VERBAL WORKING MEMORY IN NATIVE AND FOREIGN LANGUAGEDavid Satler
, 2013, magistrsko delo
Opis: The main aim of this thesis was to examine verbal working memory in native and foreign language. In the theoretical part we mainly focused on the Baddeley’s (2002) multicomponent model of working memory. We also reviewed several studies that had aims similar to ours. Finally, we briefly discussed the importance of working memory for scholastic attainment and effectiveness of working memory training. For the empirical part, two versions of an experiment were designed. One version was in Slovene and the other in English. We tested verbal working memory of 76 participants which we divided into four groups. Two groups were tested in their native (Slovene) language, and two in foreign (English) language. The experiment consisted of twelve word sequences, each containing five words. English words were matched with their Slovene equivalents in meaning, frequency and number of syllables. The participants had to recall each word in a sequence in order in which it appeared. The groups were matched for age and level of education, but differed in language proficiency. Results of the experiments strongly support the view that verbal working memory interacts with language proficiency and that it is superior in native language. Furthermore, similar phenomena showed in both languages, suggesting universal nature of verbal working memory.
Ključne besede: working memory, verbal working memory, foreign language, native language, language proficiency
Objavljeno: 07.10.2013; Ogledov: 1048; Prenosov: 116
Celotno besedilo (1,37 MB)
Testing pronunciation varieties of English in primary school through pictorial and textual inputMejade Tomažič
, 2016, diplomsko delo
Opis: We are surrounded with different varieties of English language. We listen to English music or radio shows, watch English movies and shows and watch English videos on the internet. The most common varieties that we encounter are British English and American English, which have distinctive differences in stress and pronunciation. Because we encounter both varieties daily, we have found it interesting to see which one prevails in our primary schools. The British English variety is primarily taught in school and the American variety is all around us and is thus more likely to be acquired. Children acquire a foreign language very easily if they are in contact with it on a regular basis. This is as nowadays, as we all hear English lyrics on the radio or hear English conversations on TV.
The thesis focuses on the factors that might influence the choice of the English variety. It explores if the input, whether it is pictorial with pictures or textual with words, influences the choice of variety. It also presents connections between the pronunciation of more frequent and less frequent words with choice of variety, the influence of the pupils’ backgrounds, and way of learning English.
Ključne besede: word recognition, working and long-term memory, second language, language acquisition, language learning, British and American English pronunciation.
Objavljeno: 15.11.2016; Ogledov: 537; Prenosov: 17
Celotno besedilo (1,13 MB)
The role of brain oscillations in working memoryAnja Pahor
, 2017, doktorska disertacija
Opis: Working memory is important for a number of higher cognitive functions such as problem solving, reasoning, reading and language comprehension. Moreover, working memory measures are significantly correlated with measures of intellectual abilities. Investigating the neural basis of working memory provides the opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of individual differences in general cognitive ability. This thesis aimed to elucidate the roles of brain oscillations in working memory, with a particular focus on theta and gamma frequency bands. Two techniques were employed that are best suited for the non-invasive study of brain oscillations: scalp recorded EEG and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). In the first step, correlational studies were conducted followed by neuromodulatory studies in the next step. The results showed that individuals with high working memory capacity, contrasted against individuals with low working memory capacity, display stronger alpha and gamma band desynchronisation and increased coherence in the theta frequency band between fronto- parietal areas during maintenance and between frontal brain areas during retrieval. The results further demonstrated that interactions between theta and gamma frequency bands are related to individual differences in working memory capacity. The neuromodulatory studies showed that theta tACS applied over parietal brain areas can be used to enhance performance on working memory tasks, thereby providing support for the causal role of theta band oscillations in working memory.
Ključne besede: working memory, brain oscillations, capacity, electroencephalograpy, tACS, theta, gamma
Objavljeno: 28.07.2017; Ogledov: 232; Prenosov: 17
Celotno besedilo (3,46 MB)