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41.
Uporaba igrifikacije pri pouku računalništva
Dominik Robič, 2017, magistrsko delo

Opis: Igre, ena najstarejših oblik socialne interakcije človeka [1], so del našega vsakdana. Namenjene so predvsem zabavi v prostem času, a se pogosto zgodi, da se ob njih tudi marsikaj naučimo. Uporaba iger v poučevanju ni nič novega, saj igre zelo dobro motivirajo učence k sodelovanju in razmišljanju [2]. Velikokrat pa uporaba igre pri poučevanju izgubi namen učila in ostane le igra [3]. Da bi se temu izognili, moramo razumeti pojem igra in zakaj igre motivirajo učence. Igra je sistem, v katerem je igralec vključen v abstraktni izziv, definiran s pravili, interaktivnostjo in povratno informacijo, ki vodi do kvantitativnih rezultatov, ki pogosto privedejo do emocionalnega učinka [5]. Že iz definicije lahko zasledimo osnovne elemente igre, ki so: sistem, igralec, abstrakcija, izziv, pravila, povratna informacija, kvantitativni rezultat in emocionalni odziv. Pomembno je, kako so elementi v praktičnem primeru povezani med seboj. Igralec dobi zanimanje za igro zaradi takojšnje povratne informacije in interakcije, ki sta povezani z izzivom igre. Izziv je definiran s pravili znotraj sistema, da vzbuja čustvene odzive, ki so povezani s kvantitativnim rezultatom, ki je abstraktno prikazan znotraj večjega sistema. Vidimo, da gre za elemente, ki vzpodbujajo igralca k razmišljanju. Zanima nas, kako bi lahko te elemente uporabili pri poučevanju, kar nas privede do pojma igrifikacija. Igrifikacija pomeni uporabo načinov razmišljanja v igri, mehanike iger in estetike iger z namenom vključitve in motivacije ljudi k učenju in reševanju problemov. Pomembni elementi igrifikacije so torej igra, mehanika iger, estetika iger, načini razmišljanja v igri, vključitev ljudi, motivacija, učenje in reševanje problemov [8]. Če želimo doseči efektivno igrifikacijo pouka, morajo biti mehanika, dinamika in estetika igre ves čas v medsebojni interakciji. To zelo dobro razloži MDE okvir [10]. Mehanika igre so metode, ustvarjene za interakcijo s stanjem igre, ki jih prožijo agenti [12]. Dinamika igre opisuje proces vpliva mehanike igre na igralca v času, ko je ta v interakciji z mehaniko in v času po interakciji z mehaniko igre [10]. Dinamika igre sproži emocionalne odzive pri igralcu, kar nas privede do estetike igre [6]. Za boljše razumevanje estetike igre, ki se pojavlja pri uporabi igrifikacije, je potrebno razumeti behavioristične modele in motivacijo [9]. Šele ko razumemo te pojme, lahko igrifikacijo vključimo v pouk računalništva. Na spletu lahko zasledimo veliko aplikacij in iger, ki omogočajo igrifikacijo pouka računalništva. Med njimi sta tudi ClassDojo in Minecraft Education Edition. Za igrifikacijo pa ni vedno potrebna uporaba tehnologije. Igrifikacijo lahko vključimo v pouk tudi tako, da sami izdelamo elemente, pri čemer je potrebno upoštevati vse ključne elemente igrifikacije [39].
Ključne besede: igra, igrifikacija, motivacija, mehanika igre, dinamika igre, estetika igre
Objavljeno: 11.08.2017; Ogledov: 63; Prenosov: 12
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,98 MB)

42.
Rast in razvoj treh ekotipov plazeče zelene (Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag.) v tkivni kulturi
Jasmina Ramšak, 2017, magistrsko delo

Opis: Po vsej Evropi velja plazeča zelena (Apium repens (Jacq. Lag.) za kritično ogroženo vrsto, ki številčno zelo nazaduje. V Sloveniji že od leta 1997 niso najdena nova ali potrjena obstoječa rastišča. Za ponovno naselitev A. repens na slovenska tla bi bilo potrebno rastlinski material pridobiti z nam najbližjih lokalno prilagojenih in ekološko podobnih okolij. Namen naloge je bil vzpostaviti tkivno kulturo iz rastlin A. repens, pridobljenih na izviru reke Slunjčice na Hrvaškem ter ga morfološko in fiziološko primerjati z rastlinskim materialom, pridobljenim iz botaničnega vrta Kew, Velika Britanija, ter iz Španije, ki že raste v tkivni kulturi. Uporabili smo trdno Murashige in Skoog (MS) gojišče brez in z rastnim regulatorjem, BAP v koncentracijah 2 µM in 5 µM. Ugotavljali smo, na katerem gojišču poganjki vseh treh ekotipov najbolje uspevajo, jih primerjali med seboj in ugotavljali, ali gre za podobne ali različne ekotipe te vrste. Tekom rasti in razvoja posameznega ekotipa A. repens smo spremljali rastne parametre: višino poganjkov, število stolonov, število brstov, dolžino korenin in število korenin ter merili fotokemično učinkovitost posameznega ekotipa. Glede na to, da je A. repens rastlina močvirnatih tal, smo ovrednotili vpliv delne potopitve na zgoraj omenjene morfološke in fiziološke parametre. Vsi trije ekotipi A. repens so najbolje uspevali na osnovnem MS gojišču brez rastnih regulatorjev. Rast in razvoj španskega ekotipa je po vseh izmerjenih parametrih značilno izstopal. Poganjki so zrastli najvišje, razvilo se je največ stolonov, brstov, korenine so bile najdaljše in najštevilnejše, rastlinski material je izgledal robustno. Delna potopitev na morfološke in fiziološke parametre ni bistveno vplivala.
Ključne besede: Apium repens, plazeča zelena, Apiaceae, kobulnice, ekotip, tkivna kultura, morfološki znaki, fiziološki znaki, renaturacija
Objavljeno: 11.08.2017; Ogledov: 46; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,98 MB)

43.
Link prediction in multiplex online social networks
Mahdi Jalili, Yasin Orouskhani, Milad Asgari, Nazanin Alipourfard, Matjaž Perc, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Online social networks play a major role in modern societies, and they have shaped the way social relationships evolve. Link prediction in social networks has many potential applications such as recommending new items to users, friendship suggestion and discovering spurious connections. Many real social networks evolve the connections in multiple layers (e.g. multiple social networking platforms). In this article, we study the link prediction problem in multiplex networks. As an example, we consider a multiplex network of Twitter (as a microblogging service) and Foursquare (as a location-based social network). We consider social networks of the same users in these two platforms and develop a meta-path-based algorithm for predicting the links. The connectivity information of the two layers is used to predict the links in Foursquare network. Three classical classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machines (SVM) and K-nearest neighbour) are used for the classification task. Although the networks are not highly correlated in the layers, our experiments show that including the cross-layer information significantly improves the prediction performance. The SVM classifier results in the best performance with an average accuracy of 89%.
Ključne besede: social networks, complex networks, signed networks, link prediction, machine learning
Objavljeno: 08.08.2017; Ogledov: 68; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Polno besedilo (940,17 KB)

44.
Morphological evolution of the skull in closely related bandicoot rats
Boris Kryštufek, Franc Janžekovič, Rainer Hutterer, Tina Klenovšek, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: We addressed the effects of phylogeny, ecology, and allometry on shape variation in ventral cranium, mandible and maxillary tooth-row in all five extant bandicoot rats. These rats are classified into two genera (Bandicota and Nesokia) and occupy different ecological niches along fossorial to aquatic gradient. The analysed structures are controlled by different gene loci, have diverse developmental patterns and different functional roles what induced us to hypothesize that they respond differently to the interplay between phylogenetic constrains and selective pressures. This was indeed the case in our results. Ventral cranial shape contained an apparent phylogenetic signal at various levels of taxonomic hierarchy of bandicoot rats and therefore accurately replicated the taxonomic hierarchy within the group. Molar crowns, which are less rich in anatomical complexity than the ventral cranium, provided a taxonomic grouping that was less straightforward in comparison with the skull. The phylogenetic signal was diluted in the mandible, probably by adaptive trends for the ecological niche. Unsurprisingly, an ecological gradient from a fossorial to aquatic ecotype explained 19.1% of mandibular shape variation. The major differences between ecotypes were on mandibular landmarks associated with insertion of major muscles that move the mandible during chisel-tooth drilling in fossorial B. bengalensis and N. indica. Among the three structures, the mandible was also the most affected by allometry, with size accounting for 14.0% of shape variability. Nesokia and Bandicota are by far the youngest murine taxa still attributed to a generic level. Small genetic differences however sharply contrast with unique shape features, evident in craniodental structures of these rats. This is particularly relevant for the endangered N. bunnii which is only known from a small range and peripheral isolate in Iraq. Morphological uniqueness emphasizes its ‘value’ in conservation policies more accurately than genetic metrics, making it more “visible” in a bunch of pest rats.
Ključne besede: fossorial ecotype, mandible, molars, phenotypic plasticity, phylogenetic structuring
Objavljeno: 07.08.2017; Ogledov: 38; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (7,18 MB)

45.
Computation of focus quantities of three-dimensional polynomial systems
Valery Romanovski, Douglas Shafer, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Fix a collection of polynomial vector fields on $R^3$ with a singularity at the origin, for every one of which the linear part at the origin has two pure imaginary and one non-zero eigenvalue. Some such systems admit a local analytic first integral, which then defines a local center manifold of the system.Conditions for existence of a first integral are given by the vanishing certain polynomial or rational functions in the coefficients of the system called focus quantities. In this paper we prove that the focus quantities have a structure analogous to that in the two-dimensional case and use it to formulate an efficient algorithm for computing them.
Ključne besede: integrability, focus quantities, center conditions
Objavljeno: 07.08.2017; Ogledov: 60; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (486,16 KB)

46.
New data on distribution of the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Podravje region (NE Slovenia)
Marijan Govedič, Milan Vogrin, Dejan Bordjan, Dominik Bombek, Damijan Denac, Tatjana Gregorc, Franc Janžekovič, Nino Kirbiš, Melita Vamberger, 2016, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Opis: Ten new observations of the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Podravje region are presented. One observation is fairly old, while the others have been made in the last six years. Most of the data are just random observations and do not give a complete overview of the species distribution in the Podravje region. New data suggest that the European pond turtle is more abundant in the Drava River basin than previously known. Distribution and population size of the species in the Drava River basin still remain to be investigated in detail and not only at the Natura 2000 Drava site, especially in the areas of potential habitats prior to planning any new activities.
Ključne besede: European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis, Drava river, Podravje, Slovenia
Objavljeno: 07.08.2017; Ogledov: 44; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (363,19 KB)

47.
Duality of terrestrial subterranean fauna
Tone Novak, Matjaž Perc, Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Franc Janžekovič, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Terrestrial animals in subterranean habitats are often classified according to their degree of morphological or ecological specialization to the subterranean environment. The commonly held view is that, as distance into a cave increases, the frequency of morphologically specialized, i.e., troglomorphic, species or ecological specialization will increase. We tested this hypothesis for the fauna in 54 caves in Slovenia-the classical land for subterranean biology. We found that there exist two ecologically well separated terrestrial subsurface faunas: one shallow and one deep. 1) The shallow subterranean fauna, adapted to the terrestrial shallow subterranean habitats (SSHs) in the upper 10 m of subsurface strata, is most diverse. It consists of randomly distributed non-troglobionts and a major group of troglobionts adapted to the soil root zone. 2) The deep subterranean fauna is represented by a minor group of troglobionts, adapted to caves. Troglobionts are strictly divided between the two faunas. There is strong evidence that in karstic ecosystems with deep-rooted vegetation this might be a global pattern, or that in these locations only the shallow subterranean fauna exist.
Ključne besede: endemites, superficial subterranean habitats, trogloxenes, troglophiles, troglobionts
Objavljeno: 04.08.2017; Ogledov: 59; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (1,94 MB)

48.
Cold tolerance in terrestrial invertebrates inhabiting subterranean habitats
Tone Novak, Nina Šajna, Estera Antolinc, Saška Lipovšek Delakorda, Dušan Devetak, Franc Janžekovič, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Most organisms are able to survive shorter or longer exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Hypothetically, trogloxenes characterized as not adapted, and troglophiles as not completely adapted to thermally stable subterranean environment, have retained or partially retained their ability to withstand freezing, while most troglobionts have not. We tested this hypothesis experimentally on 37 species inhabiting caves in Slovenia, analyzing their lower lethal temperatures in summer and winter, or for one season, if the species was not present in caves during both seasons. Specimens were exposed for 12 hrs to 1°C-stepwise descending temperatures with 48 hr breaks. In general, the resistance to freezing was in agreement with the hypothesis, decreasing from trogloxenes over troglophiles to troglobionts. However, weak resistance was preserved in nearly all troglobionts, which responded in two ways. One group, withstanding freezing to a limited degree, and increasing freezing tolerance in winter, belong to the troglobionts inhabiting the superficial subterranean habitats. The other group, which equally withstand freezing in summer and winter, inhabit deep subterranean or other thermally buffered subterranean habitats. Data on cold resistance can thus serve as an efficient additional measure of adaptation to particular hypogean environments.
Ključne besede: endemites, superficial subterranean habitats, trogloxenes, troglophiles, troglobionts
Objavljeno: 04.08.2017; Ogledov: 35; Prenosov: 1
.pdf Polno besedilo (358,59 KB)

49.
Vesiculation of biological membrane driven by curvature induced frustrations in membrane orientational ordering
Dalija Povše Jesenek, Šárka Perutková, Wojciech Góźdź, Veronika Kralj-Iglič, Aleš Iglič, Samo Kralj, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Membrane budding often leads to the formation and release of microvesicles. The latter might play an important role in long distance cell-to-cell communication, owing to their ability to move with body fluids. Several mechanisms exist which might trigger the pinching off of globular buds from the parent membrane (vesiculation). In this paper, we consider the theoretical impacts of topological defects (frustrations) on this process in the membranes that exhibit global in-plane orientational order. A Landau–de Gennes theoretical approach is used in terms of tensor orientational order parameters. The impact of membrane shapes on position and the number of defects is analyzed. In studied cases, only defects with winding numbers m = ±1/2 appear, where we refer to the number of defects with m = 1/2 as defects, and with m = –1/2 as anti-defects. It is demonstrated that defects are attracted to regions with maximal positive Gaussian curvature, K. On the contrary, anti-defects are attracted to membrane regions exhibiting minimal negative values of K. We show on membrane structures exhibiting spherical topology that the coexistence of regions with K > 0 and K < 0 might trigger formation of defect–anti-defect pairs for strong enough local membrane curvatures. Critical conditions for triggering pairs are determined in several demonstrative cases. Then the additionally appeared anti-defects are assembled at the membrane neck, where K < 0. Consequent strong local fluctuations of membrane constituent anisotropic molecules might trigger membrane fission neck rupture, enabling a membrane fission process and the release of membrane daughter microvesicles (ie, vesiculation).
Ključne besede: structural transitions, topological defects, membrane microvesicles, membrane curvature, membrane fission, vesiculation
Objavljeno: 03.08.2017; Ogledov: 40; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (4,92 MB)

50.
Towards contemporary neuroethics
Niko Gorjup, Rado Gorjup, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The main message we are trying to get across throughout the article is that the placebo is not an inert entity but instead it has a potential of subjective interpretation, a healing potential of its own, over and above that of any healing potential of the medication per se. Such healing potential is greatly dependent on how strong the interpretation value in being healed is that is created by the doctor. In this regard, we are also arguing that there are myriads possibilities at work that can influence how strong this interpretation value can become. The crucial role of contemporary medicine should be to expand the use of these interpretation effects even more and use them to help reduce any negative mental states that could continue to suppress the immune system after the initial healing. In other words, medicine should use the power of interpretation effect not only to re-arouse the immune system temporarily but permanently. In order to achieve a complete process of permanent healing it is necessary to take advantage of making full use of the powerful interpretation value through psychosocial context. It is possible to do that beyond the usual "sugar pill" through evidence based approach - a science of compassionate care! By introducing the new operational placebo definitions, we clearly show that the human mind (unconscious and conscious) is an inevitable substance involved in the Healing Process. The terms "placebo", "placebo effect", and "placebo response" are re-defined into the new working definitions. We explain how there is no more distinction (duality) such as body / mind, specific / nonspecific or health / disease, which offers new insights for future directions in contemporary Neuroethics.
Ključne besede: placebo, bioelectromagnetics, evidence-based medicine, compassionate care, neuroethics
Objavljeno: 03.08.2017; Ogledov: 31; Prenosov: 0
.pdf Polno besedilo (183,83 KB)

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