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11.
3D response of an excavation adjacent to buildings supported by inclined struts
Zahra Sabzi, Ali Fakher, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The presented study focuses on field observations and a 3D numerical analysis of open-cut excavations adjacent to a building supported by inclined struts. The performance of the struts in carrying the building loads and decreasing the deflections is investigated. Struts reduce the amount of deformations and also create a corner effect similar to the diaphragm walls corner. The influence of the distance between the struts is studied and the optimum struts interval is proposed. The most effective configuration of struts installation in reducing the deflections and building damage is proposed. A displacement-based design guideline is also presented based on the results of numerical studies.
Ključne besede: measurement, 3D finite-element analysis, displacement-based design
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,85 MB)

12.
Determining the grain size distribution of granular soils using image analysis
Nihat Dipova, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Image-processing technology includes storing the images of objects in a computer and processing them with the computer for a specified purpose. Image analysis is the numerical expression of the images of objects by means of mimicking the functioning of the human visual system and the generation of numerical data for calculations that will be made later. Digital image analysis provides the capability for rapid measurement, which can be made in near-real time, for numerous engineering parameters of materials. Recently, image analysis has been used in geotechnical engineering practices. Grain size distribution and grain shape are the most fundamental properties used to interpret the origin and behaviour of soils. Mechanical sieving has some limitations, e.g., it does not measure the axial dimension of a particle, particle shape is not taken into consideration, and especially for elongated and flat particles a sieve analysis will not yield a reliable measure. In this study the grain size distribution of sands has been determined following image-analysis techniques, using simple apparatus, non-professional cameras and open-code software. The sample is put on a transparent plate that is illuminated with a white backlight. The digital images were acquired with a CCD DSLR camera. The segmentation of the particles is achieved by image thresholding, binary coding and particle labeling. The geometrical measurements of each particle are obtained using an automated pixel-counting technique. Local contacts or limited overlaps were overcome using a watershed split. The same sample was tested by traditional sieve analysis. An image-analysis-based grain size distribution has been compared with a sieve-analysis distribution. The results show that the grain size distribution of the image-based analysis and the sieve analysis are in good agreement.
Ključne besede: image analysis, image processing, grain size, sand
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,27 MB)

13.
Assessments of the hydraulic conductivity for predicting the swelling characteristics of compacted expansive soils
Hakan Güneyli, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The swelling behaviour of expansive soils is significant in geotechnical engineering since it causes severe damage to civil structures. The swelling characteristics need to be well known for satisfactorily safe and economic engineering designs. A direct determination of the swelling characteristics requires considerable time and money, involving serious experimental effort. Alternatively, several indirect estimation techniques developed using empirical regression models available in literature are widely used in practice. These empirical estimation techniques have generally been assessed as a function of the soil properties, i.e., consistency limits, density, moisture content, clay fraction and type, and cation-exchange capacity. This paper describes the dependence of the percentage swell (S%) and the swell pressure (σsp) obtained from a free-swell (FS) test and a constant-volume swell (CVS) test, and the primary swell time (PST), in which almost 90% of the swelling occurs as strain, which is considered as a new swelling characteristic in this study, on the hydraulic conductivity (k) controlled by a change in the gradation of compacted expansive soils. In addition, the rate of primary swelling (Cps), which is the primary swelling phase’s slope of the curve of percentage swell vs. log time, and the ratio of (Cps/k) were used to analyse their relationships with the swelling characteristics. This study provides the empirical methods that can be utilized to obtain indirect estimations of the percentage swell (S%), swell pressure (σsp) and primary swell time (PST) depending on k, Cps and Cps/k, in addition to, or with, the conventional parameters. The correlation coefficients of the regression analysis, having high performance, and indicating strong relationships between the swelling characteristics and the indices proposed in this study, state that these empirical prediction equations can be used safely in engineering practice.
Ključne besede: swelling characteristics, gradation, hydraulic conductivity, rate of primary swelling
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,21 MB)

14.
Quality control for the construction of a tailings dam
Wojciech Tschuschke, Magdalena Wróżyńska, Jędrzej Wierzbicki, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Every day the mining industry produces large amounts of mine tailings. In the case of copper ores exploited in Poland, the post-flotation tailings constitute 95% of the excavated rock and all the tailings are deposited in dumps, which are supported by outer dams. The durability and stability of these earth structures determine the safe operation of the entire object. The selection of adequate-quality soils for the construction of the dams is a crucial factor limiting the risk of its potential failure. Very large depositories require sufficiently large amounts of soil for the construction of the dams. An alternative to this classic approach is the use of the deposited tailings. In this solution the amount of mine wastes stored in the depository is reduced, there is no need to exploit the deposits of natural soils and the potential capacity of the depository increases. This paper presents the principles of the construction technology for hydraulically filled dams; the criteria for the selection of proper soil gradation and the physical properties of the sediments to be used in the construction of the dams; the principles of quality control for earth works; and the methodology of the geotechnical control tests. The effects of the applied technology on the condition of the natural environment are also discussed.
Ključne besede: post-flotation sediments, tailings dams, geotechnical control tests
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (674,70 KB)

15.
Effects of the particle shape and size of sands on the hydraulic conductivity
Ali Firat Cabalar, Nurullah Akbulut, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study aims to investigate the effects of some physical properties of sands (e.g., size and shape) on the hydraulic conductivity (k). The paper presents the results of an extensive series of experimental investigations performed using sands with different sizes and particle shapes. Three different particle size ranges (0.60- 1.18 mm, 1.18- 2.00 mm, and 0.075- 2.00 mm) of sands (i. Crushed Stone Sand, CSS; ii. Trakya Sand, TS; iii. Narli Sand, NS; iv. Fly Ash Pellets, FAP; v. Leighton Buzzard Sand, LBS) having distinct shapes, including roundness, R, and sphericity, S (Ri=0.15, Si=0.55; Rii=0.43, Sii=0.67; Riii=0.72, Siii=0.79; Riv=0.65, Siv=0.89; Rv=0.78 Sv=0.65) were tested in a constant-head permeability testing apparatus at a relative density (Dr) of about 35% and constant room temperature (20°C). The experimental results showed that the sands having different shapes (R, S) with the same size and gradation characteristics (cc , cu , D10 , D30 , D50 , D60) result in different k values. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicate the physical differences/similarities among the sands used during this investigation. A comparative study of the tests results and the estimated hydraulic conductivity values using empirical equations previously developed for the hydraulic conductivity prediction of soils by certain researchers are presented.
Ključne besede: sand, shape, size, hydraulic conductivity
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (587,55 KB)

16.
Evaluation of dynamic soil pressures acting on rigid culverts
Deniz Ulgen, Mehmet Yener Özkan, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The seismic safety of underground structures (culvert, subway, natural-gas and water-sewage systems) plays a major role in sustainable public safety and urban development. Very few experimental data are currently available and there is no generally accepted procedure to estimate the dynamic pressures acting on these underground structures. This study aims to enhance the state of the prevalent information necessary to understand the dynamic behaviour of box culverts and the stresses acting under dynamic excitations through experimental analyses. For this purpose, a series of shaking-table tests were conducted on box-type culverts buried in dry sand. To simulate the free-field boundary conditions, a laminar box was designed and manufactured for use with a 1-g shake table. Two culvert models having different rigidities were tested under various harmonic motions in order to examine the effect of the flexibility ratio on dynamic lateral soil pressures. Based on the test results, a simplified dynamic pressure distribution acting on the sidewalls of the culvert model was suggested. Then, a dynamic lateral coefficient was defined for the proposed peak pressure value in the distribution. The values of this coefficient were obtained as a function of the shear strain by considering the relative stiffness between the soil and the underground structure.
Ključne besede: box culvert, dynamic earth pressure, shaking table, dynamic soil-structure interaction, laminar box, dynamic lateral coefficient
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 9; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (584,65 KB)

17.
Rheological properties of marine sediments from the port of Koper
Jasna Smolar, Matej Maček, Ana Petkovšek, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Subaqueous, fine-grained, cohesive sediments are continuously fluidized by waves and other disturbances that cause their movement, which can be described with numerical models incorporating rheological parameters. The rheological behaviour depends on the soil (solid) type, the volume concentration, the salinity and the testing methods. In this study, rheological investigations of marine sediments from the Port of Koper were carried out by using two coaxial cylinder rheometers (DV3T HB, Brookfield and ConTec Viscometer 5). The influence of the specimen volume, the size of the gap and the type of measuring spindles were analysed and compared. The measured data were evaluated using the Bingham model. For each data set, the boundary between the sheared (“fluid”) and the un-sheared (“solid”) material was calculated and then the calculated boundary was used instead of the outer radius of the cylinder for the evaluation of the rheological parameters, where necessary. A good comparison of the results was found when using this approach. The results are also in agreement with the literature data. The ConTec Viscometer 5, primarily designed for mortars and concrete, was shown to be also suitable for the investigation of sediments.
Ključne besede: marine sediments, Bingham model, yield stress, plastic viscosity, coaxial cylinder rheometer, plug flow, Bay of Koper
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 10; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (709,57 KB)

18.
A practical method for the optimal design of continuous footing using ant-colony optimization
Boonchai Ukritchon, Suraparb Keawsawasvong, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The objective of this paper is to present a practical method for the optimal design of a continuous footing subjected to vertical and horizontal loads. The design problem of finding the optimal size of footing as well as the minimum steel reinforcement is formulated in a nonlinear minimization form. The continuous footing is subjected to the vertical and horizontal loads acting on the top of the column. There are four design variables in the design problem, i.e., the width of the footing, the thickness of the footing, the soil-embedment depth, and the amount of steel reinforcement. The required geotechnical constraints include the bearing capacity, overturning, as well as global sliding and local sliding at the footing corners. Short-term stability and long-term stability are considered simultaneously in the same formulation. The structural constraints are enforced to control the shear force and bending moment within the section resistance. The formulation of the problem’s constraints leads to the nonlinear programming, whose objective function is to minimize the total cost of the footing material, including the concrete and steel reinforcement. The optimal solution is solved using the ant-colony optimization algorithm MIDACO. The proposed optimization method is demonstrated through the actual design of the footing for supporting a large machine moving on rails.
Ključne besede: optimal design, footing, stability, nonlinear programming, ant-colony optimization
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (446,51 KB)

19.
A comparison of linear and nonlinear seismic tunnel-ground interaction analyses
Elefterija Zlatanović, Marina Trajković-Milenković, Dragan Lukić, Stanko Brčić, Vlatko Šešov, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In order to study the effects of a seismically induced tunnel–ground interaction, two-dimensional numerical analyses are performed using the sofware ANSYS. The study employs a coupled beam–spring model subjected to earthquake loading that is simulated under pure shear conditions and determined by a free-field ground-response analysis using the code EERA. The properties of the soil material are considered as both linear and nonlinear. The results obtained by linear dynamic analyses are compared with state-of-practice analytical elastic solutions. A comparison of the results of both linear and nonlinear analyses is also performed, and significant differences, as well as important factors influencing the tunnel–ground interaction for both cases, are evaluated.
Ključne besede: circular tunnel, linear/nonlinear soil behaviour, beam–spring model, plane-strain conditions, simplified dynamic FE analysis, soil–structure interaction
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,57 MB)

20.
GNSS monitoring of geologically demanding areas
Boštjan Kovačič, Boško Pribičević, Rok Kamnik, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Displacement research using the three-dimensional global navigation satellite system (GNSS) as part of geodetic monitoring is becoming the key investigation for establishing a cause-and-effect relationships model between external natural factors, on the one hand, and the criteria that describes the level of functionality and safety of the observed natural or artificial object, on the other, in cases of motion of an object in space and time. The main objective of the deformation analysis is to confirm the stabilities of the reference points of a geodetic network, which are used to determine the movements of the control points that are stabilized on the observed objects. The assumption about the stabilities of certain reference points must be based on reasonable grounds, underpinned by measurements and proven by numerical methods. This is one part of the results of the deformation analysis when determining the extent of the movements and deformations. To do this a transformation is used in which a comparison is made between the coordinates of the points for two separate epochs. On the basis of the estimated transformation parameters, possible movements can be concluded within the reference points, i.e., on whether the datum parameters have changed. After confirming the stability of the geodetic network the coordinate differences of identical points measured within the different time windows can be determined as displacements and/or deformations of an object. In this paper one viaduct was assessed through geology and tectonic activities and also a load test of the viaduct was performed. The viaduct is in a quite active region, but the load test showed that the bridge response to the load is as expected.
Ključne besede: geodesy, geotehnics, monitoring, GNSS measurements, geology, deformation analysis, geodetic network
Objavljeno: 18.06.2018; Ogledov: 3; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (630,78 KB)

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