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81.
Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement
Matjaž Perc, Xiaojie Chen, Tatsuya Sasaki, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.
Ključne besede: cooperation, public goods, punishment, sustainable development, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,50 MB)

82.
Evolution of conditional cooperation under multilevel selection
Huanren Zhang, Matjaž Perc, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study the emergence of conditional cooperation in the presence of both intra-group and inter-group selection. Individuals play public goods games within their groups using conditional strategies, which are represented as piecewise linear response functions. Accordingly, groups engage in conflicts with a certain probability. In contrast to previous studies, we consider continuous contribution levels and a rich set of conditional strategies, allowing for a wide range of possible interactions between strategies. We find that the existence of conditional strategies enables the stabilization of cooperation even under strong intra-group selection. The strategy that eventually dominates in the population has two key properties: (i) It is unexploitable with strong intra-group selection; (ii) It can achieve full contribution to outperform other strategies in the inter-group selection. The success of this strategy is robust to initial conditions as well as changes to important parameters. We also investigate the influence of different factors on cooperation levels, including group conflicts, group size, and migration rate. Their effect on cooperation can be attributed to and explained by their influence on the relative strength of intra-group and inter-group selection.
Ključne besede: conditional cooperation, public goods, multilevel selection, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 19; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,65 MB)

83.
Effects of adaptive degrees of trust on coevolution of quantum strategies on scale-free networks
Qiang Li, Minyou Chen, Matjaž Perc, Azhar Iqbal, Derek Abbott, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study the impact of adaptive degrees of trust on the evolution of cooperation in the quantum prisoner's dilemma game. In addition to the strategies, links between players are also subject to evolution. Starting with a scale-free interaction network, players adjust trust towards their neighbors based on received payoffs. The latter governs the strategy adoption process, while trust governs the rewiring of links. As soon as the degree of trust towards a neighbor drops to zero, the link is rewired to another randomly chosen player within the network. We find that for small temptations to defect cooperators always dominate, while for intermediate and strong temptations a single quantum strategy is able to outperform all other strategies. In general, reciprocal trust remains within close relationships and favors the dominance of a single strategy. Due to coevolution, the power-law degree distributions transform to Poisson distributions.
Ključne besede: evolutionary games, quantum strategies, coevolution, random networks, cooperation, statistical physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 24; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (669,03 KB)

84.
Effective topological charge cancelation mechanism
Luka Mesarec, Wojciech Góźdź, Aleš Iglič, Samo Kralj, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Topological defects (TDs) appear almost unavoidably in continuous symmetry breaking phase transitions. The topological origin makes their key features independent of systems’ microscopic details; therefore TDs display many universalities. Because of their strong impact on numerous material properties and their significant role in several technological applications it is of strong interest to find simple and robust mechanisms controlling the positioning and local number of TDs. We present a numerical study of TDs within effectively two dimensional closed soft films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering. Popular examples of such class of systems are liquid crystalline shells and various biological membranes. We introduce the Effective Topological Charge Cancellation mechanism controlling localised positional assembling tendency of TDs and the formation of pairs {defect, antidefect} on curved surfaces and/or presence of relevant “impurities” (e.g. nanoparticles). For this purpose, we define an effective topological charge Δmeff consisting of real, virtual and smeared curvature topological charges within a surface patch Δς identified by the typical spatially averaged local Gaussian curvature K. We demonstrate a strong tendency enforcing Δmeff → 0 on surfaces composed of Δς exhibiting significantly different values of spatially averaged K. For Δmeff ≠ 0 we estimate a critical depinning threshold to form pairs {defect, antidefect} using the electrostatic analogy.
Ključne besede: topological defects, topological charge, numerical studies, orientational ordering, nematic liquid crystals, liquid crystalline shells, biological membranes, nanoparticles, Gaussian curvature, electrostatic analogy, annihilation, topology
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 27; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,15 MB)

85.
Disinhibition-induced transitions between absence and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures
Matjaž Perc, Qingyun Wang, Denggui Fan, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Electrophysiological experiments have long revealed the existence of two-way transitions between absence and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures in the cerebral cortex. Based on a modified spatially-extended Taylor & Baier neural field model, we here propose a computational framework to mathematically describe the transition dynamics between these epileptic seizures. We first demonstrate the existence of various transition types that are induced by disinhibitory functions between two inhibitory variables in an isolated Taylor & Baier model. Moreover, we show that these disinhibition-induced transitions can lead to stable tonic-clonic oscillations as well as periodic spike with slow-wave discharges, which are the hallmark of absence seizures. We also observe fascinating dynamical states, such as periodic 2-spike with slow-wave discharges, tonic death, bursting oscillations, as well as saturated firing. Most importantly, we identify paths that represent physiologically plausible transitions between absence and tonic-clonic seizures in the modified spatially-extended Taylor & Baier model.
Ključne besede: epilepsy, neuronal dynamics, synchronization, biophysics
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 31; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (2,30 MB)

86.
Directional learning and the provisioning of public goods
Matjaž Perc, Heinrich H. Nax, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We consider an environment where players are involved in a public goods game and must decide repeatedly whether to make an individual contribution or not. However, players lack strategically relevant information about the game and about the other players in the population. The resulting behavior of players is completely uncoupled from such information, and the individual strategy adjustment dynamics are driven only by reinforcement feedbacks from each player's own past. We show that the resulting "directional learning" is sufficient to explain cooperative deviations away from the Nash equilibrium. We introduce the concept of k-strong equilibria, which nest both the Nash equilibrium and the Aumann-strong equilibrium as two special cases, and we show that, together with the parameters of the learning model, the maximal k-strength of equilibrium determines the stationary distribution. The provisioning of public goods can be secured even under adverse conditions, as long as players are sufficiently responsive to the changes in their own payoffs and adjust their actions accordingly. Substantial levels of public cooperation can thus be explained without arguments involving selflessness or social preferences, solely on the basis of uncoordinated directional (mis)learning.
Ključne besede: cooperation, public goods, directional learning, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 36; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,40 MB)

87.
Defection and extortion as unexpected catalysts of unconditional cooperation in structured populations
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner%s dilemma game, where besides unconditional cooperation and defection, tit-for-tat, win-stay-lose-shift and extortion are the five competing strategies. While pairwise imitation fails to sustain unconditional cooperation and extortion regardless of game parametrization, myopic updating gives rise to the coexistence of all five strategies if the temptation to defect is sufficiently large or if the degree distribution of the interaction network is heterogeneous. This counterintuitive evolutionary outcome emerges as a result of an unexpected chain of strategy invasions. Firstly, defectors emerge and coarsen spontaneously among players adopting win-stay-lose-shift. Secondly, extortioners and players adopting tit-for-tat emerge and spread via neutral drift among the emerged defectors. And lastly, among the extortioners, cooperators become viable too. These recurrent evolutionary invasions yield a five-strategy phase that is stable irrespective of the system size and the structure of the interaction network, and they reveal the most unexpected mechanism that stabilizes extortion and cooperation in an evolutionary setting.
Ključne besede: social dilemma, evolutionary games, collective phenomena, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 19; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (995,18 KB)

88.
Chimera states in uncoupled neurons induced by a multilayer structure
Soumen Majhi, Matjaž Perc, Dibakar Ghosh, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Spatial coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in network of coupled oscillators is called a chimera state. We study such chimera states in a network of neurons without any direct interactions but connected through another medium of neurons, forming a multilayer structure. The upper layer is thus made up of uncoupled neurons and the lower layer plays the role of a medium through which the neurons in the upper layer share information among each other. Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with square wave bursting dynamics are considered as nodes in both layers. In addition, we also discuss the existence of chimera states in presence of inter layer heterogeneity. The neurons in the bottom layer are globally connected through electrical synapses, while across the two layers chemical synapses are formed. According to our research, the competing effects of these two types of synapses can lead to chimera states in the upper layer of uncoupled neurons. Remarkably, we find a density-dependent threshold for the emergence of chimera states in uncoupled neurons, similar to the quorum sensing transition to a synchronized state. Finally, we examine the impact of both homogeneous and heterogeneous inter-layer information transmission delays on the observed chimera states over a wide parameter space.
Ključne besede: complex networks, computational biophysics, nonlinear phenomena, statistical physics
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 24; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,40 MB)

89.
Biodiversity in models of cyclic dominance is preserved by heterogeneity in site-specific invasion rates
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Global, population-wide oscillations in models of cyclic dominance may result in the collapse of biodiversity due to the accidental extinction of one species in the loop. Previous research has shown that such oscillations can emerge if the interaction network has small-world properties, and more generally, because of long-range interactions among individuals or because of mobility. But although these features are all common in nature, global oscillations are rarely observed in actual biological systems. This begets the question what is the missing ingredient that would prevent local oscillations to synchronize across the population to form global oscillations. Here we show that, although heterogeneous species-specific invasion rates fail to have a noticeable impact on species coexistence, randomness in site-specific invasion rates successfully hinders the emergence of global oscillations and thus preserves biodiversity. Our model takes into account that the environment is often not uniform but rather spatially heterogeneous, which may influence the success of microscopic dynamics locally. This prevents the synchronization of locally emerging oscillations, and ultimately results in a phenomenon where one type of randomness is used to mitigate the adverse effects of other types of randomness in the system.
Ključne besede: biodiversity, cyclic dominance, rock-paper-scissors, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 22; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (419,58 KB)

90.
Beyond pairwise strategy updating in the prisoner's dilemma game
Xiaofeng Wang, Matjaž Perc, Yongkui Liu, Xiaojie Chen, Long Wang, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In spatial games players typically alter their strategy by imitating the most successful or one randomly selected neighbor. Since a single neighbor is taken as reference, the information stemming from other neighbors is neglected, which begets the consideration of alternative, possibly more realistic approaches. Here we show that strategy changes inspired not only by the performance of individual neighbors but rather by entire neighborhoods introduce a qualitatively different evolutionary dynamics that is able to support the stable existence of very small cooperative clusters. This leads to phase diagrams that differ significantly from those obtained by means of pairwise strategy updating. In particular, the survivability of cooperators is possible even by high temptations to defect and over a much wider uncertainty range. We support the simulation results by means of pair approximations and analysis of spatial patterns, which jointly highlight the importance of local information for the resolution of social dilemmas.
Ključne besede: cooperation, social dilemma, wisdom of crowds, phase transitions, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 23.06.2017; Ogledov: 30; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (825,96 KB)

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