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Growth and glucosinolate profiles of Eruca sativa (Mill.) (rocket salad) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. under different LED lighting regimes
Denis Stajnko, Peter Berk, Andrej Orgulan, Marko Gomboc, Damijan Kelc, Jurij Rakun, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this study, the growth and glucosinolate (GSL) profiles of rocket salad Eruca sativa (Mill.) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. were determined during 30 days growing under different lighting regimes; T5_ peak at 545 nm, LED1_ peak at 631 nm and LED2_ peak at 598 nm. The biggest increase of dry weight (DW) was measured in E. sativa under T5 (0.657 g DW/plant) and the lowest in D. tenuifolia under LED1 (0.080 g DW/plant). GSL content was found to vary significantly, regardless of the light treatment, but it is related with genotype (E. sativa, r = 0.802**). On average, the highest amount of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-GSL (glucosativin) (7.3248 mg/g DW) was quantified in E. sativa and D. tenuifolia (6.7428 mg/g DW) under the T5. The regression analysis between different light wavelengths and glucosinolates showed the strongest correlation between photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_B) and 4-methylthiobutyl-GSL (glucoerucin) in E. sativa (r = 0.698*) and D. tenuifolia (r = 0.693*), respectively, which indicates the effect of light on the response of plants to induced stress and changes in GSL biosynthesis.
Ključne besede: salad vegetables, antioxidant compounds, light, abiotic stress, phytohormone
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.07.2024; Ogledov: 35; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,37 MB)
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DigiPig : First developments of an automated monitoring system for body, head and tail detection in intensive pig farming
Marko Ocepek, Anja Žnidar, Miha Lavrič, Dejan Škorjanc, Inger Lise Andersen, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The goal of this study was to develop an automated monitoring system for the detection of pigs’ bodies, heads and tails. The aim in the first part of the study was to recognize individual pigs (in lying and standing positions) in groups and their body parts (head/ears, and tail) by using machine learning algorithms (feature pyramid network). In the second part of the study, the goal was to improve the detection of tail posture (tail straight and curled) during activity (standing/moving around) by the use of neural network analysis (YOLOv4). Our dataset (n = 583 images, 7579 pig posture) was annotated in Labelbox from 2D video recordings of groups (n = 12–15) of weaned pigs. The model recognized each individual pig’s body with a precision of 96% related to threshold intersection over union (IoU), whilst the precision for tails was 77% and for heads this was 66%, thereby already achieving human-level precision. The precision of pig detection in groups was the highest, while head and tail detection precision were lower. As the first study was relatively time-consuming, in the second part of the study, we performed a YOLOv4 neural network analysis using 30 annotated images of our dataset for detecting straight and curled tails. With this model, we were able to recognize tail postures with a high level of precision (90%).
Ključne besede: pig, welfare, image processing, object detection, deep learning, smart farming
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.07.2024; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (48,11 MB)
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The delayed surplus response for hops related to market dynamics
Douglas MacKinnon, Martin Pavlovič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The cyclical nature of hop market pricing has been recorded since the 16th century, but the effect had never previously been documented or quantified. Using Bayesian inference in an analysis of data regarding the US hop industry collected and published by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) it was possible to measure the change of inventory and acreage responsiveness to price during periods of free and markets regulated through the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPR). The data demonstrated a delayed, reduced, or total lack of responsiveness in the change of direction of acreage and inventory in response to directional changes in season average price (SAP) during free market periods. This reaction was referred to as the delayed surplus response (DSR). The data also demonstrated the absence of the DSR during periods in which proprietary varieties reached greater than 50% of US acreage and production. Patented plant varieties offer a legal monopoly over that intellectual property (IP). The absence of the DSR during periods in which a majority of US acreage and production were proprietary indicated a strong degree of control over supply. By extension, the owners of proprietary varieties demonstrated the ability to influence price at desired levels.
Ključne besede: Bayesian inference, brewing industry, disequilibrium, hop market, proprietary variety
Objavljeno v DKUM: 11.07.2024; Ogledov: 8; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Celotno besedilo (370,30 KB)
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Sustainable varroa mite (Varroa destructor) control in field conditions
Aleš Gregorc, Ivo Planinc, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Experiments assessed the comparative efficacy of oxalic acid solution (OA) and combination of formic acid (FA) evaporation and trickling OA to control the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor, at two apiary locations. Queen caging, consecutive OA treatments of broodless colonies, or combined treatments using OA and FA in colonies with brood increased mite mortality (P < 0.05) in comparison to the pre-treatment period. FA application in colonies with brood in September and October resulted in an average mite mortality of 18% in the first apiary and subsequent FA applications in the same period in the second apiary killed, on average, 73% and 71% of mites; respectively. OA treatment of broodless colonies after queen caging at two apiaries resulted in 18% and 47% mite mortality. Caging the queens and OA treatments in broodless colonies or subsequently use consecutive OA or FA treatments ensure adequate mite reduction before wintering the colonies. Synergistic control methods of Varroa mites using OA and FA along with queen caging is discussed.
Ključne besede: beekeeping, mite control, oxalic acid, formic acid, queen caging
Objavljeno v DKUM: 10.07.2024; Ogledov: 44; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (819,18 KB)
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Complex population structure and haplotype patterns in the Western European honey bee from sequencing a large panel of haploid drones
David Wragg, Sonia E. Eynard, Benjamin Basso, Kamila Canale-Tabet, Emmanuelle Labarthe, Olivier Bouchez, Kaspar Bienefeld, Małgorzata Bieńkowska, Cecilia Costa, Aleš Gregorc, Per Kryger, Melanie Parejo, Alice M. Pinto, Jean-Pierre Bidanel, Bertrand Servin, Yves Le Conte, Alain Vignal, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Honey bee subspecies originate from specific geographical areas in Africa, Europe and the Middle East, and beekeepers interested in specific phenotypes have imported genetic material to regions outside of the bees' original range for use either in pure lines or controlled crosses. Moreover, imported drones are present in the environment and mate naturally with queens from the local subspecies. The resulting admixture complicates population genetics analyses, and population stratification can be a major problem for association studies. To better understand Western European honey bee populations, we produced a whole genome sequence and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data set from 870 haploid drones and demonstrate its utility for the identification of nine genetic backgrounds and various degrees of admixture in a subset of 629 samples. Five backgrounds identified correspond to subspecies, two to isolated populations on islands and two to managed populations. We also highlight several large haplotype blocks, some of which coincide with the position of centromeres. The largest is 3.6 Mb long and represents 21% of chromosome 11, with two major haplotypes corresponding to the two dominant genetic backgrounds identified. This large naturally phased data set is available as a single vcf file that can now serve as a reference for subsequent populations genomics studies in the honey bee, such as (i) selecting individuals of verified homogeneous genetic backgrounds as references, (ii) imputing genotypes from a lower-density data set generated by an SNP-chip or by low-pass sequencing, or (iii) selecting SNPs compatible with the requirements of genotyping chips.
Ključne besede: genome, haplotype, honey bee, population genetics, SNP
Objavljeno v DKUM: 08.07.2024; Ogledov: 52; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,07 MB)
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Reduced use of nitrites and phosphates in dry-fermented sausages
Martin Škrlep, Manja Ozmec, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Given consumer demand for foods with fewer artificial additives, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced use of nitrites and phosphates on dry-fermented sausage quality. Four sausage formulations were prepared: (1) control (using standard procedure with 0.2% phosphates and 110 mg/kg sodium nitrite) and formulations with (2) 50% less sodium nitrite, (3) 50% less sodium nitrite and sodium ascorbate (225 mg/kg), and (4) with standard nitrite but no phosphates. Weight loss and pH evolution were monitored during processing. The color, physicochemical (including oxidation), rheological, and sensory properties were evaluated on the finished product, as well as mold growth and microbiological status. Compared to control, nitrite reduction was associated with increased surface mold growth, reduced (3.0–4.4%) processing loss, and slightly higher oxidation (1.7 μg/kg more malondialdehyde) but without affecting instrumental color. The simultaneous addition of ascorbate reduced oxidation and improved color stability. The formulation without the phosphates resulted in increased oxidation (3.4 μg/kg more malondialdehyde) and changes in the instrumental color. The observed changes were relatively unimportant, as neither of the tested formulations influenced sensory traits or compromised microbial safety, implying that they can be used in production without any harm or even with some benefits.
Ključne besede: dry sausages, additives, nitrites, phosphates, ascorbates
Objavljeno v DKUM: 04.07.2024; Ogledov: 56; Prenosov: 10
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,38 MB)
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Possibilities and concerns of implementing precision agriculture technologies on small farms in Slovenia
Jurij Rakun, Erik Rihter, Damijan Kelc, Denis Stajnko, Peter Vindiš, Peter Berk, Peter Polič, Miran Lakota, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Precision agriculture (PA) through the use and utilization of innovative technologies is a concept in agricultural management that enables long-term efficiency gains, control of unforeseen changes, and a reduction of negative impacts on the environment. However, there are even more reasons and benefits to using precision agriculture technologies (PATs) on farms, but the actual use on small farms is often questionable. The main objective of this research was to evaluate and analyze the current state of PA and its potential on a set of small farms. In addition, a comparison was made between small farms located in less favored areas (LFAs) and more favored areas (MFAs) to find if specific characteristics of the surrounding environment affect the (non-) implementation of these technologies by farm owners, with respect to the given regional possibilities. The result shows that 57.5% of respondents on these farms have never implemented PATs before and 20% are beginners in their respective fields. It was found that there were no statistically significant differences in the integration between fewer LFAs and MFAs technologies and their use in this study. The majority of respondents believe that the main changes need to occur on the level of politics. The results show that the level of cost or initial investment is the main reason and the main obstacle in the implementation of PATs on the surveyed farms.
Ključne besede: precision agriculture, small farm, technological innovations, implementation, situation overview, survey, ICT
Objavljeno v DKUM: 02.07.2024; Ogledov: 72; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (295,09 KB)
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Sensor fusion-based approach for the field robot localization on Rovitis 4.0 vineyard robot
Jurij Rakun, Matteo Pantano, Peter Lepej, Miran Lakota, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study proposed an approach for robot localization using data from multiple low-cost sensors with two goals in mind, to produce accurate localization data and to keep the computation as simple as possible. The approach used data from wheel odometry, inertial-motion data from the Inertial Motion Unit (IMU), and a location fix from a Real-Time Kinematics Global Positioning System (RTK GPS). Each of the sensors is prone to errors in some situations, resulting in inaccurate localization. The odometry is affected by errors caused by slipping when turning the robot or putting it on slippery ground. The IMU produces drifts due to vibrations, and RTK GPS does not return to an accurate fix in (semi-) occluded areas. None of these sensors is accurate enough to produce a precise reading for a sound localization of the robot in an outdoor environment. To solve this challenge, sensor fusion was implemented on the robot to prevent possible localization errors. It worked by selecting the most accurate readings in a given moment to produce a precise pose estimation. To evaluate the approach, two different tests were performed, one with robot localization from the robot operating system (ROS) repository and the other with the presented Field Robot Localization. The first did not perform well, while the second did and was evaluated by comparing the location and orientation estimate with ground truth, captured by a hovering drone above the testing ground, which revealed an average error of 0.005 m±0.220 m in estimating the position, and 0.6°±3.5° when estimating orientation. The tests proved that the developed field robot localization is accurate and robust enough to be used on a ROVITIS 4.0 vineyard robot.
Ključne besede: localization, odometry, IMU, RTK GPS, vineyard, robot, sensors fusion, ROS, precision farming
Objavljeno v DKUM: 02.07.2024; Ogledov: 61; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (690,56 KB)
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Assessment of concept between rural development challenges and local food systems : A combination between Multi-criteria decision analysis and econometric modelling approach
Jernej Prišenk, Jernej Turk, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study investigates the influence of social, economic, and environmental impacts on the promotion and marketing systems of local food products from mountain areas in Slovenia. These impacts were assessed using an econometric modelling approach. Two econometric models were developed (one for production and one for marketing). The case studies of local food products were selected from Slovenian mountain regions, most of which were from less-favored areas (LFAs). A majority of the selected food commodities were of high quality, with or without protected designations. Data collection was carried out via interviews. Due to production limitation on mountain areas in Slovenia and other constraints in LFAs, the socio-economic and environmental impacts on success of production and marketing systems need to be clarified. These relations present a potential impact on the wider socio-economic development in the region. The empirical results, obtained using an econometric modelling approach, clearly show the importance of encouraging the socio-economic and environmental impacts in ensuring the marketing and production potentials of local food products. The result express good relationships, and cooperation between the actors in the food supply chains contributing to a successful marketing system and production system of local food products (small, average, large) is dependent on the available local labour in mountain rural areas.
Ključne besede: local food products, mountain areas, econometric modelling, socioeconomic impacts, evironmental impacts
Objavljeno v DKUM: 02.07.2024; Ogledov: 57; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (901,17 KB)
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Evaluation of traditional and indigenous horse breeds for wider intended use : Case study from Slovenia
Jernej Prišenk, Nina Filipič, Črtomir Rozman, Karmen Pažek, Jernej Turk, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In this work, a new multi-criteria model for the evaluation of traditional and indigenous horse breeds, the HORQUAL model, was developed by applying the DEX (Decision Expert) method. The idea for this study culminated from brainstorming among researchers who had the importance of conserving traditional and indigenous horse breeds in Slovenia and their universal uses (recreative and sport) in mind. The conservation of native domestic animal breeds is one of the important indicators of sustainable agricultural development in particular countries. Here, the assessment process considered the horse breeds in terms of lifestyle, expectations, requirements and experiences. The development process was based on the multi-criteria decision analysis approach, and it was applied to seven traditional and indigenous Slovenian horse breeds. The horse breeds were classified into four groups of breed ratings according to the chosen criteria. The horse breeds were categorised as follows: “does not correspond to the criteria”, “less correspondence with the criteria”, “corresponds to the criteria” and “completely corresponds to the criteria”. The results of the HORQUAL model clearly show that it is easier and more effective to choose the most suitable breeds for specific purposes (i.e., recreative/sport horses with the potential for breeding along with acceptable costs, favourable temperament and suitable price) as they can easily be analysed or compared with each other, according to the criteria chosen in this paper. The rating by group takes the criteria for the multi-attribute evaluation that were identified by an expert group into account and balances between the assessment of recreational and sports needs for riders and the life expectancy for breeders. Additionally, incorporating the Plus-minus-1 analysis proved to be a useful support tool to analyse the assessments and to further improve horse breeding plans.
Ključne besede: traditional horse breeds, indigenous horse breeds, multi-criteria model, DEX-model
Objavljeno v DKUM: 02.07.2024; Ogledov: 70; Prenosov: 8
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,85 MB)
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