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1.
Model napovedovanja prodajnih priložnosti v medorganizacijskem poslovanju z uporabo metod strojnega učenja
Marko Bohanec, 2017, doktorsko delo/naloga

Opis: Področje medorganizacijske (B2B) prodaje je zahtevno. Običajno ne predvideva le prodaje končnih izdelkov, temveč so predmet prodaje kompleksnejše rešitve, prilagojene kupcu. Kupci pri tem sledijo svojim internim procesom, želijo doseči prilagoditve elementov pogodbe, se pogajajo in podobno. To zahteva od prodajalcev dobro poznavanje pričakovanj strank, njihovih želja in potreb. Proces B2B prodaje je zato daljši in kompleksnejši. V disertaciji se osredotočamo na napovedovanje prodajnega izida v medorganizacijski prodaji, ki v praksi večinoma temelji na subjektivni presoji prodajalcev. Glede na napovedi prodajalcev se podjetja odločajo o virih in aktivnostih, zato netočne napovedi lahko vodijo v nepopravljive posledice. Raziskave so pokazale, da podjetja, ki svoje odločitve temeljijo na podatkih (angl. ``data driven decison-making''), izkazujejo boljše poslovne rezultate. Vendar pa raziskave kažejo tudi, da je uporaba metod in orodij, ki temeljijo na podatkih, v praksi še vedno šibka. To lahko pripišemo slabemu razumevanju metod in orodij za podporo odločanju ter tudi nezaupanju v tehnologijo. Motivacija za raziskavo izhaja iz zaznanega problemskega stanja v medorganizacijski prodaji in vrzeli, ki smo jo zaznali v akademski literaturi. Izhajamo iz teze, da je mogoče z uporabo modelov stojnega učenja pomagati prodajalcu in podjetju tako, da pri napovedovanju poslovnega izida delajo manj napak. V ta namen smo po metodologiji akcijske raziskave in razvoja (angl. ``action design research'', s kratico ADR) razvili model napovedovanja prodajnih priložnosti v medorganizacijskem poslovanju z uporabo metod strojnega učenja. Pri tem sta nastala dva artefakta: informacijsko-tehnološki (IT) artefakt, ki temelji na modelih strojnega učenja, podkrepljenih s transparentnimi razlagami, ter organizacijski artefakt, ki spodbuja vključevanje spoznanj iz IT-artefakta v proces napovedovanja in organizacijsko učenje. Prednost ADR je v tem, da vključuje uporabnike v razvoj in evalvacijo modela že na začetku raziskave. Na ta način uporabniki lahko izrazijo svoja pričakovanja, sproti vrednotijo model ter tudi sproti predlagajo spremembe. To krepi zaupanje v razvit model in povečuje zavezanost h kasnejši uporabi v praksi. Jedro disertacije predstavlja model napovedovanja prodajnih priložnosti v medorganizacijskem poslovanju z uporabo metod strojnega učenja. Metode strojnega učenja se iz prodajne zgodovine naučijo prepoznati značilnosti prodaje. Ko se pojavijo nove priložnosti, metode ocenijo njihovo zrelost in ponudijo odločevalcem razlago vplivnih dejavnikov, omogočajo pa tudi analizo vpliva različnih prodajnih aktivnosti s pomočjo ``kaj-če'' analize. Pri tem uporabljamo poenoten format napovedi in njihovih razlag, ki podpirajo različne modele. Tako omogočamo uporabo visoko zmogljivih metod strojnega učenja (npr. naključni gozd), ki so običajno zaradi svoje zapletenosti netransparentne in jim uporabniki stežka zaupajo. Da smo lahko razvili model, smo opravili dodatne raziskave za oblikovanje nabora atributov, ki opisujejo proces B2B prodaje in razvili optimizacijske postopke za detekcijo šuma in redundance atributov. Za učinkovito detekcijo kvalitete učne množice smo razvili vizualno metodo. Potrdili smo domnevo, da je želen organizacijsko-informacijski model mogoče zgraditi, saj je večina uporabljenih metod dosegla klasifikacijsko točnost nad 70\%. Za podrobnejšo analizo vpliva atributov smo razvili simulacijske in optimizacijske algoritme. Praksa potrjuje koristnost razvitega modela, saj se je v realnem podjetju z uporabo modela točnost napovedi bistveno izboljšala. S kombinacijo uporabe modelov, znanja in prakse ekspertov, smo tako prispevali k preseganju pomanjkljivosti posameznih pristopov. Uporabljene metode predstavljajo novost na področju organizacijskih znanosti in tako prispevajo k znanstveni literaturi na področju organizacijskega učenja in uporabe metod strojnega učenja.
Ključne besede: strojno učenje, medorganizacijska prodaja, organizacijsko učenje, napovedovanje izida, razlaga modelov, analiza kaj-če
Objavljeno: 24.04.2017; Ogledov: 16; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (3,49 MB)

2.
Reasons for plagiarism in higher education
Polona Šprajc, Marko Urh, Janja Jerebic, Dragan Trivan, Eva Jereb, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and Purpose: The survey was performed to determine the reasons that lead students to possibly commit plagiarism during their studies. By doing so, we wanted to determine the main reason for the appearance of plagiarism and how, within this main reasons, various indicators of plagiarism are judged and, finally, how demographic data and student motivation for study are associated with the reasons for plagiarism. Design/Methodology/Approach: A paper-and-pencil survey was carried out among 17 faculties of the University of Maribor in Slovenia. A sample of 139 students 85 males and 54 females participated in this study, ages ranged from 19 to 36 years. The questionnaire contained 95 closed questions referring to: (i) general data, (ii) education, (iii) social status, (iv) awareness of plagiarism, and (v) reasons for plagiarism. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed depending on distributions of the answers. Results: The results reveal that information and communication technology is largely responsible for the plagiarism with two reasons highlighted: ease of copying and ease of access to materials and new technologies. We also found some differences between low and high motivated students. Different average values of the answers considering motivation for study were confirmed for academic skills, teaching factors and other reasons for plagiarism, where the average for lower motivated students is significantly different (higher) than the average for higher motivated students. At the end we could find no direct relationship between the average time spent on the Internet and plagiarism. Conclusion: The transmission of knowledge is the basic mission of faculties. This mission is based on moral beliefs about the harmfulness of its abuse, and plagiarism is exactly such abuse. Regardless of the students past at this point professors are those who could greatly contribute to the right set of skills to keep students off plagiarising.
Ključne besede: plagiarism, reasons for plagiarism, academic skills, higher education
Objavljeno: 06.04.2017; Ogledov: 78; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (420,34 KB)

3.
Psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among lecturers in higher education
Gašper Jordan, Gozdana Miglič, Ivan Todorović, Miha Marič, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and Purpose: Organizations should implement new findings from the field of human resource management. If an organization wants to have successful and effective employees, they should be satisfied with all aspects of work and at the same time they should be feel commitment towards an organization. To have a full insight in employees, organizations have to take care of psychological side of employees, which manifests in psychological empowerment. Design/Methodology/Approach: The survey was conducted among 409 university lecturers in Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Serbia, and Slovenia. The investigated constructs of psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and organisational commitment were compared. Spreitzer’s PEQ was used for the assessment of the psychological empowerment, Spector’s JSS for job satisfaction, and Allen’s and Meyer’s OCQ for the assessment of organisational commitment. Results: The research showed that the highest level of psychological empowerment can be found among university lecturers from Serbia and the lowest from Germany. Job satisfaction level is the highest in Austria and the lowest in Slovenia. Affective organisational commitment is the highest in Slovenia and the lowest in Germany. Continuance organisational commitment scored the highest in Croatia and the lowest in Czech Republic. Additionally, the outcomes show the highest level of normative organisational commitment in Czech Republic and the lowest in Austria. Only affective organisational commitment was not found as statistically significant. Conclusion: Knowledge of psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment can be helpful for leaders, because with this knowledge they can manage, develop and motivate employees properly.
Ključne besede: psychological empowerment, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, higher education
Objavljeno: 06.04.2017; Ogledov: 75; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Polno besedilo (489,83 KB)

4.
Contingency factors influencing implementation of physical asset management practices
Damjan Maletič, Matjaž Maletič, Basim Al-Najjar, Katerina Gotzamani, Maria Gianni, Kalinowski, Boštjan Gomišček, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Purpose: The purpose of this empirical study is to examine the role of two contingency factors, i.e. uncertainty and competitiveness in relation to physical asset management (PAM) practices as well as to maintenance key performance indicators. The research is based on a premise that PAM, which was defined by risk management practices, performance assessment practices, life cycle management practices, and policy & strategy practices, has become an indispensable element of strategic thinking of asset owners as well as maintenance and asset managers. The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of how organizations that face high or low level of uncertainty and competitiveness respond in terms of PAM deployment. Methodology/Approach: This study employed a data set based on a large-scale survey among organizations in six European countries (i.e. Slovenia, Poland, Greece, Sweden, Turkey and Slovakia). Data were collected from 138 organizations located in the above-mentioned countries to conduct the study. Findings: The results show that organizations that are faced with high level of uncertainty and competitiveness are more engaged in the deployment of PAM practices. Moreover, results show that when organizations are facing high levels of competitiveness they are using KPIs to a greater extent than organizations under low levels of competitiveness. Originality/value: From a theoretical perspective, this study contributes to the contingency theory by providing empirical evidence whether a context-dependent approach to PAM is needed. The findings also provide insights for managers on how to respond to the competitive pressure as well as how to customize PAM practices in order to adapt to the changes in dynamic organizational environment.
Ključne besede: physical asset management, maintenance, uncertainty, competitiveness
Objavljeno: 06.04.2017; Ogledov: 80; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (675,00 KB)

5.
Analysis of expatriation process in a Slovenian company
Rok Pintar, Jorge Tiago Martins, Mojca Bernik, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and Purpose: The multinational companies require different approach of human resource management to achieve their goals. The reason is in employees who are working abroad, so-called expatriates. The purpose of the research is to investigate perceptions and experience of the expatriates working in one of the Slovenian multinational company. Design/Methodology/Approach: The online survey was performed among all expatriates working for the pharmaceutical company. The questionnaire was randomly sent and delivered in an electronic form, structured in an online program named 1ka (https://www.1ka.si). A total of all 12 questionnaires were completed fully and properly. Results: Results indicate that there are several reasons that expatriates went to work abroad, but none of them did not completely fulfilled the expectations of the expatriates. There are no differences between those expatriates who are working abroad up to 12 months and those who are working more than 12 months in their fulfilment of expectations working abroad for this company. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the study shows the expatriates importance factors for their contribution of working abroad for the company and fulfilment of their expectations. The results are useful for the employees that will be in the future involved in the expatriation process in this company.
Ključne besede: expatriation, international career, knowledge transfer, international HRM
Objavljeno: 06.04.2017; Ogledov: 30; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (450,07 KB)

6.
Web application for hierarchical organizational structure optimization
Davorin Kofjač, Blaž Bavec, Andrej Škraba, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and Purpose: In a complex strictly hierarchical organizational structure, undesired oscillations may occur, which have not yet been adequately addressed. Therefore, parameter values, which define fluctuations and transitions from one state to another, need to be optimized to prevent oscillations and to keep parameter values between lower and upper bounds. The objective was to develop a simulation model of hierarchical organizational structure as a web application to help in solving the aforementioned problem. Design/Methodology/Approach: The hierarchical structure was modeled according to the principles of System Dynamics. The problem of the undesired oscillatory behavior was addressed with deterministic finite automata, while the flow parameter values were optimized with genetic algorithms. These principles were implemented as a web application with JavaScript/ECMAScript. Results: Genetic algorithms were tested against well-known instances of problems for which the optimal analytical values were found. Deterministic finite automata was verified and validated via a three-state hierarchical organizational model, successfully preventing the oscillatory behavior of the structure. Conclusion: The results indicate that the hierarchical organizational model, genetic algorithms and deterministic finite automata have been successfully implemented with JavaScript as a web application that can be used on mobile devices. The objective of the paper was to optimize the flow parameter values in the hierarchical organizational model with genetic algorithms and finite automata. The web application was successfully used on a three-state hierarchical organizational structure, where the optimal flow parameter values were determined and undesired oscillatory behavior was prevented. Therefore, we have provided a decision support system for determination of quality restructuring strategies.
Ključne besede: hierarchical organizational structure, genetic algorithms, deterministic finite automata, system dynamics, optimization, human resources
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 33; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,19 MB)

7.
User experience with security elements in internet and mobile banking
Aleksandra Svilar, Jože Zupančič, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background/Purpose: Maintaining a balance between security and a positive user experience in mobile and Internet banking is becoming increasingly difficult for the providers of banking services. The goal of our research is to analyse user opinions about the current situation: how users perceive security and how the authentication methods they are using affect user experience. Methodology: Data were collected using an online survey among the users of 15 banks operating in Slovenia, and statistical methods were applied to analyse them. Results of the users’ study were evaluated and commented by a limited number of interviewed banking security experts. Results: The results indicate that the use of mobile banking in Slovenia is relatively low, as only 30 percent of respondents use mobile banking along with Internet banking. Slovenian users perceive security to be the most important factor in mobile and online banking, closely followed by reliability. We also verified whether the users knew which authentication methods they were using: 69% of respondents selected the correct authentication method. The opinion of 88% of respondents was that authentication methods do not limit them when using mobile and Internet banking. Results of the study of user’s opinions did not surprise the experts, although experts’ views about the balance between security and usability diverged considerably. Conclusion: Our results indicate that, in Slovenia, users of the Internet and mobile banking services regard security to be the most important element in mobile or Internet banking and find user experience less important while they absolutely do want products that are easy to use.
Ključne besede: internet banking, mobile banking, security, user experience
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 32; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (637,90 KB)

8.
The relationship between sustainability-oriented innovation practices and organizational performance
Matjaž Maletič, Damjan Maletič, Jens Dahlgaard, Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Boštjan Gomišček, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse the effects of sustainability-oriented innovation practices on the overall organizational performance. Further, this paper also aims to advance understanding of the measurement of corporate sustainability practices with the focus on innovation dimensions. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study uses data obtained from a survey of 116 organizations encompassing both the manufacturing and service industries in Slovenia. Descriptive statistics were used in order to determine the level of sustainability-oriented innovation practices deployment. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to extract the underlying factors and to provide a basis for assessing their reliability and validity. In addition, regression analysis was used to quantify the effect of sustainability practices on the organizational performance. Results: Data analysis result showed that sustainability-oriented innovation practices are significantly associated with organizational performance. Therefore, empirical evidence from this research confirmed the premise that building innovation competencies and integrating innovation activities in organization’s processes lead to performance benefits. This contributes to the debate about the potential for organizations to be sustainable and competitive. Conclusion: The presented research on corporate sustainability provides important theoretical and practical insights on which the deployment of sustainability-oriented innovation practices are conducive to fostering a broader set of performance benefits. As such, managers should increase organizations’ capacity for innovation which can be beneficial in terms of performance implications and achieving sustainability goals
Ključne besede: corporate sustainability, sustainability-oriented innovation, empirical study
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 30; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (292,16 KB)

9.
The impact of demographic changes on the organization of emergency medical services
Tatjana Kitić Jaklič, Jure Kovač, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and Purpose: The modern environment requires that organizations (profit and non-profit) continually harmonize their organizational models with changes in their respective environments and with their own visions and strategies for further development. The organizational structure of Emergency Medical Services (hereinafter EMS) is currently a very topical issue in Slovenia, given that a project to establish a new organization of EMS is currently underway at the national level. By examining the case of one region in Slovenia, this article presents an analysis of factors that impact on the number and types of EMS activities and depicts a forecast of future trends for the requirement of EMS. The analysis presents the initial phase of a strategic planning process for the mentioned activity and consequently, a starting point for the formation of an organizational EMS model. Methodology: This article presents an analysis of factors that impact on the formulation of an EMS model on the basis of research carried out for one geographical region of Slovenia. For the previous period, data was collected from 2002 to 2014. The software tool used for the analysis was STATA 13.0. For the purpose of forecasting a five-year period trend we used statistical package RStudio and Hyndman’s Forecast package given that this package contains algorithms for forecasting univariate time series including exponential smoothing using automated spatial models and ARIMA modelling. Results: The research has confirmed a correlation between social/environmental factors and the rate of increase in the demand for EMS. A population’s age structure has been identified as the key social factor that increases the need for EMS. On the basis of this finding, this article presents a model for forecasting growth trends in the scope of EMS activities. Conclusion: The research study has identified some important elements that are imperative to take into consideration when formulating an EMS network at the prehospital level. Population ageing has emerged as a key social factor. In the accordance with forecasted trends, an increase in the burden placed on EMS activities may also be anticipated in the future.
Ključne besede: strategic planning, foresight, trends, emergency medical services, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 31; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,13 MB)

10.
Students' perception of HR competencies
Vesna Novak, Anja Žnidaršič, Polona Šprajc, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Background and purpose: Human resource professionalism receives considerable attention in terms of the competence of individual. In this article, we want to bridge the existing competencies of students and the perceived competencies that they assume will be developed and obtained during their studies. The purpose of our paper is a) to present competencies in general, b) to determine the meaning of the development of competencies in the field of higher education, and c) to present the role of competencies in human resource management. The aim of this paper is to examine the human resource competencies among students, and their judgments regarding the competencies they have already received during their studies. Methodology: The questionnaire was distributed to full-time students of the Faculty of Organizational Science, University of Maribor, in such a way that both genders, both undergraduate and graduate studies, and all years of study were represented. We have measured students’ opinions concerning their current and future perceptions about professional competencies in the HR field. Results: Based on the self-assessment of fifteen HR competencies, we used hierarchical clustering performed with Ward's method and standardized variables and got two clusters. A t-test was used according to low or high levels of students’ current competencies. The positive association between satisfaction with study programme and student's opinion on development of competencies during their studies was confirmed with one-tailed Pearson correlation coefficient. Conclusion: The majority of students believe that they possess significant HR competencies. They have expressed a need for further education and training in that field. The students have assessed that the study programme allows them to acquire and develop the competencies for a successful task performance of the HR professional.
Ključne besede: human resources, new trends, social networks
Objavljeno: 04.04.2017; Ogledov: 28; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (902,07 KB)

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