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Social reappraisal of emotions is linked with the social presence effect in the default mode network
Xiyao Xie, Teresa Bertram, Saša Zorjan, Marina Horvat, Christian Sorg, Satja Mulej Bratec, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: Social reappraisal, during which one person deliberately tries to regulate another’s emotions, is a powerful cognitive form of social emotion regulation, crucial for both daily life and psychotherapy. The neural underpinnings of social reappraisal include activity in the default mode network (DMN), but it is unclear how social processes influence the DMN and thereby social reappraisal functioning. We tested whether the mere presence of a supportive social regulator had an effect on the DMN during rest, and whether this effect in the DMN was linked with social reappraisal-related neural activations and effectiveness during negative emotions. Methods: A two-part fMRI experiment was performed, with a psychotherapist as the social regulator, involving two resting state (social, non-social) and two task-related (social reappraisal, social no-reappraisal) conditions. Results: The psychotherapist’s presence enhanced intrinsic functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) within the anterior medial DMN, with the effect positively related to participants’ trust in psychotherapists. Secondly, the social presence-induced change in the dACC was related with (a) the social reappraisal-related activation in the bilateral dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporoparietal junction and (b) social reappraisal success, with the latter relationship moderated by trust in psychotherapists. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that a psychotherapist’s supportive presence can change anterior medial DMN’s intrinsic connectivity even in the absence of stimuli and that this DMN change during rest is linked with social reappraisal functioning during negative emotions. Data suggest that trust-dependent social presence effects on DMN states are relevant for social reappraisal—an idea important for daily-life and psychotherapy-related emotion regulation.
Ključne besede: social reappraisal, social support, social emotion regulation, social presence, default mode network, interpersonal trust, anterior cingulate
Objavljeno v DKUM: 18.04.2024; Ogledov: 197; Prenosov: 239
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,54 MB)
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Understanding, trusting, and applying scientific insights to improve your health : a latent profile analysis approach
Nejc Plohl, Bojan Musil, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Various leading causes of death can be prevented or delayed through informed decision-making and lifestyle changes. Previous work has, to some extent, linked such health-promoting behavior (HPB) with variables capturing individuals’ understanding of science, trust in science, and capacity to apply evidence-based information in the health context. However, empirical research on the relationship between scientific knowledge, trust in science, health literacy, and HPB is scarce. Additionally, no study has investigated whether these characteristics interact to form homogeneous, high-risk subgroups of the population. The present online study (N = 705) revealed that trust in science and health literacy were positively related to a wide array of HPBs (e. g., healthy nutrition, physical activity, stress management), while scientific knowledge was only positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention. Furthermore, the results of latent profile analyses yielded four subgroups (i. e., low, moderate, and high levels of all three variables and a varied profile exhibiting very low trust in science, low health literacy, and moderate scientific knowledge). The identified subgroups differ significantly in HPB and variables determining profile membership (e. g., political conservatism). Hence, the present study offers some guidance on which groups may be targeted with public health campaigns and how they may be designed.
Ključne besede: scientific knowledge, trust in science, health literacy, health behaviour, COVID-19
Objavljeno v DKUM: 12.04.2024; Ogledov: 108; Prenosov: 6
.pdf Celotno besedilo (614,16 KB)
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Distrustful, dissatisfied, and conspiratorial : a latent profile analysis of COVID-19 vaccination rejection
Monika Lamot, Katja Kerman, Andrej Kirbiš, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Trust in science and scientists, satisfaction with the national government, and endorsement of conspiracy theories are important factors in the decision to be vaccinated. In this study, we investigated whether there are different profiles of individuals depending on the above factors and whether they differ in their sociodemographic composition. We used data from Round 10 of the European Social Survey for Slovenia, employing a nationally representative sample of 1252 participants. Based on latent profile analysis, three distinct profiles emerged: Profile 1 expressed moderate trust in science, satisfaction with government, and high endorsement of conspiracies; Profile 2 expressed low trust and satisfaction and moderate endorsement of conspiracies; Profile 3 expressed high trust and satisfaction and low beliefs in conspiracy theories. In addition, Profile 3 expressed the strongest support for vaccination and Profile 2 the lowest. Our results suggest that distrust, dissatisfaction, and the presence of conspiracy theories are the “perfect storm” for vaccination rejection. In contrast, despite conspiracy theories, a certain level of trust and satisfaction may reduce vaccination rejection.
Ključne besede: trust, science, government, COVID-19 vaccination, latent profile analysis
Objavljeno v DKUM: 12.04.2024; Ogledov: 78; Prenosov: 5
.pdf Celotno besedilo (728,08 KB)
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Ideological differences in COVID-19 vaccine intention : the effects of trust in the healthcare system, in complementary and alternative medicine, and perceived threat from the disease
Monika Lamot, Katja Kerman, Andrej Kirbiš, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Introduction: Politically left-leaning individuals are more likely to get vaccinated against COVID-19, although little is known about the mechanisms underlying the ideological differences in vaccination intentions. Understanding the extent to which trust in the healthcare system, in complementary and alternative medicine, and the perceived threat from the disease contribute to these disparities is crucial, as it could inform targeted interventions to address vaccine hesitancy across the political spectrum. Methods: The present cross-sectional study conducted among adults living in Slovenia (n  =  858) examined the mediating role of trust in the healthcare system, trust in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and the perceived threat from the virus on COVID-19 vaccination intention. Results: We found that leftist ideology and trust in the healthcare system positively predicted vaccination intention, whereas CAM negatively predicted this intention. In addition, left-leaning individuals expressed greater trust in the healthcare system and lower trust in CAM, resulting in higher levels of COVID-19 vaccination intention. The serial mediation model confirmed that trust in CAM was a negative predictor, while trust in the healthcare system positively predicted perceived threat. Discussion: When dealing with vaccine hesitancy among right-oriented individuals, strategies should focus on enhancing trust in the healthcare system and critically evaluating the reliance on CAM.
Ključne besede: vaccine hesitancy, political ideology, percieved threat, trust, healthcare system, complementary medicine, alternative medicine
Objavljeno v DKUM: 08.04.2024; Ogledov: 129; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (536,31 KB)
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Multilevel analysis of COVID-19 vaccination intention : the moderating role of economic and cultural country characteristics
Monika Lamot, Andrej Kirbiš, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Predictors of COVID-19 (coronavirus) vaccination have been extensively researched; however, the contextual factors contributing to understanding vaccination intention remain largely unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate the moderating role of economic development (Gross domestic product - GDP per capita), economic inequality (Gini index), the perceived corruption index and Hofstede’s measurements of cultural values—index of individualism/collectivism and power distance index—in the relationship between determinants of satisfaction with the healthcare system, trust in political institutions, conspiracy beliefs and COVID-19 vaccination intention. Methods: A multilevel modelling approach was employed on a sample of approximately 51 000 individuals nested within 26 countries. Data were drawn from the European Social Survey Round 10. The model examined the effect of individual- and country-level predictors and their interaction on vaccination intention. Results: Satisfaction with the healthcare system had a stronger positive effect on intention to get vaccinated in countries with lower perceived corruption and more individualistic countries. Trust in political institutions had a stronger positive effect on vaccination intention in countries with higher economic development and lower perceived corruption, while a negative effect of conspiracy beliefs on vaccination intention was stronger in countries with lower economic development, higher perceived corruption and a more collectivistic cultural orientation. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of considering individual and contextual factors when addressing vaccination intention.
Ključne besede: COVID-19 vaccination intention, multilevel analyses, satisfaction with the health system, trust in political institutions, conspiracy beliefs
Objavljeno v DKUM: 08.04.2024; Ogledov: 137; Prenosov: 4
.pdf Celotno besedilo (420,65 KB)
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Assessing Perceived Trust and Satisfaction with Multiple Explanation Techniques in XAI-Enhanced Learning Analytics
Saša Brdnik, Vili Podgorelec, Boštjan Šumak, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: This study aimed to observe the impact of eight explainable AI (XAI) explanation techniques on user trust and satisfaction in the context of XAI-enhanced learning analytics while comparing two groups of STEM college students based on their Bologna study level, using various established feature relevance techniques, certainty, and comparison explanations. Overall, the students reported the highest trust in local feature explanation in the form of a bar graph. Additionally, master's students presented with global feature explanations also reported high trust in this form of explanation. The highest measured explanation satisfaction was observed with the local feature explanation technique in the group of bachelor's and master's students, with master's students additionally expressing high satisfaction with the global feature importance explanation. A detailed overview shows that the two observed groups of students displayed consensus in favored explanation techniques when evaluating trust and explanation satisfaction. Certainty explanation techniques were perceived with lower trust and satisfaction than were local feature relevance explanation techniques. The correlation between itemized results was documented and measured with the Trust in Automation questionnaire and Explanation Satisfaction Scale questionnaire. Master's-level students self-reported an overall higher understanding of the explanations and higher overall satisfaction with explanations and perceived the explanations as less harmful.
Ključne besede: explainable artificial intelligence, learning analytics, XAI techniques, trust, explanation satisfaction
Objavljeno v DKUM: 12.02.2024; Ogledov: 247; Prenosov: 13
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,24 MB)
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Pravni položaj živali v družinskem in dednem pravu : magistrsko delo magistrskega študijskega programa pravo 2. stopnje
Sara Šešerko, 2022, magistrsko delo

Opis: Obstaja velika verjetnost, da bodo živali kot čuteča bitja v prihodnosti v središču sodne prakse v okviru postopkov razvez zakonskih zvez in dedovanj in ne le kot objekt, zoper katerega storilci izvršujejo kazniva dejanja. Ker sodne prakse na teh dveh področjih skorajda nimamo, lahko pravne rešitve izpeljemo iz obstoječe pravne teorije. Ob razvezi zakonske zveze se lahko zakonca sporazumeta o skrbi za žival smiselno enako kot za otroka v okviru pogodbe o ureditvi premoženjskih razmerij. Težava nastopi, ko tega sporazuma med zakoncema ni, žival pa se nahaja v okviru njunega skupnega premoženja, ki ga je treba na podlagi zakonitega premoženjskega režima fizično ali pravno razdeliti. Na drugi strani, se lahko žival pojavi kot predmet dedovanja. Žival ne more biti zapustnik in ne dedič. V slovenskem pravnem redu obstajajo številni dedno-pravni instituti, v tujih pravnih redih pa skrbniški sklad, ki so pravni mehanizmi razpolaganja s premoženjem zapustnika, v korist živali, ki jo zapusti po svoji smrti.
Ključne besede: žival, čuteče bitje, skupno premoženje, nalog, trust.
Objavljeno v DKUM: 19.10.2022; Ogledov: 673; Prenosov: 120
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,40 MB)

Modeling compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines : the critical role of trust in science
Nejc Plohl, Bojan Musil, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The coronavirus pandemic is one of the biggest health crises of our time. In response to this global problem, various institutions around the world had soon issued evidence-based prevention guidelines. However, these guidelines, which were designed to slow the spread of COVID-19 and contribute to public well-being, are (deliberately) disregarded by some individuals. In the present study, we aimed to develop and test a multivariate model that could help us identify individual characteristics that make a person more/less likely to comply with COVID-19 prevention guidelines. A total of 525 attentive participants completed the online survey. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) show that COVID-19 risk perception and trust in science both independently predict compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, while the remaining variables in the model (political conservatism, religious orthodoxy, conspiracy ideation and intellectual curiosity) do so via the mediating role of trust in science. The described model exhibited an acceptable fit (χ2(1611) = 2485.84, p < .001, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .032, SRMR = .055). These findings thus provide empirical support for the proposed multivariate model and underline the importance of trust in science in explaining the different levels of compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, covid-19, prevention guidelines, compliance, trust in science
Objavljeno v DKUM: 09.11.2020; Ogledov: 957; Prenosov: 394
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,09 MB)
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The criminal offense of abuse of position or trust in business activity and the limits of free economic initiative
Zlatan Dežman, 2017, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: The criminal offense of abuse of position or trust in business activity within the meaning of the Slovenian Criminal Code is the most common criminal offense against the economy. To adequately assess such an offense it is essential to clarify at the very beginning of the criminal proceedings that all preliminary questions have their origin in the field of civil, corporative and commercial law. In other words, the difficulty of problem solving for such cases in later stages of the process only intensifies, as the decision-making process becomes more and more difficult and can cause delays. And even in cases where the facts are undisputed, the whole issue concentrates primarily around the dispute regarding the issue of material criminal law. The purpose of this paper is to present the above mentioned issues, firstly from a more theoretical perspective on freedom of economic (business) initiative in a postmodern era, followed by a presentation of the criminal law subsystem dealing also with phenomena from the economic subsystem, and lastly by a presentation of the Slovenian Criminal Code in regards to prosecution and adjudication of economic crimes and its difficulties, specifically by using the example of the above mentioned offense.
Ključne besede: free economic initiative, criminal offense of abuse of position or trust in business activity, standard of good businessman, blanket criminal offense, factual questions, legal questions, legal description of the offense
Objavljeno v DKUM: 02.08.2018; Ogledov: 1356; Prenosov: 79
.pdf Celotno besedilo (452,38 KB)
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Trust, innovation and prosperity
Stanislav Szabo, Vojtech Ferencz, Andreja Pucihar, 2013, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Economic development and its determinants, esp. trust or innovation are subjects of several scientific studies. Several authors claim the importance of innovation for economic development. Some studies identified that one of the most crucial factor for economic growth and prosperity is the trust between people. Within the research in this paper we have tried to identify the role of interpersonal trust within the innovation vs. prosperity relation.For this purpose and for causality analysis, we have applied decision tree models. Through our analysis of country based data (involved in trust related WVS surveys) in opposition to current studies, we have identified, that interpersonal trust is more significant determinant of innovation development as prosperity.
Ključne besede: trust, innovation, development, prosperity, study
Objavljeno v DKUM: 08.08.2017; Ogledov: 1026; Prenosov: 356
.pdf Celotno besedilo (70,50 KB)
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