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41.
Classroom climate as a part of contemporary didactical approaches
Majda Fiksl, Boris Aberšek, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: To achieve successful teaching in the 21st century school, teachers must change their didactical approaches in order to create a stimulating pro-activeness in a pleasant classroom climate for better development of student's achievement. A classroom climate in the present research means the combination of variables within a classroom that work together to promote learning in a comfortable environment. In the present research, classroom's climate will be evaluated, and what kind of influence different didactical approaches have on the atmosphere in the classroom. The classroom climate of two 6th grade classes at a lower secondary school will be studied: a class with traditional methods of teaching and a class with innovative methods, as regards searching for ideas, monitoring the students' progress and giving instructions. Students in both classes filled out a questionnaire with thirteen statements, which included three dimensions of a classroom atmosphere: personal relationship, contribution to the class and research work. The results confirmed a change in the perception of the classroom climate, depending on different innovative didactical approaches. The values of individual dimensions are higher in the class with innovative methods, which was confirmed with a better atmosphere in this class and an increased activeness of the students. When introducing changes in an educational process, it is necessary to establish a positive classroom atmosphere.
Ključne besede: active learning, classroom atmosphere, innovative didactics
Objavljeno: 15.12.2017; Ogledov: 13; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,35 MB)

42.
Changing educational theory and practice
Boris Aberšek, 2015, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: How do we think, how do we learn, memorize and dream, how does pleasure come to be, where are the emotions hidden and how do we reach decisions? Cognitive science and neuroscience tries to answer such questions. It tackles the fields of the human mind in an interdisciplinary, even transdisciplinary way – by connecting discoveries from all the disciplines that could shed light on cognitive occurrences. Cognitive science brings together psychology, philosophy, linguistics, artificial intelligence, social sciences and many others. It tries to deal with mental processes in a holistic way and to create a deeper understanding of the field that is empirically closest to us.
Ključne besede: education, new paradigm, transdisciplinar model, cognitive neuroeducation
Objavljeno: 13.12.2017; Ogledov: 20; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Celotno besedilo (286,39 KB)

43.
Apacer: a six-step model for the introduction of computer-supported laboratory exercises in biology teaching
Andrej Šorgo, 2010, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This article describes a six-step approach used for the introduction of computer-supported laboratory exercises in Biology teaching. Following the model students will be guided from recognizing a problem question to the end report in a series of active tasks. The model was named APACER as an acronym of the six steps: Ask, Predict, Act, Comment, Evaluate and Report. The model was tested with 15-18-year-old secondary school students as group and individual work over a time span of ten years and several hundred students performing laboratory exercises in Biology. Work on development of the model can be described as reflective classroom practice. By observation of students' work, grading of their reports and evaluation of results from exams, it was recognized that students achieved much higher grades because of better knowledge and improved reports. Transfer of the model to other Science subjects is suggested.
Ključne besede: education, biology teaching, computer-supported laboratory, laboratory work, ICT, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 12.12.2017; Ogledov: 41; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (948,80 KB)

44.
Determinants of public cooperation in multiplex networks
Federico Battiston, Matjaž Perc, Vito Latora, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Synergies between evolutionary game theory and statistical physics have significantly improved our understanding of public cooperation in structured populations. Multiplex networks, in particular, provide the theoretical framework within network science that allows us to mathematically describe the rich structure of interactions characterizing human societies. While research has shown that multiplex networks may enhance the resilience of cooperation, the interplay between the overlap in the structure of the layers and the control parameters of the corresponding games has not yet been investigated. With this aim, we consider here the public goods game on a multiplex network, and we unveil the role of the number of layers and the overlap of links, as well as the impact of different synergy factors in different layers, on the onset of cooperation. We show that enhanced public cooperation emerges only when a significant edge overlap is combined with at least one layer being able to sustain some cooperation by means of a sufficiently high synergy factor. In the absence of either of these conditions, the evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks is determined by the bounds of traditional network reciprocity with no enhanced resilience. These results caution against overly optimistic predictions that the presence of multiple social domains may in itself promote cooperation, and they help us better understand the complexity behind prosocial behavior in layered social systems.
Ključne besede: cooperation, public goods, networks, physics of social systems
Objavljeno: 04.12.2017; Ogledov: 28; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,05 MB)

45.
Izzivi učiteljev kemije pri poučevanju priseljencev
Tadeja Senica, 2017, magistrsko delo

Opis: Kot druge države Evropske unije se tudi Slovenija sooča z izzivom priseljevanja. Priseljenci so ob vključitvi v novo kulturno okolje deležni težav, največkrat povezanih z nerazumevanjem novega jezika in nepoznavanjem kulturnih in družbenih praks. Koncept inkluzivnega izobraževanja vključuje načelo medkulturnosti in zahteva sistematično delo vseh vključenih v šolsko okolje. Učitelji se vsakodnevno srečujejo z izzivi, povezanimi z razumevanjem jezika in drugačnimi kulturami, poznati pa morajo tudi procese integracije priseljencev in prilagajanja na novo kulturno okolje. Učitelji so odgovorni za pripravo razreda, upravljanje v razredu, kot tudi v razvoju učencev. V magistrski nalogi predstavljamo najpogostejše izkušnje, s katerimi se učitelji kemije srečujejo pri poučevanju otrok priseljencev. Mednje spadata tudi poznavanje šolske zakonodaje in sodelovanje s starši otrok priseljencev. Z raziskavo želimo učiteljem kemije in tudi ostalim strokovnim delavcem v vzgoji in izobraževanju predstaviti osnovne smernice za poučevanje kemije v inkluzivnem medkulturnem razredu. Predstavljeni praktični primeri iz kemije z uporabo IKT prikazujejo možnosti za premostitev jezikovnih težav pri pouku kemije.
Ključne besede: otroci priseljenci, integracija, kemija, učitelj kemije
Objavljeno: 28.11.2017; Ogledov: 38; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,00 MB)

46.
Znanje in odnos do invazivnih tujerodnih vrst živali
Urška Bezjak, 2017, magistrsko delo

Opis: Invazivne tujerodne vrste so vedno bolj pereč problem sodobnega sveta. V magistrskem delu smo se osredotočili na živali. Raziskovali smo, kakšna sta znanje in odnos do invazivnih tujerodnih vrst živali. Proučili smo različne odnose do živali po Kellertu in na podlagi tega izdelali spletni vprašalnik, ki ga je v celoti izpolnilo 361 ljudi.
Ključne besede: invazivne tujerodne vrste živali, znanje, odnosi, biotska invazija, biodiverziteta, domorodne vrste, širjenje, vplivi, ravnanje
Objavljeno: 14.11.2017; Ogledov: 133; Prenosov: 29
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,81 MB)

47.
Diskriminantna analiza
Dragana Nikolić, 2017, magistrsko delo

Opis: V magistrskem delu so predstavljene osnove diskriminantne analize. Magistrsko delo je razdeljeno v štiri dele. V prvem delu so predstavljeni osnovni pojmi statistike, potrebni za obrazložitev diskriminantne analize. V drugem delu sta obrazložena postopka analize variance (ANOVA) in multivariatne analize variance (MANOVA). Tretji del je namenjen obrazložitvi diskriminantne analize. Podrobno sta obrazloženi diskriminantna analiza za dve skupini kot tudi diskriminantna analiza za več skupin. V zadnjem delu smo na podatkih, pridobljenih iz aplikacije mOIDom, opravili diskriminantno analizo.
Ključne besede: diskriminantna analiza, diskriminantna funkcija, normalna porazdelitev, analiza variance, multivariatna analiza variance, statisticni testi
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 53; Prenosov: 20
.pdf Celotno besedilo (996,86 KB)

48.
Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth
Kristina Ban, Matjaž Perc, Zoran Levnajić, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy.
Ključne besede: Wikipedia, language, growth dynamics, data analysis, clustering
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 30; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1004,06 KB)

49.
Second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment restores the effectiveness of prosocial punishment
Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Economic experiments have shown that punishment can increase public goods game contributions over time. However, the effectiveness of punishment is challenged by second-order free-riding and antisocial punishment. The latter implies that noncooperators punish cooperators, while the former implies unwillingness to shoulder the cost of punishment. Here, we extend the theory of cooperation in the spatial public goods game by considering four competing strategies, which are traditional cooperators and defectors, as well as cooperators who punish defectors and defectors who punish cooperators. We show that if the synergistic effects are high enough to sustain cooperation based on network reciprocity alone, antisocial punishment does not deter public cooperation. Conversely, if synergistic effects are low and punishment is actively needed to sustain cooperation, antisocial punishment does is viable, but only if the cost-to-fine ratio is low. If the costs are relatively high, cooperation again dominates as a result of spatial pattern formation. Counterintuitively, defectors who do not punish cooperators, and are thus effectively second-order free-riding on antisocial punishment, form an active layer around punishing cooperators, which protects them against defectors that punish cooperators. A stable three-strategy phase that is sustained by the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance is also possible via the same route. The microscopic mechanism behind the reported evolutionary outcomes can be explained by the comparison of invasion rates that determine the stability of subsystem solutions. Our results reveal an unlikely evolutionary escape from adverse effects of antisocial punishment, and they provide a rationale for why second-order free-riding is not always an impediment to the evolutionary stability of punishment.
Ključne besede: complex systems, interdisciplinary physics, punishment, cooperation
Objavljeno: 13.11.2017; Ogledov: 24; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,15 MB)

50.
Skalarni produkt v računalniški grafiki
Maja Šalamun, 2015, diplomsko delo

Opis: Diplomska seminarska naloga je sestavljena iz petih poglavij. Prvo poglavje je namenjeno ponovitvi osnovnih pojmov o vektorjih. V drugem poglavju je predstavljen skalarni produkt dveh vektorjev , s poudarkom na posplošitvi skalarnega produkta na poljuben vektorski prostor. Geometrijski interpretaciji skalarnega produkta je v celoti namenjeno tretje poglavje, ki se navezuje na dolžino vektorja (normo), razdaljo, pravokotnost in kot med vektorjema. Sledi poglavje o ortogonalnih in ortonomiranih množicah, kjer je izpostavljen Gram-Schmidtov algoritem kot postopek konstrukcije baze iz ortogonalnih vektorjev, poleg tega je omenjen še ortogonalni komplement. V zadnjem poglavju je predstavljena uporaba skalarnega produkta v računalniški grafiki. Trditve tega poglavja so podkrepljene s slikovnim materialom. Sklepna ugotovitev kaže na to, da je skalarni produkt matematična operacija, ki je v velikem obsegu vključena v vsa orodja računalniške grafike, kamor sodi tako programska kot strojna oprema, pri čemer velja omeniti, da gre v večini primerov za relativno nezahtevne računske operacije.
Ključne besede: vektorji, skalarni produkt, norma, ortogonalni vektroji, Gram-Schmidtov algoritem, geometrijski pomen skalarnega produkta, skalarni produkt v računalniški grafiki
Objavljeno: 10.11.2017; Ogledov: 44; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (682,87 KB)

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