, time series analysis
Objavljeno: 12.12.2017; Ogledov: 26; Prenosov: 4
Celotno besedilo (1,33 MB)
Obvladovanje pojava invazivnih rastlin (neofitov) in ohranjanje biodiverzitete na vodovarstvenih območjihMario Lešnik
Opis: Ena od posledic prilagoditev tehnike kmetijske pridelave z namenom varovati vode na vodovarstvenih območjih (VVO) je občutno zmanjšanje intenzivnosti pridelovanja, ali celo opuščanje obdelave zemljišč (npr. površine neposredno ob ranljivih virih vode). Neprimerno vzdrževana zemljišča se pričnejo spreminjati v nekakovostno travinje, ki v naslednji fazi preide v pol-naravne rastlinske združbe, ki so pogosto sestavljene iz invazivnih tujerodnih rastlin. Izkušnje kažejo, da je povečevanje populacij invazivnih rastlin na VVO hitrejše, kot na območjih, ki niso pod vodovarstvenimi režimi. V tem delu smo skušali predstaviti del invazivnih rastlinskih vrst, ki so že prisotne na ozemlju RS, ali pa njihov pojav pričakujemo v bližnji prihodnosti. Predstavljeni so praktični nasveti glede metod zatiranja različnih invazivnih vrst. Izpostavili smo tudi potrebo po ustreznem vzdrževanju pol-naravnih habitatov neposredno ob kmetijskih površinah, ki so sicer namenjeni varovanju voda in ohranjanju biotične pestrosti, a imajo tudi pomembne biološke funkcije za ohranjanje organizmov, ki regulirajo naravne procese, ki odločajo tudi o uspešnosti pridelave kmetijskih rastlin. Dopuščanje nekontroliranega razvoja invazivnih rastlin na VVO lahko povzroči dolgoročno destabilizacijo pol-naravnih habitatov in tudi povečevanje stroškov pridelave kmetijskih rastlin ter stroškov vzdrževanja energetske, transportne in hidrološke infrastrukture v agrarni pokrajini v bodočnosti.
Ključne besede: vodovarstvena območja, invazivne rastline, zatiranje, biodiverziteta, kmetijska zemljišča
Objavljeno: 08.12.2017; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 18
Celotno besedilo (71,80 MB)
Organisational effectiveness and customer satisfactionMilan Ambrož
, Martina Praprotnik
, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: This paper presents a test of the relationship between organizational culture as a crucial indicator of organizational effectiveness and customer satisfaction using service-unit data from two health resorts. Ensuring survival of the service organisation in the long run requires adaptations which are oriented towards achieving maximum customer satisfaction. This study intended to unveil the effect organisational factors have on customer service orientation from the customer and employee point of view within a two health resort service setting. The finding suggests that when trying to predict the comparative degree which organisational effectiveness factors have in satisfying customers' needs, performance, adaptability and mission can be of the highest importance. Some effects like performance were uniform for employees and customers, while others varied depending on the organisation and the customer or employee group. Furthermore, findings suggest that service performance and organisation mission of the service organisation predict customer satisfaction based on established and proven health services. In this context there is no room for innovation, despite the fact that employees and customers do not share similar views about the impact of organisational effectiveness. Developing an effective service organisation can provide a competitive advantage to the organisation. Critical for the success of the service organisation is that organisational agents have a clear view of the existing organisation effectiveness and a clear view of the customer expectations in this area.
Ključne besede: organisational effectiveness, customer satisfaction, customer complexity, service orientation, survival, adaptability
Objavljeno: 04.12.2017; Ogledov: 52; Prenosov: 1
Celotno besedilo (982,16 KB)
Organisational culture as organisational identityJustina Erčulj
, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek
Opis: The author discusses the notion of organisational culture and relates it to the notion of organisational identity. Culture as a group identity involves elements of stability, homogeneity and integrity but this can be very much altered through post-modern understanding of relationships between localities and their contexts. The research that was conducted in two primary schools in Slovenia is based on the symbolic notion of organisational culture. We explored what meanings are assigned to schools in public documents, during rituals and in teachers' and headteachers'narratives. The findings indicate the co-existence of two cultures and hence of two identities, ‘the public’ and ‘the private’, the former being closer to the corporate identity and the latter to multiple identities. The managers should be aware of both and should use the in-between space for on-going discussions and negotiations.
Ključne besede: organisational culture, identity, globalisation, management
Objavljeno: 04.12.2017; Ogledov: 46; Prenosov: 1
Celotno besedilo (216,54 KB)