1. Effects of particle characteristics on the shear strength of calcareous sandPham Huu Ha Giang, P. O. Van Impe, W. F. Van Impe, Patrick Menge, Veerle Cnudde, Wim Haegeman, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: The paper presents a 3D analysis (3DA) to evaluate the particle shape and size of silica and calcareous sands. The particles of calcareous sand are found to be less spherical than those of silica and crushed calcareous sands. Furthermore, the results indicate that the average sphericity (SPH) holds an inverse relationship to the particle size. However, in each sample the larger particles have higher SPHs than the smaller particles. In addition, the 3DA yields smaller particles than the sieve analysis (SA). Owing to a variety of particle shapes, causing particle interlocking, especially for calcareous sand, the particles cannot pass through the sieves by their shortest dimension. This paper discusses the effects of particle characteristics on the shear strength properties. Although the calcareous sand shows higher peak and residual shear strength properties, it tends to reach a lower shear strength at a small shear strain and a lower dilation than the silica sand. Moreover, the findings prove that the residual shear strength increases with the mean particle size. The sample with smaller particles shows less dilation under low vertical stress, while high vertical stress yields less compression. The relationship between the particle shape and shear strength properties is discussed based on the 3DA results. Keywords: shear strength, sphericity, particle shape, calcareous sand Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 26; Downloads: 0 Full text (875,50 KB) |
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3. An unsaturated-soils approach to the bearing capacity of foundation structuresTaha Taskiran, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: Unsaturated soils are maintaining their importance for researchers and there is still much need to investigate the many engineering aspects of these soils. A new technique is proposed here to predict the variation of the bearing capacity of unsaturated soils with matric suction. The proposed method is an extension of conventional bearing-capacity theories and conceptually based on the logarithmic model of the shear strength of unsaturated soils, which only include one unknown, unsaturated parameter (the airentry value, AEV). The possibility of predicting the unsaturated bearing capacity of soils is shown by the saturated effective shear-strength parameters c' and Ø' and the AEV from the soil-water retention curve (SWRC). Considering the necessity of validating new methods with other researchers’ data, the proposed equation is tested using the published unsaturated experimental study by the author, in addition to some reported experimental studies on the shear strength for unsaturated soils and also a model footing loading on unsaturated sand under controlled suction conditions. The results of the study indicate that there is a good comparison between the “unsaturated bearing capacities” obtained via predicted and measured unsaturated strength parameters (ctotal , Ø) and also between the measured/ calculated bearing values of a model footing loading. Consequently, it is shown that, without needing complex unsaturated testing facilities, the proposed equation is capable of predicting the unsaturated bearing capacity for both fine-grained and sandy soils, requiring only one unsaturated parameter, which can be obtained from the SWRC or predicted using the basic soil-index properties. Keywords: unsaturated soils, unsaturated bearing capacity, suction strength, foundation design Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 27; Downloads: 0 Full text (347,24 KB) |
4. Engineering properties of tropical clay and bentonite modified with sawdustIsaac I. Akinwumi, Oluwapelumi O. Ojuri, Adebanji S. Ogbiye, Colin A. Booth, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: Construction engineers typically avoid the use of expansive soils as construction materials because they are usually difficult to work on and can cause structural failure. This research work investigates how the application of sawdust to tropical clay and bentonite influences their geotechnical properties in order to determine their suitability for use as landfill-liner materials for the effective containment of toxic substances from landfills. X-ray diffractometry, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the mineralogical composition, oxide composition and microstructure, respectively, of the clay and the bentonite. A series of laboratory tests were conducted to determine the specific gravity, Atterberg limits, compaction, unconfined compressive strength and permeability characteristics of the clay and the bentonite for varying proportions of sawdust application. Generally, increasing the percentage of sawdust caused a reduction in its specific gravity, maximum dry unit weight and unconfined compressive strength, while it caused an increase in the optimum moisture content and permeability of the modified clay and bentonite. The clay and bentonite both have a sufficiently low permeability that satisfies the hydraulic conductivity requirement for use as clay liners. Eight percent sawdust application to a clay having similar properties as that in this study is recommended as an economic way of modifying it – with the potential of improving its adsorbent property – for use in landfill-liner systems in order to prevent the toxic substances leaching from the landfills, thereby protecting the environment and public health. Keywords: geotechnical properties, hydraulic barrier, landfill, construction, soil improvement, sustainability Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 26; Downloads: 0 Full text (766,16 KB) |
5. Shear modulus of a saturated granular soil derived from resonant-column testsH. Patiño, E. Martínez, Jesús González, A. Soriano, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: This paper presents the results of 120 determinations of the shear modulus (G) of a saturated granular soil (20–40 Ottawa sand) in different conditions of relative density (Dr), effective consolidation pressure (σ’ c) and level of torsional excitation (Te). The equipment used was a resonant-column apparatus manufactured by Wykeham Farrance and the tests were performed with relative density values of 20, 40, 60 and 80%, effective consolidation pressures of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kPa, and torsional excitations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 volts (V), leading to shear strains (γ) between 0.002% and 0.023%. The results led to very simple empirical expressions for the shear modulus as a function of the angular strain for different effective consolidation pressures and void-ratio values. Keywords: resonant column, resonant frequency, shear modulus, relative density, effective consolidation pressure, dynamic shear modulus Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 21; Downloads: 0 Full text (1,31 MB) |
6. Critical setback distance for a footing resting on slopesRajesh Prashad Shukla, Ravi Sankar Jakka, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: Structures are often constructed on slopes in hilly regions, which results in a lack of soil support on the sloping side of the footings. This causes a reduction in the bearing capacity of the footings. Though there are number of studies about foundations on slopes, most of these studies are confined to surface footings only (i.e., without the depth of embedment). Furthermore, there is no consensus in the literature over the influence of the setback distance on bearing capacity. This paper presents the results of finite-element analyses on a strip footing resting on stable slopes. A very large number of possible soil slopes with different footing depths were analysed. From the results it is found that the critical setback distance increases with an increase in the internal friction angle of soil, the depth of the footing and the slope gradient. The critical setback distance is varying between 2 to 4 times the footing width for soils with a low internal friction angle, while it is more than 10 times the footing width for soils with a higher internal friction angle. A regression equation is also developed based on the outcomes of the study. The developed equation is able to predict the influence of various parameters affecting the bearing capacity of a footing resting over the slopes. The results are compared with earlier experimental and numerical studies. Keywords: bearing capacity ratio, cohesionless soil, footing, setback distance, slopes Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 24; Downloads: 1 Full text (1,53 MB) |
7. Impacts of different factors on seepage and land uplift due to compressed-air injectionZang Yongge, Sun Dongmei, Feng Ping, Stephan Semprich, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: In this study, using an in-situ, air-flow test in Essen, the impacts of different factors on multiphase flow and land uplift during and after compressed-air injection were investigated using numerical simulations. A loosely coupled, two-phase flow and geo-mechanical modeling approach, linking two numerical codes (TOUGH2/EOS3 and FLAC3D) was employed to simulate the in-situ, air-flow test for comparing the simulated and measured results. As the compressed air is injected, it flows upwards and laterally, and the vertical effective stress near and above the injection zones decreases owing to the pore pressure increasing here, causing an expansion of the soil skeleton in the corresponding zones. The land uplift, induced mainly by support actions from lower deformed soils, is relevant to the distribution of the porosity increments in the soil interior, and it increases rapidly during air injection. After the compressed-air injection stops, the land uplift decreases gradually to zero due to the overpressure dissipation. With a combination of intensive rainfall, the land uplift is slightly greater near the borehole, but it is significantly greater at a distance from the borehole than the land uplift with no or low rainfall, but the air-injection rate remains almost unchanged due to the unchangeable pore pressure near the injection region. As the intrinsic permeability increases or the air entry pressure decreases in the injected strata, both the land uplift and the air injection rate increase, but the time required for the land uplift to become zero is slightly advanced with either a small permeability or a high air entry pressure. Keywords: loosely coupled two-phase flow and geo-mechanical model, in-situ, air-flow test, compressed-air injection, multiphase flow, land uplift, air loss Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 23; Downloads: 0 Full text (1,75 MB) |
8. Numerical study of the dynamic active lateral earth pressure coefficient of cohesive soilsMehrab Jesmani, Hossein Alirezanejad, Hamed Faghihi Kashani, Mehrad Kamalzare, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: Retaining walls are proposed in many projects, such as bridges, coastal structures, road constructions and wherever lateral support is required for the vertical surface of an excavation. The active lateral pressure coefficient of soil, Ka , is an important parameter for studying the static and dynamic behaviors of these retaining walls. Many studies have evaluated this coefficient in static situations, but in most previous dynamic studies, researchers have worked on the behavior of cohesionless backfill soil or made simplifying assumptions (e.g., pseudo-static status) for cohesive soils as backfill soil. In this study, the size of the active lateral earth pressure coefficient (Ka) was studied in a full dynamic situation (Kae). A retaining wall with cohesive backfill soil is evaluated using the finite-difference method (FDM) and the effects of important soil and loading properties are assessed. The model is based on Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria under seismic loading. The results show that the value of Kae at the top of the wall, where it is highly sensitive to any variation in the soil and loading properties, is greater than one due to the high pressure value induced by the horizontal dynamic acceleration and the presence of tension cracks. Keywords: dynamic active lateral earth pressure coefficient (Kae), cohesive backfill soil, finite difference method (FDM), tension cracks, retaining wall, seismic loading Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 25; Downloads: 0 Full text (3,26 MB) |
9. Prediction of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Compaction Characteristics of granular soilAttique ul Rehman, Khalid Farooq, Hassan Mujtaba, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: This research is an effort to correlate the index properties of granular soils with the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and the compaction characteristics. Soil classification, modified proctor and CBR tests conforming to the relevant ASTM methods were performed on natural as well as composite sand samples. The laboratory test results indicated that samples used in this research lie in SW, SP and SP-SM categories based on Unified Soil Classification System and in groups A-1-b and A-3 based on the AASHTO classification system. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed on experimental data and correlations were developed to predict the CBR, maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) in terms of the index properties of the samples. Among the various parameters, the coefficient of uniformity (Cu), the grain size corresponding to 30% passing (D30) and the mean grain size (D50) were found to be the most effective predictors. The proposed prediction models were duly validated using an independent dataset of CBR tests on sandy soils. The comparative results showed that the variation between the experimental and predicted results for CBR falls within ±4% confidence interval and that of the maximum dry density and the optimum moisture content are within ±2%. Based on the correlations developed for CBR, MDD and OMC, predictive curves are proposed for a quick estimation based on Cu , D30 and D50. The proposed models and the predictive curves for the estimation of the CBR value and the compaction characteristics would be very useful in geotechnical & pavement engineering without performing the laboratory compaction and CBR tests. Keywords: CBR, regression, model, prediction, compaction characteristics Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 5; Downloads: 0 Full text (830,76 KB) |
10. Stress-dilatancy behavior of sand incorporating particle breakageFangwei Yu, 2017, original scientific article Abstract: This paper presents the stress-dilatancy behavior of sand incorporating particle breakage. A series of the drained triaxial tests were conducted on the Silica sand No.5 and the pre-crushed sands that were produced by several drained triaxial tests on Silica sand No.5 under 3MPa confining pressure in simulating the high-pressure shear process to result in particle breakage, to investigate the stress-dilatancy behavior of sand incorporating particle breakage. For a given initial void ratio, particle breakage was found to result in deterioration of the stress-dilatancy behavior in the impairment of the dilatancy of sand to become more contractive with a reduction in the maximum dilatancy angle and the excess friction angle (the difference between the peak-state friction angle and the critical-state friction angle). By introducing the concept of the skeleton void ratio in considering particle breakage, a linear stress-dilatancy relationship between the maximum dilatancy angle-over-the excess friction angle and peak-state skeleton void ratio was proposed in semi-logarithmic plane and popularized to the mobilized stress-stain state as a stress-dilatancy equation pertaining to particle breakage, which would be useful in assessing the evolution of the stress-dilatancy behavior of sand during particle breakage. Keywords: dilatancy angle, friction angle, particle breakage, sand, triaxial tests Published: 18.06.2018; Views: 11; Downloads: 0 Full text (1,43 MB) |