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Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.)
Ivan Toplak, Urška Jamnikar Ciglenečki, Katherine Aronstein, Aleš Gregorc, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o) or per cuticle (p/c) with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae) on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o) showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.
Ključne besede: Apis mellifera, experimental infection, Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus, CBPV, Nosema ceranae, interaction
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 24; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (541,74 KB)

Programmable ultrasonic sensing system for targeted spraying in orchards
Denis Stajnko, Peter Berk, Mario Lešnik, Viktor Jejčič, Miran Lakota, Andrej Štrancar, Marko Hočevar, Jurij Rakun, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluationof the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amountof spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD wasonly up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.
Ključne besede: air-assisted sprayer, ultrasound, algorithm, programmable, microcontroller, spray distribution, orchard
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 28; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (890,30 KB)

The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health
Avrelija Cencič, Walter Chingwaru, 2010, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a healyh, environmental and social impact. The EU is fighting diseases characteristics of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relatingto aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discused. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvment in nutritional, immunologic and physiologic functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health arealso highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional call models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.
Ključne besede: nutraceutical, functional food, food supplement, intestinal health, probiotic, intestinal cell models, gut research
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 10; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (276,92 KB)

Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the intestinal microbiota of coeliac children on gluten free diet
Andrea Quagliariello, Irene Aloisio, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Donata Luiselli, Giuseppe D'Auria, Llúcia Martinez-Priego, David Pérez-Villarroya, Tomaž Langerholc, Maša Primec, Dušanka Mičetić-Turk, Diana Di Gioia, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03) to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD). Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group). Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.
Ključne besede: coeliac disease, gluten free diet, probiotic, Bifidobacterium breve, intestinal microbiota, qPCR, next generation sequencing
Objavljeno: 22.06.2017; Ogledov: 12; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (5,19 MB)

Uporaba sistema kakovosti haccp pri predelavi mesa na kmetiji
Tina Pleteršek, 2017, diplomsko delo/naloga

Opis: Zakon o zdravstveni ustreznosti živil in izdelkov ter snovi, ki prihajajo v stik z živili navaja, da je uvedba sistema kakovosti HACCP obvezna za vse, ki se ukvarjajo z živilsko dejavnostjo. V raziskavi smo obravnavali kmetijo, ki se ukvarja z dopolnilno dejavnostjo predelave mesa. Na kmetiji smo analizirali vsebinsko in uporabno vrednost sistema kakovosti HACCP. Analizirana kmetija upošteva vseh sedem načel sistema kakovosti in s tem zagotavlja varno hrano potrošnikom. V raziskavi navajamo oceno porabe dodatnega letnega delovnega časa (139 ur) in posledično dodatnih stroškov na kmetiji (820 €) zaradi uvedbe HACCP v letu 2016. Podali smo tudi oceno možnega zmanjšanja prihodka zaradi tržne neustreznosti posameznih izdelkov na analizirani kmetiji.
Ključne besede: prireja, predelava mesa, sistem kakovosti, HACCP, ekonomika
Objavljeno: 21.06.2017; Ogledov: 22; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,98 MB)

The use of image-spectroscopy technology as a diagnostic method for seed health test and variety identification
Martina Vrešak, Halkjaer Olesen, René Gislum, Franc Bavec, Ravn Jørgensen, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405%970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties.
Ključne besede: Fusarium sp., SKNIR, multispectral imaging, varieties, wheat, organic farming
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 30; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,10 MB)

In vitro selection and characterization of new probiotic candidates from table olive microbiota
Cristian Botta, Tomaž Langerholc, Avrelija Cencič, Luca Cocolin, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: To date, only a few studies have investigated the complex microbiota of table olives in order to identify new probiotic microorganisms, even though this food matrix has been shown to be a suitable source of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Two hundred and thirty eight LAB, belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides species, and isolated from Nocellara Etnea table olives, have been screened in this survey through an in vitro approach. A simulation of transit tolerance in the upper human gastrointestinal tract, together with autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, have been decisive in reducing the number of LAB to 17 promising probiotics. None of the selected strains showed intrinsic resistances towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics and were therefore accurately characterized on an undifferentiated and 3D functional model of the human intestinal tract made up of H4-1 epithelial cells. As far as the potential colonization of the intestinal tract is concerned, a high adhesion ratio was observed for Lb. plantarum O2T60C (over 9%) when tested in the 3D functional model, which closely mimics real intestinal conditions. The stimulation properties towards the epithelial barrier integrity and the in vitro inhibition of L. monocytogenes adhesion and invasion have also been assessed. Lb. plantarum S1T10A and S11T3E enhanced trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and therefore the integrity of the polarized epithelium in the 3D model. Moreover, S11T3E showed the ability to inhibit L. monocytogenes invasion in the undifferentiated epithelial model. The reduction in L. monocytogenes infection, together with the potential enhancement of barrier integrity and an adhesion ratio that was above the average in the 3D functional model (6.9%) would seem to suggest the Lb. plantarum S11T3E strain as the most interesting candidate for possible in vivo animal and human trials.
Ključne besede: antibiotics, bacteria pathogen, cell metabolism, olives, probiotics, digestion
Objavljeno: 19.06.2017; Ogledov: 12; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,63 MB)

Tylosema esculentum (Marama) tuber and bean extracts are strong antiviral agents against rotavirus infection
Walter Chingwaru, Runner Majinda, Sam Yeboah, Jose Jackson, Petrina Kapewangolo, Kandawa-Shulz, Avrelija Cencič, 2011, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm2) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.
Ključne besede: tylusema esculentum, marama, antiviral agents, rotavirus
Objavljeno: 14.06.2017; Ogledov: 14; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,92 MB)

Valentina Puhan, 2017, diplomsko delo/naloga

Opis: Kmetija, ki se odloči za rejo kokoši, za prodajo jajc, lahko sama izbira način sistema reje. To je lahko ekološka, pašna, talna ali baterijska reja. Vsaka reja ima svoje prednosti in svoje slabosti, ki se odražajo na kakovosti jajc, ki se med seboj razlikujejo po svojemu videzu (lupini – njeni trdnosti, obliki in barvi, ter po videzu in barvi rumenjaka) ter po svoji vsebini (okus vsebine, prisotnost mesnih peg). S primerjavo jajc, ter z obdelavo pridobljenih podatkov v programu DEX, smo ugotovili, da so jajca iz proste in talne reje boljša hrana, vendar pa niso vsa jajca teh dveh rej najkvalitetnejša po obliki, masi, barvi lupine in trdnosti lupine; da je rumenjak iz ekološke reje bledo rumen, kar označuje na slabo kakovost jajc; in da kokoši iz baterijske reje dajejo slabša jajca, kot pa jajca iz drugih rej.
Ključne besede: večkriterijska analiza, kokoši, reja, jajca, kakovost jajc
Objavljeno: 09.06.2017; Ogledov: 23; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,10 MB)

Zagotavljanje mikrobiološke ustreznosti tofuja med proizvodnjo in pri skladiščenju
Maja Vezonik, 2017, magistrsko delo/naloga

Opis: S širjenjem znanja o zdravem prehranjevanju in uživanju manjših količin mesa, se soja kot prehranska popestritev jedilnikov vse bolj pogosto pojavlja v svetu in pri nas. V magistrski nalogi smo se osredotočili na sojin sir – tofu. V ta namen so se v obratu za proizvodnjo tofuja mikrobiološko testirale higienske razmere na površinah, v zraku, vodi in tofuju tekom proizvodnje. Ker je tofu zaradi sestave hitro kvarljiv produkt, se je ugotavljal tudi pojav kvarljivcev pri shranjevanju tofuja pri sobni temperaturi. Pri spremljanju rasti bakterij se je opazilo, da se prvih nekaj dni viša število domnevnih enterobakterij, nato pa le-to začne upadati in se viša rast mlečno-kislinskih bakterij iz rodu Lactobacillus spp. Pri mikrobiološkem testiranju tofuja tekom proizvodnje je bilo pri določenih vzorcih opaziti previsoko število domnevnih enterobakterij in aerobnih mezofilnih bakterij, vendar bi za dokončno mnenje morali biti opravljeni še drugi potrditveni testi. Higienske razmere na površinah, v zraku in v vodi pa so načeloma bile, razen nekaj izjem, ustrezne.
Ključne besede: soja, tofu, kvarljivci, mikrobiološka merila
Objavljeno: 26.05.2017; Ogledov: 29; Prenosov: 10
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,13 MB)

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